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Amarakosha Search
5 results
hūtiḥFeminineSingularākāraṇā, āhvānaminvocation
haṇḍeFeminineSingularappropriate vocative for female servant
hañjeFeminineSingularappropriate vocative for female servant
aṅgahāraḥMasculineSingularaṅgavikṣepaḥa appropriate vocative for female friend
anubhāvaḥ1.7.20MasculineSingularindication of passion
Monier-Williams Search
9 results for cati
चतिन्mfn. equals c/atat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतितmfn. class. equals catt/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अञ्चतिm. wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अञ्चतिm. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
काचतिलकn. black salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतिकल्पम्ind. (?) Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतिक्तn. 5 bitter things (viz. nimba-, amṛtā-, vṛṣa-, paṭola-,and ṇidigdhikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतिक्तघृतn. a particular mixture, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वञ्चति(?) m. fire (see añcati-) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
3 results
catita चतित a. (Ved. चत्त) Hidden; made to disappear.
cati अञ्चतिः [अञ्च्-गतौ कर्तरि अति.] 1 Wind. -2 Fire. -3 One who goes.
vañcati वञ्चतिः Fire.
Macdonell Vedic Search
10 results
ac ac bend, I. P. ácati. úd-, draw up, v. 83, 8.
arc arc sing, praise, I. árcati. sám-, praise universally. pf. ānṛcé, i. 160, 4.
pavitravant pavítra-vant, a. purifying, i. 160, 3 [pavítra, n. means of purification; root pū purify].
mada mád-a, m. intoxication, i. 85, 10; viii. 48, 6.
madacyut mada-cyút, a. reeling with intoxication, i. 85, 7 [cyu move]. [243]
sahūti sá-hūti, f. joint praise, ii. 33, 4 [hūti invocation from hū call].
suhava su-háva, a. (Bv.) easy to invoke, ii. 33, 5 [háva invocation].
hava háv-a, m. invocation, x. 15, 1 [hū call].
havanaśrut havana-śrút, a. (Tp.) listening to invocations, ii. 33, 15 [hávana (from hū call) + śrú-t hearingfrom śru hear with determinative t].
havīman háv-ī-man, n. invocation, ii. 33, 5 [hū call].
Macdonell Search
264 results
agniśuddhi f. purification by fire; -susrûshâ, f. careful tending of the sacred fire; -sesha, m. remains of fire.
ajanani f. deprivation of birth (in imprecations).
atiprasakti f. too great addiction, to (g.); -prasa&ndot;ga, m. id.; too wide application (of a gr. rule); excessive diffuseness; -prastâva, m. very suitable opportunity.
adhikaraṇa n. substratum; substance, matter; subject, department; section, paragraph; law-court; that in which anything happens; sphere of the locative (gr.); -mandapa, n. law-court; -lekhaka,m. lawyer's clerk.
adhyāsa m. placing upon; erroneous predication.
adhyāropa m., °ree; -nâ, f. erro neous predication (ph.).
anādeśa m. absence of an injunc tion; -paribhâshâ, f. explanatory rule re garding non-specification (of deity and metre).
anirdeśa m. non-specification.
anirdiṣṭa pp. unindicated; un specified; unauthorised; -kâranam, ad. with out indicating the reason.
anurūpa a. suitable; conformable to; fit for (g.): -m, -tas, in. ad. in propor tion to (--°ree;); -rûpaka, a. suitable, conformable, corresponding; -rodha, m. compliance, grati fication; regard, consideration; -ródhana, n. compliance; partiality; -rodhin, a. consi dering (--°ree;): (i)-tâ, f. complaisance.
anuvaṃśa m. genealogical table; a. equal by birth: -m, by birth; -vamsya, a. relating to one's genealogy; -vákana, n. repetition; study; lesson; -vanam, ad. in the forest; in every forest; -vana½antam, ad. in the forest; -vandin, a. praising; -vapram, ad. on the bank; -vartana, n. continuation; compliance, tractableness; -vartanîya, fp. to be followed; -varti-tva, n. compliance; -vartin, a. following, yielding, obedient; -vartman, a. following, serving; -vartya, fp. to be followed; -vasa, m. obedience; a. obedient; -vashat-kâra, m. repetition of the concluding sacrificial invocation.
anusaṃtati ad. in uninterrupted succession; -samtâna, m. offspring, son; -sam dhâtavya, fp. to be heeded, to be attended to; -samdhâna, n. careful attention, application; scrutiny; -samdheya,fp. to be attended to.
anuśaya m. repentance; revocation (of a bargain): -vat, a. penitent; -½âkshepa, m. implication of remorse: a rhet. figure; -s&asharp;sana, n. instruction; precept, doctrine; order; -sâsanîya, fp. to be instructed; to be punished; -sâsitri, m. guide, teacher; -sâ sin, a. chastising; -sâsti, f. instruction; -si kshin, a. acquiring, practising; -sishta, pp. √ sâs; -susrûshâ, f. (des. n.) obedience; -sok ana, n. lamentation;-sokin, a. lamenting for (--°ree;); -sobhin, a. splendid.
abhimata pp. esteemed, loved; wished for, approved; n. wish, desire; -man tavya, fp. to be regarded as (nm.); -man tri, a. bringing objects into relation with it self; -mantrana, n. invocation; consecration.
abhyasana n. application; study; î-ya, fp. to be practised.
abhyāsa m. addition; repetition; reduplication (gr.); practice; application; use, habit; familiarity with (--°ree;); repeated recitation; study.
arpaṇa a. (î) procuring; making over, entrusting; n. throwing; attaching; placing upon; application; offering; consign ment, making over, transference; restitution; -anîya, fp. to be given up, to be handed over; -ita, cs. pp. (√ ri) placed in or on, applied; made over to.
avacaya ava-kaya, ˚cāya m. plucking, gathering; -kâyin, a. plucking, gathering; -kârana, n. treatment, application: î-ya, fp. applicable; -kikîshâ, f. desire to pluck; -kû- da, m. pendent tuft; -kûla, m. id.
avaṣṭabhya fp. to be stopped; -shtambha, m. recourse to, employment; re soluteness; courage: -na, n. id., -maya, a. indicative of courage.
