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"cho" has 1 results.
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
"cho" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√छोchocutting, moving, reping / chedana407/1Cl.4
     Amarakosha Search  
1 result
mṛgayā2.10.24NeuterSingularmṛgavyam, ākheṭaḥ, ācchodanam
49 results for cho
cho cl.4. chyati- (; perf. 3. plural cacchur- see Va1rtt. 2 ; Aorist acchāt-and acchāsīt-, ) to cut off, cut : Causal chāyayati- ; see anu--, ava--, ā--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chojaName of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cholaṅgam. the citron tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cholaṅgan. a citron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choraṇan. abandoning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chorana rita-. See chur-.
choritamfn. abandoned, thrown away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choritamfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choritamfn. drawn (a sigh) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭanan. cutting off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭana ṭi-, etc. See chuṭ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭi varia lectio for ṭin-, 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭikāf. snapping the thumb and forefinger, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭinm. a fisherman (varia lectio ṭi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭitamfn. cut off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
choṭitamfn. see ā-cch-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āccho( ā-cho-), -cchyati- (imperative 3. sg. -cchyatāt-,3. plural -cchyantu-) to skin, flay View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acchodamfn. having clear water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acchof. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acchodan. Name of a lake in the himālaya- formed by the river acchodā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācchodanan. hunting, the chase (varia lectio ā-kṣod- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acchoktif. invitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācchoṭitamfn. pulled, torn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācchoṭitamfn. (from Causal of chuṭ-) torn off, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuccho( cho-) cl.4 P. (Imper. 2. sg. -chya-) to cut open or cut up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaccho( cho-), (ind.p. -cchāya-) to cut off ; to skin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhacchoka(hac-+ śo-) mfn. being in great sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛcchokam. (for -śoka-) heartache, sorrow, grief, a pang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛcchoṣam. (for -śoṣa-) internal dryness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kacchoran. a kind of turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kacchoṭikāf. equals kacchaṭikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakhācchoṭanikāf. ( cuṭ-) making a noise with the nail (as a token of applause or approval) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchof. idem or 'f. a pipe, flute ' equals oṣadhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchof. a pipe, flute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praccho( cho-;only ind.p. -cchayitvā-), to bleed by making incisions in the skin, cup, lance, scarify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pucchoṭikāf. (p-+?) equals puccha-bandha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suhṛcchokavivardhana(for -śok-), augmenting the grief of a friend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchocanamfn. burning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchocanaSee uc-chuc-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchopha(?) m. = uc-- chotha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchoṣaṇamfn. making dry, parching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchoṣaṇan. drying up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchoṣaṇan. making dry, parching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchoṣaṇaSee uc-chuṣ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchoṣukamfn. drying up, withering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchotham. bloatedness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chokam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāñchoddhāram. Name of a Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viccho( cho-), Causal -cchāyayati- to cut about, wound (see vich-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
11 results
cho छो 4 P. (छयति, अच्छात्-अच्छासीत्, छात, or छित, -caus. छाययति) To cut, cut asunder, mow, reap; Bk.14.11; 15.4.
cholaṅgaḥ छोलङ्गः A citron, lime.
choraṇam छोरणम् Abandoning, leaving.
choṭikā छोटिका Snapping the thumb and fore-finger together (Mar. चुटकी); दातुं प्रावर्तत द्वाभ्यां हस्ताभ्यां छोटिकां जडः Ks.65. 211; इति छोटिकां ददाति Ratn.3 (between verses 9 and 1).
acchoṭanam अच्छोटनम् Hunting.
ucchoṣaṇa उच्छोषण a. 1 Making dry, withering up; यच्छोकमु- च्छोषणमिन्द्रियाणाम् Bg.2.8. -2 Burning, parching. -णम् Drying up; parching, withering.
ucchoṣuka उच्छोषुक a. Making dry, drying up, withering.
ucchocanam उच्छोचनम् Burning (Ved.).
ucchophaḥ उच्छोफः Swelling; पृथूच्छोफभूयांसि मांसानि (जग्ध्वा) Māl.5.16.
kacchoṭikā कच्छोटिका = कच्छटिका q. v.
kacchoram कच्छोरम् A kind of turmeric Curcuma (शटी).
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
5 results
juṣ juṣ enjoy, VI. juṣá, vii. 71, 6; 86, 2; x. 15, 4. 13; pf. sb. jújuṣan, vii. 61, 6; iṣ ao. sb. jóṣiṣat, ii. 35, 1 [cp. Gk. γεύω, Lat. gus-tus, Go. kiusan, Eng. choose].
vārya vá̄r-ya, gdv. desirable, i. 35, 8 [vṛ choose].
vṛ 2. vṛ choose, IX. Ā. vṛṇīte, ii. 33, 13; v. 11, 4; x. 127, 8.
vṛṇāna vṛṇāná, pr. pt. Ā. choosing, v. 11, 4 [vṛ choose].
vrata vra-tá, n. will, ordinance, iii. 59, 2. 3; v. 83, 5; viii. 48, 9; service, vi. 54, 9 [vṛ choose].
     Macdonell Search  
2 results
choṭana n. cutting off; -ikâ, f. snap (with forefinger and thumb).
ucchotha m. swelling, inflation; -khopha, m. id.; -khoshana, a. parching or drying up; n. drying up (tr. & int.).
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     KV Abhyankar
"cho" has 251 results.
agravāla(Vasudeva-Śarana Agravāla), a modern scholar of Sanskrit grammar, the author of "India as known to Pāṇini".
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
aāgrāyaṇaan ancient scholar of Nirukta quoted by Yāska confer, compare अक्षि अष्टेः । अनक्तेरिति आग्रायणः Nirukta of Yāska.I.9.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
ujjvaladattathe famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti et cetera, and others He is also known by the name Jājali.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uṇādisūtrapañcapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvaladatta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
uvaṭaalso उव्वट or ऊअट a reputed Kaāśmirian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata. He wrote many learned commentaries, some of which are known as Bhasyas. Some of his important works are Ṛkprātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyī prātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyīsamhitābhāṣya, Vedārthadīpika et cetera, and others
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ekadeśavikṛtanyāyathe maxim that ' a thing is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking in a part,'stated briefly as एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Pari. Śek. Pari. 37. The maxim is given in all the different schools of grammar: confer, compare Śak Pari. 17: Cāndra Pari. 15, Kat. Par. Vr. l, Jain. Par.Vr.l l, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.Pari.7 et cetera, and others
egeliṃg( Eggeling )a well-known German scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who flourished in the l9th century and who edited the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa with the commentary of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. and many appendices in 1876.
ejarṭan[Edgerton, Dr. Franklin]an American Sanskrit scholar and author of ’Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary.'
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
opperṭ[Gustav Oppert 1836-1908 ]a German scholar of Sanskrit who edited the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭāyana.
oraṃbhaṭṭa scholar of grammar of the nineteenth century who wrote a Vṛtti on Pāṇini sūtras called पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति. He has written many works on the Pūrvamīmāmsa and other Śāstras.
audavrajian ancient sage and scholar of Vedic Grammar who is believed to have revised the original text of the ऋक्तन्त्रप्रातिशाख्य of the Sāma-Veda. confer, compare Śab. Kaus. I.1.8.
kātantrapañjikāa name usually given to a compendium of the type of Vivaraṇa or gloss written on the Kātantra Sūtras. The gloss written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the famous commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. ( the same as the the famous Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. or another of the same name ) known as दौर्गसिंही वृत्ति is called Kātantra Pañjika or Kātantravivaraṇa. A scholar of Kātantra grammar by name Kuśala has written a Pañjika on दुर्गसिंहृ's वृत्ति which is named प्रदीप, Another scholar, Trivikrama has written a gloss named Uddyota.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaascribed to Śrīpatidatta, whose date is not known; from a number of glosses written on this work, it appears that the work was once very popular among students of the Kātantra School.
kātantrapariśiṣṭacandrikāa gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa ascribed to a scholar named Ramadāsa-cakravartin who has written also named Kātantravyākhyāsāra.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaṭīkāa gloss on the Kātantra-Pariśiṣṭa written by a Kātantra scholar Puṇḍarīkākṣa.
kātantrapradīpaa grammar work written by a scholar named Kuśala on the Kātantrasūtravṛtti by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. See कातन्त्रपञ्जिका.
kātantralaghuvṛttia short gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to a scholar named Chucchukabhaṭṭa.
kātantravistaraa famous work on the Kātantra Grammar written by Vardhamāna a Jain Scholar of the twelfth century who is believed to be the same as the author of the well-known work Gaṇaratnamahodadhi.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakanirṇayaa work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kīlhārnKielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona.
kṛṣṇamitraa scholar of grammar and nyāya of the 17th century A.D. who wrote many commentary works some of which are (l) a commentary called Ratnārṇava on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī, (2) a commentary named Kalpalata on Bhaṭṭoji's Prauḍhamanoramā, (3) a commentary named Bhāvadīpa on Bhaṭṭoji's Śabdakaustubha of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita., (4) a commentary on Nagojibhaṭṭa's Laghumañjūṣā of Nāgeś name Kuñcikā and (5) a commentary on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
kodṇḍarāmaa scholar of Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa who composed शब्दसिद्धान्तमञ्जरी a small treatise dealing with the declension of nouns.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kroṣṭrīyaan ancient school of grammarians who are believed to have written rules or Vārttikas on some rules of Pāṇini to modify them; the क्रोष्ट्रीय school is quoted in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare परिभाषान्तरमिति च मत्वा क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3.
kṣapaṇakaa Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.
kṣitīśacandra(चक्रवर्तिन्)or K. C. CHATTERJI a scholar of Sanskrit grammar who has written a work on technical terms in Sanskrit, who has edited several grammar works and is at present editing the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa and conducting the Sanskrit journal named Mañjūṣa at Calcutta.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṅgeśaśarmāwriter of Kātantra-kaumudī possibly different from the reputed Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāa who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyāya school of modern Naiyāyikas, and who lived in the twelfth century A. D.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gadāa popular name given to the scholarly commentary written by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara. The commentary is called काशिका also, as it was written in the town of Kāśī (Vārāṇasī).
gārgyaan ancient reputed grammarian and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work, whose views, especially in.connection with accents are given in the Pratisakhya works, the Nirukta and Panini's Astadhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the Vaiyakaranas that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them: cf Nirukta of Yāska.I. 12.3. cf, also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 167, Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.5, III. 14.22: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 13; XIII. 12: P. VII. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
gopīcandraknown also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.
gopīnāthaa Bengali scholar of Katansutra Grammar who is believed to have written Katantraparisistapraddyota.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
caṅgudāsaor चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an independent work on Sanskrit Vyakaana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The treatise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण.
candragominnamed also चन्द्र, a Buddhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.
caraṇaexplained as a synonym of the word शाखा which means a branch or a school of Vedic Learning; confer, compare चरणशब्दाः कठकलापादय:: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.46.
cātuḥsvāryathe view that there are four accents-the udatta, the anudatta, the svarita and the pracaya held by the Khandikya and the Aukhiya Schools.
cārāyaṇaan ancient grammarian referred to by Patanjali in the Mahabhasya as a scholar who had a line of pupils named after him; confer, compare कम्बलचारायणीयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.73
cintyaquestionable; contestable: which cannot be easily admittedition The word is used in connection with a statement made by a sound scholar which cannot be easily brushed aside; confer, compare एतेन यत्कैयटे केचिदित्यादिना अस्यैव वाग्रहृणस्य तदनित्यत्वज्ञापकतोक्ता सापि चिन्त्या, Par. Sekh. Pari. 93. 5.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya(1)a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jinendrabuddhia reputed Buddhist Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote a scholarly commentary on the Kasikavrtti ofJayaditya and Vamana. The commentary is called न्यास or काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका and the writer is referred to as न्यासकार in many later grammar works Some scholars identify him with पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् the writer of the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण, but this is not possible as पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् was a Jain Grammarian who flourished much earlier.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṇastaddhita affix. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.
tattvabodhinīname of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Siddhnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commentaries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tantrapradīpaname of the learned commentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinendrabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,
tāthābhāvyaname given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह id est, that is which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; exempli gratia, for example तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.
tārānāthacalled तर्कवाचस्पति; a Bengali modern Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary called Sarala on the Siddhanta Kaumudi. He has edited many important Sanskrit works consisting of many kosas.
tribhāṣyaratnaname of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya.
trilaॊcanaa scholar of grammar who has written a small work named अव्ययशब्दवृत्ति on the uses of indeclinables.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
dayāratnaa.Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise on the Sarasvata Grammar called सारस्वतपरिभाषा.
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
durghaṭavṛttiname of a grammar work explaining words which are difficult to derive according to rules of Panini. The work is written in the style of a running commentary on select sutras of Panini, devoted mainly to explain difficult formations. The author of it, Saranadeva, was an eastern grammarian who, as is evident from the number of quotations in his work, was a great scholar of the 12th or the 13th century.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupradīpaa work dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Raksita, a Buddhist writer and a famous grammarian belonging to the eastern part of India who lived in the middle of the twelfth century. He is believed to have written many scholarly works in connection with Panini's grammar out of which the Tantrapradipa is the most important one. The work Dhatupradipa is quoted by Saranadeva, who was a contemporary of Maitreya Raksita, in his Durghatavrtti on P. II. 4. 52.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
nandikeśvaraan ancient grammarian who has written a short work in verses on grammar in general, which is named नन्दकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र. There is a scholarly commentary upon it written by उपमन्यु.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nāda(1)voice; resonance; tone; the sound caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis when the air passes through them; confer, compare वर्णाोत्पत्त्यनन्तरभावी अनुरणनरूपः शब्दः नादः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9; confer, compare also संवृते कण्ठे यः शब्दः क्रियते स नादसंज्ञो भवति Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 4; (2) sound, articulate sound generally without sense, which is momentary; (3) the highest sound. See परा.
nityānandaparvatīyaa scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who wrote glosses on the Mahabhasyapradipa, on the Laghusabdendusekhara and on the Paribhasendusekhara. He was a resident of Benares where he coached many pupils in Sanskrit Grammar. He lived in the first half of the nineteenth century.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
niruktabhāṣyaa gloss on Yaska's Nirukta written by a modern scholar of grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A. D.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
pañjikāa popular name given to critical commentaries by scholars; confer, compare काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका by Jinendrabuddhi which is popularly known by the name न्यास.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padamañjarīthe learned commentary by Haradatta on the काशिकावृत्ति. Haradatta was a very learned grammarian of the Southern School, and the Benares School of Grammarians follow पदमञ्जरी more than the equally learned another commentary काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका or न्यास. In the Padamanjarī Haradatta is said to have given everything of importance from the Mahābhāșya; confer, compare अधीते हि महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी. For details see Mahābhāșya D. E. S. Ed. Vol. VII P. 390-391.
padavāda or padavādipakṣaview that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. confer, compare Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pāṭhakaor उदयंकरपाठक name of a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who wrote an independent work on Paribhaasaas and commentaries on the ParibhaaSendusekhara and Laghu5abdendusekhara. See उदयंकर and परिभाषाप्रदीपार्चिस्.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāriṣadaliterally belonging to the assembly; the term पारिषद refers to the results of the discussions held at the assemblies of specially prominent scholars or learned persons ; confer, compare सर्ववेदपारिषदं हीदं शास्त्रं (ब्याकरणम्) तत्र नैकः पन्था: शक्य आस्थातुम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1. 58; VI. 3.14.
piṅgalācāryaan ancient scholar who is believed to be the first writer on Prosody, his work being known as छन्दःशास्त्र of पिङ्गल. Some scholars believe that he wrote a work on Phonetics which is now popularly called पाणिनीयशिक्षा.
puruṣottamavidyāvāgīśaa famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholarship of the writer in the Mantrasāstra.
pṛthvīdharācāryaa grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote the treatise कातन्त्रविवरण on Katantra Grammar.
paurastyavaiyākaraṇaa grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
prakriyāprasādaname of the scholarly commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi, written by Vitthalesa, the grandson of Ramachandra.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
pravādinaḥscholars who explain the changes ( प्रवाद ) mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; possibly the Padakaras or writers of the पदपाठ;cf प्रवादिनो दूणाशदूढ्यदूलभान् ... महाप्रदेशं स्वधितीव चानयेन्नुदच्च R Pr. XI. 20. Apparently प्रवादिनः ( nominative case. singular.) seems to be the word in the explanation of Uvvata.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prātiśrutkaplaces of echo or reverberation viz.chest and others, of sound which gets its origin at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest, throat, top of the month, mouth and nose; confer, compare तस्य ( उत्पत्त्याश्रयस्य शब्दस्य ) प्रातिश्रुत्कानि भवन्ति उरः कण्ठः शिरो मुखं नासिके इति, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 3.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
plākṣāyaṇaan ancient Vedic scholar who presumably wrote a work on Vedic grammar (of the type of the Pratisakhya works).For a difference of view he is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya: confer, compareन प्लाक्षिप्लाक्षायणयेाः T.Pr. IX.6.
phiṭsūtraa small work on accents attributed to Santanava,an ancient Vedic scholar who lived before Patanjali if not before Panini, as the latter has not referred to him. There is an anonymous commentary upon it.
phaḍegan[ FADDEGON, BAREND ]a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar, who has written a book 'Studies in Panini's Grammar'.
baor बकार the letter ब्, the vowel अ as also the word कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.17.21, The letter ब् is sometimes used for व् especially when it stands at the beginning of a word, for which scholars use the expression वबयेारभेद:
barnel[ BURNELL., Dr.]a European Sanskrit scholar who has written a learned booklet 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' which discusses the problem of the Aindra grammar. See ऐन्द्र.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
belavalakara[ SHRIPAD KRISHNA BELVALKAR ]a well-known Sanskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mahabharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. He has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar, which is named "Systems of Sanskrit Grammar".
bothaliṃgka[BOHTLINGK, OTTO]a German Sanskrit scholar and Grammarian of St.Petersberg, who has written a short gloss in German on Panini's Astadhyayi under the title "Panini's Grammatik" with an introduction and various indexes at the end. He has also critically edited Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
baॉpa[ BOPP, FRANZ ]a German Sanskrit scholar who has written the famous volumes of "The Comparative Sanskrit Grammar".
bopadevaa great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical termanuscript. His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhavadevaa scholar of grammar who has written a commentary on the Brhacchabdaratna of Hari Diksita.
bhāgavata hariśāstrīa modern scholar of grammar who has written a commentary named Vakyarthacandrika on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa; he lived in the first half of the eighteenth century.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhāṇḍārakara[ Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar 1837-1925 A. D. ]a well-known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who has written learned articles on many grammatical topics. He was a distinguished Professor of Sanskrit in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the pioneers of Sanskrit studies in India.
bhāraddhājīyascholars and grammarians belonging to or following the Bharadwaja School of Grammar whose views are often quoted in the Mahabhasya; भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.20 Vart. 1, I.1.56 Vart.11 : I.2.22 Vart.3; I.3.67 Vart. 4, III.1.38 Vart. 1, III 1.48 Vart. 3; III 1.89 Vart. 1, IV.1.79, VI.4. 47 and VI.4.155.
bhāvasenaa grammarian of the Kātantra school who wrote the works Kātantrarūpamālā and Kaumāra Vyākaraņa.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhūvādilit headed by भू , or headed by भू and वा as some scholars like to explain; the term means roots; in general, which have भू as the first root in Pāṇini's list of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो धातव: P. I. 3.1; The word भूवादि denoting roots stands in contrast with the word भ्वादि which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते | भुवो वार्थं वदन्तीति भ्वर्था वा वादयः स्मृता: Kāś. on P. I. 3.1.
bhrājastray or spurious verses or stanzas whose authorship cannot be traced, but which are commonly quoted by scholars; confer, compare भ्राजा नाम श्लेाका: M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1; the word भ्राज is explained as 'composed by Kātyāyana' by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa in his Uddyota.
manoramā(1)the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also.
mallināthaa reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि.
mahādevaa grammarian of the Kātantra school who has written a gloss on the कातन्त्रवृत्ति of दुर्गसिंह.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
mahābhāṣyalaghuvṛttiname given to the short gloss on the Mahabhasya written by the famous eastern grammar-scholar Maitreya-Raksita of the twelfth century.
mācākīyaan ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work, who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya as one, holding the view that य and व् preceded by अ and followed by उ and ओ respectively, are dropped provided they stand at the beginning of a Pada ( word ). माचाकीय, who belonged to the Yajurveda school, is said to have held this view which is generally held by the followers of the Rgveda: confer, compare उकारौकारपरौ लुप्यते माचाकी यस्य(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.X.29) on which the commentator adds वह्वृचानामयं पक्षः.
mādhavathe well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
metreyarakṣitaa recognised scholar of Paninis' grammar who belonged to the Eastern part of India and fourished in the beginning of the twelfth century. As it appears from the name Maitreya Raksita he appears to have been a Buddhist grammarian. Subsequent writers in their works refer to him by the name Raksita alone, as also by the name Maitreya, but very rarely by the name Maitreya Raksita.He wrote many works on grammar of which the 'tantrapradipa'a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa on Kasika was a reputed one, which, although available in a fragmentary manuscript form today, has been profusely quoted by prominent grammarians after him.
mokṣeśvaraa grammarian of the fourteenth century who has written a commentary on the Katantra Vrtti of Durgasimha. He has written a commentary on the Akhyatavrtti of the Katantra school as also a short treatise dealing with the krt affixes called Krdvrtti.
rakṣitanamed मैत्रेयरक्षित or मैत्रेय also; a famous grammarian of the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bihar and Bengal in the ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries, claiming मैत्रयरक्षित, पुरुषोत्तमदेव, सीरदेव and others as prominent grammar scholars among others. See the word मैत्रेयरक्षिiत.
ranu[RENOU,LOUIS]a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention.
ramānāthaśarmaa grammarian of the Katantra school who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a commentary named Manorama on the Katantradhatuvrtti and Sabdasadhyaprayoga.
rasavatīname of a commentary on his own work ' Sanksiptasara Vyakarana' by KramadiSvara,a sound scholar of grammar in the thirteenth century A.D.
rāghavendracārya( गजेन्द्रगडकर)a famous scholar of Grammar in the nineteenth century, who taught many pupils and wrote some commentary works, the well-known being प्रभा on the Sabdakaustubha, विषमपदव्याख्या on the Laghusabdendusekhara and त्रिपथगा on the Paribhisendusekhara. For details see p. 27 Vyakarana Mahbhasya Vol. VII D. E. Society's Edition.
rājārāmaśāstrī( कार्लेकर )a reputed scholar of Sanskrit grammar who resided at Varanasi and established a school of Sanskrit Grammarians there in the nineteenth century. He wrote a treatise on grammar named शब्दव्युत्पत्तिकौमुदी.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rāmadāsa(चक्रवर्ती )a follower of the Katantra school of grammar who wrote (l) चन्द्रिका, a commentary on Katantraparisista and ( 2 ) कातन्त्रव्याख्यासार
rāmanātha( विद्यावाचस्पति )a Sanskrit scholar of the 17th century who studied Vyakarana,. Dharma, Alamkara and other Sastras and wrote a grammar work कातन्त्ररहस्य, besides many books on other Sastras.
rūpāvatāraa well-known work on word formation written by धर्मकीर्ति a Jain grammarian of the twelfth century. Scholars believe that this work was the first work of the form of topics which was taken as a model by the authors of the Prakriyākaumudī and the Siddhāntakaumudī.
rauḍhīyaa term jocularly used with the word घृत preceding it,for students of a famous scholar named धृतरौढि; confer, compare ओदनपाणिनीया: घृतरौर्ढायाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.73.
varadarājaa scholar of grammar and a pupil of Bhattoji Diksita who flourished in the end of the seventeenth century and wrote abridgments of the Siddhanta-kaumudi for beginners in grammar named लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and मध्यसिद्धान्तकौमुदी as also धातुकारिकावली and गीर्वाणपदमञ्जरी. The work under the name सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी, which is the shortest abridgment, is, in fact, the लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी itselfeminine. It is possible that the auother first prepared the सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी and then, he himself or a pupil of his, put additional necessary matter and prepared the Laghusiddhanta-kaumudi.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
vartsyaliterally gingival, or produced at the gums; the letter र् according to some scholars who believe that र् is produced at the root of the teeth id est, that is at the gums; confer, compare एके अाचार्या रेफं वर्त्स्यमिच्छन्ति। वर्त्से भवो वर्त्स्य: ! वर्त्सशब्देन दत्तमूलादुपरिष्टादुच्छूनः प्रदेश: (gums) उच्यते Uvvata on R.Pr.I.20.
varṣaname of an ancient scholar of grammar and Mimamsa, cited by some as the preceptor of कात्यायन and Panini. If not of Panini, he may have been a preceptor of Katyayana
vākaranāgal[WACKERNAGELL]German Professor and scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who collaborated in the work of editing 'Altindisch Grammatik'.
vākyapadīyaṭīkāname of a commentary on Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya written by Punyaraja on the first and the second Kanda. Some scholars hold the view that the commentary on the first knda was written by Bhartrhari himselfeminine.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vādanakṣatramālāa work on grammatical debates et cetera, and others by Appaya Diksita, a well-known scholar and a senior contemporary of Jagannatha in the seventeenth century.
vāmananame of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृति upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य, There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर, together with उणादसूत्रवृत्ति and लिङ्गानुशासन.
vāyuair or प्राण, which is believed to spring up from the root of the navel and become a cause (even a material cause according to some scholars) of sound of four kinds produced at four different places, the last kind being audible to us; confer, compare प्राणे वाणिनभिव्यज्य वर्णेष्वेवोपलीयते Vakyapadiya I.116;confer, compare also R.Pr.XIII. 13, V.Pr. I.7-9; T.Pr.II.2: Siksa of Panini st. 6.
vārarucakārikāan ancient grammarwork in verse believed to have been written by an ancient scholar of grammar, who, if not the same as Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas, was his contemporary and to whom the authorship of the Unadi Sutras is ascribed by some scholars. See वररुचि.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vikalpachoice or option re : the application of a rule as stated by the word वा, विभाषा, अन्यतरस्याम् or the like: confer, compareनेति प्रतिषेधो वेति विकल्प: तयो: प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोः ' विभाषा ' इति संज्ञा भवति , विभाषाप्रकरणे प्रतिपेधविकल्पो उपतिष्ठते । तत्र प्रतिपेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, I. 1 44.
vikṛtivallīṭīkāname of a commentary on विकृतिवल्ली (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) written by a Vedic scholar गङ्गाधर.
vijayānandcalled also विद्यानन्द, a grammar scholar of the Katantra school who wrote (l) Katantradhatuvrtti (2) Katantrottara and (3) Kriyakalapa.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
vivāraname given to an external effort in the production of a sound when the vocal chords of the glottis or larynx are extended; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य विकासः विवारः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.9. confer, compare also विवरणं कण्ठस्य विस्तरणम् | स एव विवाराख्य: बाह्यः प्रयत्न: | तस्मिन्सति श्वासे नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः कियते | तद्ध्वनिसंसर्गादघोषो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नो जायते इति शिक्षायां स्मर्यते Bhāṣya on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 5.
vivṛtakaṇṭhaproduced by fully extending the chords of the throat. The first and the second classconsonants are described as विवृतकण्ठ; confer, compare तत्र वर्गाणां प्रथमद्वितीया विवृतकण्ठाः श्वासानुप्रदाना अघोषाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.9. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
viśvanāthadaṇḍibhaṭṭaa well-known grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote several commentary works of which the commentaries on the two Śekharas of Nāgeśa are well-known to scholars.
viṣṇubhadṛ( विष्णुशास्त्री भट )a scholar of grammar of the latter half of the nineteenth century who has written learned commentaries on the works of Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa, two of which viz. चिच्चन्द्रिका and विष्णुभट्टी are well known to scholars.
viṣṇumitraa Vedic scholar who wrote a gloss on the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya which is known as पार्षदव्याख्या.
viṣṇumiśraa scholar of the Supadma system of grammar who has written a commentary named मकरन्द on the सुपद्मव्याकरण and also a commentary on the सुपद्मसमाससंग्रह.
visarjanīyasame as विसर्ग which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare विसृज्यते पुनर्वर्णैर्न संबध्यते इति विसर्गः; Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kat. I. 1. 16. The term विसृष्ट is also used in the same sense. The visarjanīya has the same position (स्थान) in the mouth as the vowel after which it occurs. It is a glottal sound; the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya says that some scholars describe visarjanīya as a chest sound: confer, compare कण्ठयोकार:प्रथमपञ्चमौ च द्वावूष्माणौ केचिदेतावुरस्यौ | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I 18: confer, compare also उरसि विसर्जनीयो वा Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3.
vebarWEBER, ALBRECHT of Berlin, 1825-190l ]a sound scholar of Vedic Literature who has written many articles on Sanskrit Grammar in "Indische Studien."
vaidikīprakriyāname of that section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi which deals with Vedic peculiarities noticed by Panini in his sutras. There is a well-known commentary upon this section named सुबोधिनी written by Jayakrisna a famous grammar scholar of the Maunin family.
vaiyākaraṇaliterally a student of grammar; व्याकरणमधीते वैयाकरण: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV, 2.59. The word is used in the sense of 'a scholar of Grammar;'or, 'a person who has obtained proficiency in Grammar.' The word is used several times in this sense in the Mahabhasya. cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.3; I.4.2, II. 1.53, II.2.29, II.3.18, II.4.56, III.2.115 et cetera, and others The word is also used in the sense of 'pertaining to grammar' or 'found in grammar.'
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇasarvasvaa small treatise on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named Kasinatha who has also written a few more small works वर्णविवेकचन्द्रिका, वृत्तिचन्द्रिका,धातुमञ्जरी etc
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikāa very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, et cetera, and others and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himselfeminine. The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyākaraṇadarśanathe science of Vyakarana with the element of Sphota introduced in it and brought consequently on a par with the other Darsanas by the stalwart grammar-scholar Bhartrhari of the 7th century A. D. For details see Sarvadarsanasangraha ' Paninidarsanam ' and page 385 Vol. VII. of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya edited by the D. ESociety, Poona.
vyākaraṇadīpikāname of a short gloss or Vrtti on the Sutras of Panini written by a modern scholar of grammar Orambhatta of Varanasi.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyapradīpoddyotathe wellknown scholarly commentary by the stalwart grammarian Nagesabhatta on the Mahabhasyapradipa of Kaiyata. See उद्द्योत and नागेश.
vyākaraṇaratnāvalīa short work on grammar written by विद्यारत्न गौरमॊदन. व्याकरणसंग्रह a small grammar work written by a grammar scholar Gangadhara which is based upon the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
vyākaraṇāntaraa term used by scholars of the Paniniyan system of grammar with respect to grammar works of other systems such as the Katantra, the Sakatyana, and others; confer, compare श्रन्थिग्रन्थिदाम्भिस्वञ्जीनां लिटः कित्वं व्याकरणान्तरे S.K. on अश्नॊतेश्च P. VII.4.72.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyāḍīyaname given to the pupils and students belonging to the school of Vyadi; confer, compare M.Bh, on P.VI.2.36.
vyutpattiderivation of a word from a root which formed a special feature of the Nairukta school of Vedic scholars in ancient times; the word निर्वचन is used in the same sense: confer, compare सति संभवे व्युत्पत्तिरन्यथा कर्तव्या रूढेरनियमात् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.93.
vhiṭne[ WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT, 1827-1894]a sound scholar of Vedic grammar who has, besides some books on Linguistic studies, written a work on Vedic Grammar and edited the Atharvaveda Pratisakhya.
śaṃkaraśāstrī( मारुलकर )a modern scholar of grammar who lived in Poona and did the work of teaching and writing commentaries. He has written a commentary mamed शांकरी on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta.
śabdaratnaname of a scholarly gloss written by Haridiksita on the Manorama, a commentary by Bhattoji Diksita on his own Siddhantakaumudi. The proper name of the commentary is लघुशब्दरत्न of which शब्दरत्न is an abridged form.The commentary लघुशब्दरत्न is generally studied along with the Manorama by students.There is a bigger work named बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by Hari Diksita, of which the लधुशद्वरत्न is an abridgment.
śabdarūpāvalia very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śākalyaname of an ancient grammarian and Vedic scholar who is supposed to have revised the Vedic texts and written their Pada-pātha. He is often quoted by Pāṇini and the writers of the Prātiśākhya works: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य संहितामनुप्रावर्षत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.84; also on P.I.1.18, IV.1.18; confer, compare also उपचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धं अाचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्या: R.Pr.XIII.12.
śāntanavaan ancient scholar of grammar who wrote a treatise known as the Phit sutras on accents.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śaityāyanaan ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; confer, compare तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
śaiśirīyarecital of the Rgveda in the school named after SiSira, a pupil of Sakalya.
śaunakaa great ancient Vedic scholar who is believed to have written the Rk. Pratisakhya, which is said to be common for the two main branches of the Rgveda but which at present represents, in fact, all the different branches of the Rgveda.
śrīmānaśarmāa famous grammarian of Eastern India who has written a short scholarly gloss named Vijaya on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara. For details refer to Paribhasasamgraha.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on the six case-relations written by a scholar of grammar named श्रीमणिकण्ठ.
ṣikantaddhita affix. affix इक added to the word पथिन् in the sense of ' a student of' or ' a scholar of ' when the word पथिन् is preceded by the word शत or षष्टि. e. g. शतपथिकः, शतपथिकी । confer, compare शतषष्टेः षिकन् पथ: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. [I. 2.60.
ṣphafeminine affix अायनी, termed also तद्वित (l) added, according to the Eastern school of grammarians, to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix यञ् ( prescribed by rules like गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् IV.1.105) e. g. गार्ग्यायणी, वात्स्यायनी as contrasted with गांर्गी or वात्सी according to the Western school of Panini; (2) added to form feminine bases of the words from लोहित to कत to which यञ् has already been added as also to the words कौरव्य and माण्डूक. e. g. लौहित्यायनी, बाभ्रव्यायणी, कात्यायनी, कौरव्यायणी, माण्डूकायनी confer, compare P. IV. 1.17-19.
sadāśivabhaṭṭa(घुले)a prominent grammarian of the latter half of the eighteenth century who was a resident of Nagpur and whose gloss on the Laghusabdendusekhara by name सदाशिवभट्टी is well known to scholars.
samantabhadraa Jain scholar of great repute who is believed to have written, besides many well-known religious books such as आप्तमीमांसा गन्धहस्तिभाष्य et cetera, and others on Jainism, a treatise on grammar called Cintamani Vyakarana.
sarvavarmanspelt as शर्वबर्मन् also, the reputed author of the Katantra Vyakarana. He is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadbya at the Satavahana court, and to have revised and redacted the Katantra Sutras already existing for the benefit of his patron. With him began the Katantra school of grammar, the main contribution to which was made by दुर्गसिंहृ who wrote a scholarly gloss on the Katantra Sutras. For details see कातन्त्र,
sādhusundaraa scholar of grammar who was a pupil of साधुकीर्तिप्रवर and who wrote a short work on grammar named उक्तिरत्नाकर.
sāyaṇa,sāyaṇācāryathe celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति. As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya: confer, compare इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसुतेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning.
sārasvataṭīkāname in general given to commentary works on the Sarasvata Vyakarana out of which those written by Ramanarayana, Satyaprabodha, Ksemamkara, Jagannatha and Mahidhara are known to scholars.
sārasvataparibhāṣāa grammar work of the Sarasvata school written by Dayaratna in explanation of the technical rules giving conventions and maximanuscript.
sāhacaryapresence together, mention together, association; this साहचर्य is many times of use in cases of doubt regarding the meaning of a word or the choice of a word in a particular sense: confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1, 70, I 2. 27: confer, compare सहचरितो योर्थस्तस्य गतिर्भविष्यति साहचर्यात् ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 51 Vart. 3.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
sīradevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others.
supadmavyākaraṇaan independent work on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named पद्मनाभ, who fourished in Mithila in the fifteenth century A. D.
supadmavyākaraṇaṭīkāa commentary written by a scholar of grammar named विष्णुमिश्र on the Supadmavyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
somayājina modern grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote a short grammatical work as a hand-book for scholars who aspired to be poets. The work was called वैयाकरणशब्दमाला.
saunāganame of a school of ancient grammarians who composed Varttikas in explanation of the sutras of Panini; confer, compare सौनागाः पठन्ति P. III. 2.56 Vart. 1, IV. 1.74 Vart. 1. confer, compare एतदेव सौनागैर्विस्तरतरकेण पठितम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.18 Vart. 4.
sphoṭacaṭakaa small treatise on the theory of Sphota by a sound modern scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya, by name Krisnasastri Arade who lived in Benaras in the earlier part of the nineteenth century.
svaravivṛtti( 1 )the same as स्वरविराम which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( 2 ) a short treatise on Vedic accents written by a modern Vedic scholar and grammrian named Indradattopadhyaya.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
harikṛṣṇaa scholar of grammar who wrote a short treatise on the nature and function of prepositions named उपसर्गवाद.
hareidīkṣitaa reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
haimabṛhatprakriyāa work very similar to the Siddhantakaumudi written by a comparatively modern Jain scholar named Girijashankar Shastri.
hemalaghuprakriyāvṛttia topicwise work based on Hemacandra's Sabdanu-sasana written by Vinayavijaya, a Jain scholar of grammar.
     Vedabase Search  
90 results
chohārā dried fruitCC Madhya 14.27
cholāñā clippingCC Madhya 15.73
cholańga grapefruitsCC Madhya 14.27
chońye touchesCC Antya 18.23
choṭa neophyteCC Antya 16.10
CC Madhya 13.197
choṭa smallCC Madhya 2.93
choṭa youngerCC Madhya 11.148
choṭa bhāi younger brotherCC Adi 5.151
choṭa bhāi younger brotherCC Adi 5.151
choṭa hañā being juniorCC Madhya 11.140
choṭa hañā being juniorCC Madhya 11.140
choṭa haridāsa Choṭa HaridāsaCC Adi 10.147
choṭa haridāsa Choṭa HaridāsaCC Adi 10.147
choṭa haridāse Choṭa HaridāsaCC Antya 2.113
choṭa haridāse Choṭa HaridāsaCC Antya 2.113
choṭa haridāse unto Junior HaridāsaCC Madhya 1.259
choṭa haridāse unto Junior HaridāsaCC Madhya 1.259
choṭa-baḍa junior and seniorCC Madhya 10.149
choṭa-baḍa junior and seniorCC Madhya 10.149
choṭa-baḍa small and bigCC Madhya 13.198
choṭa-baḍa small and bigCC Madhya 13.198
choṭa-baḍa-mandira all the small and big templesCC Madhya 12.83
choṭa-baḍa-mandira all the small and big templesCC Madhya 12.83
choṭa-baḍa-mandira all the small and big templesCC Madhya 12.83
choṭa-bhāi younger brotherCC Antya 2.89
choṭa-bhāi younger brotherCC Antya 2.89
CC Madhya 19.36
choṭa-bhāi younger brotherCC Madhya 19.36
choṭa-haridāsa nāma a devotee named Choṭa HaridāsaCC Antya 2.102
choṭa-haridāsa nāma a devotee named Choṭa HaridāsaCC Antya 2.102
choṭa-haridāsa nāma a devotee named Choṭa HaridāsaCC Antya 2.102
choṭa-haridāse Junior HaridāsaCC Antya 20.105
choṭa-haridāse Junior HaridāsaCC Antya 20.105
choṭa-haridāsera of Junior HaridāsaCC Antya 2.111
choṭa-haridāsera of Junior HaridāsaCC Antya 2.111
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 12.45
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 12.45
CC Antya 16.65
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 16.65
choṭa-vipra the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.26
choṭa-vipra the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.26
CC Madhya 5.34
choṭa-vipra the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.34
CC Madhya 5.64
choṭa-vipra the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.64
CC Madhya 5.81
choṭa-vipra the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.81
CC Madhya 5.83
choṭa-vipra the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.83
choṭa-vipra the younger brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.17
choṭa-vipra the younger brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.17
CC Madhya 5.21
choṭa-vipra the younger brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.21
choṭa-vipra young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.87
choṭa-vipra young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.87
choṭa-vipra bale the younger brāhmaṇa repliedCC Madhya 5.33
choṭa-vipra bale the younger brāhmaṇa repliedCC Madhya 5.33
choṭa-vipra bale the younger brāhmaṇa repliedCC Madhya 5.33
choṭa-vipra kahe the younger brāhmaṇa repliesCC Madhya 5.31
choṭa-vipra kahe the younger brāhmaṇa repliesCC Madhya 5.31
choṭa-vipra kahe the younger brāhmaṇa repliesCC Madhya 5.31
choṭa-vipre unto the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.112
choṭa-vipre unto the young brāhmaṇaCC Madhya 5.112
acchodaiḥ filled with crystal-clear waterSB 8.2.8
nīlācale āchoń stay at Jagannātha Purī, NīlācalaCC Madhya 15.52
nārańga-cholańga-āmra-vṛkṣera ākāra sweetmeats in the shape of varieties of orange, lemon and mango treesCC Madhya 14.32
nārańga-cholańga-āmra-vṛkṣera ākāra sweetmeats in the shape of varieties of orange, lemon and mango treesCC Madhya 14.32
aniccho of one not desiringSB 6.12.13
āsichoń shall come backCC Madhya 15.293
nārańga-cholańga-āmra-vṛkṣera ākāra sweetmeats in the shape of varieties of orange, lemon and mango treesCC Madhya 14.32
dekhechoń I have seenCC Antya 18.55
dekhyāchoń I have seenCC Antya 18.68
kahiyāchoń mentionedCC Madhya 15.194
kariyāchoń have doneCC Madhya 3.39
kariyāchoń have doneCC Antya 3.132
likhiyāchoń I have describedCC Madhya 25.6
veciyāchoń māthā I have sold my headCC Antya 4.40
nārańga-cholańga-āmra-vṛkṣera ākāra sweetmeats in the shape of varieties of orange, lemon and mango treesCC Madhya 14.32
nīlācale āchoń stay at Jagannātha Purī, NīlācalaCC Madhya 15.52
paḍiyāchoń I have fallenCC Antya 20.33
pāñāchoń I have gottenCC Antya 5.5
puchoń shall I askCC Antya 17.52
śuniyāchoń I heardCC Madhya 24.4
ucchoṣaṇam drying upBG 2.8
veciyāchoń soldCC Madhya 15.149
veciyāchoń māthā I have sold my headCC Antya 4.40
nārańga-cholańga-āmra-vṛkṣera ākāra sweetmeats in the shape of varieties of orange, lemon and mango treesCC Madhya 14.32
yāichoń I am goingCC Antya 18.56
yāitechoń am returningCC Adi 17.127
     DCS with thanks   
11 results
choṭanaka noun (neuter) cutting off
Frequency rank 52592/72933
choṭikā noun (feminine) snapping the thumb and forefinger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35072/72933
accho noun (feminine) name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20446/72933
acchoda noun (neuter) name of a lake in the Himālaya formed by the river Acchodā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18725/72933
acchodaka adjective having clear water (a river)
Frequency rank 31448/72933
ucchoṣa noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 47067/72933
ucchoṣaṇa noun (neuter) drying up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
making dry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
parching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33336/72933
ucchoṣaṇa adjective making dry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
parching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47068/72933
kacchotthā noun (feminine) Cyperus rotundus
Frequency rank 48274/72933
bhṛgukacchotpattivarṇana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa, 181
Frequency rank 60829/72933
riñcho noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 63677/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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pellucid choler; a byproduct of second stage of digestion or amlāvasthāpāka.


Plant downward looking flower, Indian borage, Trichodesma indicum .


observer choler; one of the five variants of pitta/choler; located in eyes


modern school of haṭhayoga founded by John Friend.


a form of trachoma; an infectious disease caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis, a micro-organism which produces a characteristic roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids. Al called granular conjunctivitis.


1. trembling; quivering; 2. Plant Vallaris solanacea. girikarṇika, kovidāra. (Clitoria ternata and Bauhinia variegata) Calotropis gigantea, Echies dichotomoa, Jasminum sambac, Clotorea ternata are also known by this name; breadflower.


a solid preparation made from marking nut, myrobalan fruit, jaggery and sesame oil; indicated in hemorrhoids caused by choler (pitta).


diarrhoea due to psychological stress.


glow-choler; one of the five pittas located in skin, that ascribes glow to the skin and helps digest oils applied on.


Plant bishop’s weed, Ptychotis ajowan.


exogenous psychosis; abnormal condition of the mind due to external factors.


Plant smooth tricholepis, Tricholepis glaberrima


observer-choler, kind of ālocakapitta located in the eyes.


beak, bill; haranvel, Corchorus fascicularis.


Plant snake gourd, Trichosanthes cucumerina.


Plant rusa grass, Andropogon schoenanthus, syn. Cymbopogon martini.


(doṣa.bala.pravṛtta.vyādhi) psychosomatic diseases.


1. iguana lizard; 2. chord, sinew.


celebrated sage and philosopher of mīmāmsa school of philosophy.


Plant pointed gourd, Trichosanthes dioeca.


horse gram, dry seeds of Vigna unquiculata, syn. Dolichos biflorus


āyurveda scholar and disciple of Vijayarakṣita belonging to Bengal region and adherent of Buddhism, 12th Century


Plant field beans, Dolichos lablab; Vigna unuiculata.


wild snake gourd, bitter snake gourd, Trichosanthes dioica, T. cucumerina, T. lobata.


one of the three humors, bile, choler, bilious humor.


trachoma; an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachoma, which produces a characteristic roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids. Also called granular conjunctivitis.


rope, chord, ropelike structures in the body binding the muscles and bones; ligaments.


colouring choler; one of the five variants of choler located near stomach (āmāśaya)


fulfilling, accomplishing; sādhakapitta accomplishing choler; one of the five variants of choler located in heart.


Plant Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris), ditabark, blackboard tree.


Plant dita, devil’s tree, stem bark of Alstonia scholaris.


chapter on embodied person; part of ayurveda treatises dealing with human body and its physical and psychological disposition.


poetic treatise on āyurveda by a Telugu scholar in Tanjavur.


scholar of Hampi, the capital of Viajayanagara empire (14th – 15th Century ), author of Ayurveda sudhanidhi, the manuscript is not available.


Dolichos lablab; beans; Mucuna pruritis; Phaseolus trilobus; wild gram.


Plant Sebastian plum, Cordia dichotoma.


three psychological traits, purity (satva), passion (raja) and gloom (tama).


mad, inebriation; hysteria and psychosis; insanity.


Plant 1. Trichosanthes bracteata; 2. red variety of indravāruṇi.


cholera, gastro-enteritis.


Plant bishop’s weed, dried fruit of Trachyspermum ammi syn. Carum copticum, Ptychotis ajowan.

     Wordnet Search "cho" has 11 results.


jālikaḥ, dhīvaraḥ, dāseraḥ, mainālaḥ, ānāyī, śākunī, choṭī, dāserakaḥ, mātsikaḥ, mātsyikaḥ, jalacarājīvaḥ, dhīvan   

matsyabandhanaṃ kurvāṇā ekā jātiḥ।

grāme naike jālikāḥ matsyabandhanam eva kurvanti।


mṛgayā, ācchodanam, mṛgavyam, ākheṭaḥ   

vanyapaśvādīnām hananam।

prācīnakālīnaḥ nṛpaḥ vaneṣu mṛgayām akarot।


kṛt, chid, nikṛt, niṣkṛt, parikṛt, vikṛt, vinikṛt, paricchid, saṃchid, paricchid, lū, vraśc, cho, viccho, do, vido, dā, vidā, chuṭ, chur, takṣ, vitakṣ, parivas, parivraśc, paryavacchid, paryavado, pracchid, pralū, pravraśc, vas, vibhaj, vimath, vihṛ, vyapahṛ, samucchid, samutkṛt, samuparuj, sampracchid   

tīkṣṇaiḥ sādhanaiḥ kartanapūrvakaḥ vibhajanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ kṣupān kartayati।




gānasya madhye saḥ choṭikāṃ vādayati।



kasmiṃścana vastuni lagnānāṃ dhūlikāṇādīnām apanayanāya uddhṛtya vimalīkaraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ śayyām ucchodhayati।


nalikā, nalī, muralī, picchorā, veṇuḥ, sānikā   

nalaḥ iva ākārasya kiñcit vastu।

asvāsthān paśūn veṇoḥ nalikayā auṣadhaṃ pāyayate।


dhīvaraḥ, dhīvā, śākunikaḥ, śākunī, kaivartaḥ, kaivartakaḥ, kevartaḥ, jālikaḥ, ānāyī, abdhijīvī, kupinī, choṭī, jalacarājīvaḥ, timighātī, dāśaḥ, dāsaḥ, dāśeraḥ, dāseraḥ, dāśerakaḥ, dāserakaḥ, puñjiṣṭhaḥ, matsyaghātī, matsyajīvā, matsyajīvī, matsyabandhaḥ, matsyahā, matsyopajīvī, mātsikaḥ, mātsyikaḥ, mīnaghātī, mīnāriḥ, mainālaḥ, vāryupajīvī, śākulikaḥ, śāpharikaḥ, salilopajīvī   

yaḥ matsyān jāle baddhvā krīṇāti।

vārdalāt dhīvarāḥ samudre matsyabandhanārthe na gatāḥ।


chid, kṛnt, lū, vraśc, cho, do, avacchid   

avayavinaḥ avayavavidalanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

pavanaḥ udyānasthāni āmraphalāni chinatti।


lū, chid, kṛnt, do, vraśc, cho   

kriyāyāṃ saukaryātiśayāt dvaidhībhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

śākaṃ lūyate।



udarasya āpyāyanam।

ucchotāt rātrau na suptaḥ।



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

chojasya ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti

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