ādhāra m. support, prop, foundation; receptacle, reservoir; trench (round the foot of a tree); dyke, dam; location or sphere of an action (gr.): --°ree;, a. relating to; -tâ, f. state of a receptacle; -½adheya-bhâva, m. relation between the receptacle and what it contains.
āmantraṇa n. calling, address ing; invitation; -ayitavya, fp. to be taken leave of; -ita, n. (pp.) address; vocative.
ārādha m. homage; -ana, a. con ciliating, winning; n. prospering, success; accomplishment; propitiation, gratification; adoration; -anîya, fp. to be conciliated or adored; -ayitri, m. adorer, devotee;-ayish- nu, a. adoring (ac.); -ya, fp. to be accom plished; to be conciliated; pleasing to (in.).
ārtava a. (î) seasonable; menstrual; n. monthly purification; the ten days following it.
āropa m. placing upon; attribu tion; substitution for, identification with (lc.); -aka, a. planting (--°ree;); -ana, n. causing to ascend; setting up; putting on; stringing (a bow); identification; -anîya, fp.that should be caused to ascend (lc.); -ita, pp. cs. from √ ruh; -ya, fp. to be placed upon.
āsevana n. frequenting; addiction; -â, f. continuous application, addiction; -in, a. frequenting; addicted to (--°ree;); -ya, fp. to be visited.
āhvāna n. calling upon, invocation; conjuring (a spirit); summons; challenge.
āhūti f. invocation.
iṣudhyā f. supplication; -dhyú, a. supplicating.
uktha n. praise, hymn of praise; invocation; recitation (later called Sastra) of the Hotri.
utpavana n. purification; imple ment of purification; -pavitrí, m. purifier.
upanaya m. bringing, supplying; application; introduction: -na, n. id.; initi ation of a pupil; investiture; offering.
upayoga m. application, employ ment; use, utility; enjoyment; acquirement; -in, a. applicable, serviceable, suitable; --°ree;, employing, using.
ūha m. 1. addition; modification; 2. consideration; inference; -ana, n. id.; -anîya, -ya, fp. 1. to be changed; 2. to be inferred.
om ij. the sacred syllable om (often= amen; used in invocations, at the commencement of prayers, at the beg. and end of Vedic recitation, and as a respectful salutation; the subject of many mystical speculations).
kalya a. healthy, vigorous; ready (for, lc. or inf.); clever; n. health; day-break (-m, lc., °ree;--, at day-break); intoxicating liquor: -tâ, f. health.
kādambara n. sour cream; î, f. kind of intoxicating liquor; T. of a romance & its heroine: -lokana½ânanda, m. ep. of the moon; -sagdhikâ, f. common carouse.
kṛti f. making, performance; action; production, literary work; N. of various metres; confirmation, verification (dr.).
kṛtāṅka a. branded; -½añgala, a. having the palms joined in supplication to (d.); -½âtithya, a. having practised hospi tality; hospitably entertained; -½âtman, a. whose mind is cultivatedor purified; -½âdara, a. treated with due respect; -½anuvyâdha, a. filled with (in.); -½anta, a. making an end, decisive; m. matter, affair, case; fate; Death, Yama; system, doctrine: -nagarî, f. city of Yama, -samtrâsa,m. N. of a Râkshasa; -½antara, a. having made one's way to (g.); -½anná, n. cooked food; -½aparâdha, a. hav ing committed an offence against (g.); -½abhi sheka, a. hvg. performed a religious ablution; consecrated;-½abhyâsa, a. kept to one's studies (by, --°ree;); -½artha, a. having attained his object; satisfied: -tâ, f., -tva, n. satisfaction.
kṛtvas (ac. pl.) ad. [makings], times (C. only--°ree;, forming multiplicative numerals).
kopana a. passionate, wrathful, angry; n. excitement; provocation; -in, a. angry, wrathful.
kṣība kshîba, kṣīva a. intoxicated; excited: -tâ, f., -tva, n. intoxication.
khyāpaka (cs.) a. announcing, indicating (--°ree;).
grāvagrābha m. (handling the Soma stones), a priest, later grâvastut; -stút, m. a kind of priest; -stotra, n. invo cation of the pressing-stones at noon: î-ya, a. relating to the invocation of the pressing stones.
candana m. n. sandal tree, wood, powder, or ointment: -ka, m. N.; -dâsa, m. N.; -pa&ndot;ka, m. sandal ointment; -pâta, m. application of sandal ointment; -pura, n. N. of a town; -maya, a. made of sandal wood; consisting of sandal ointment; -rasa, m., -vâ ri, n. fluid essence of sandal wood; -½adri, m. sandal mountain, the Malaya range.
cittākarṣaṇa n. winning of the heart; -½âkarshin, a. charming the heart; -½anuvartin, a. gratifying (g., --°ree;); -½anu vritti, f. gratification.
cinha n. [√ khan] mark, sign, token, indication, attribute: --°ree;, a. marked or cha racterised by: -ka, n. jot, tittle.
jayāvaghoṣa m. shout of vic tory, cheer; -½âsis, f. invocation of victory, cheer.
jalauka m. leech; â, f.: -½okas, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal; N. of a king; f. leech; -½oka½avakaranîya, fp. treat ing of the application of leeches.
jñāpaka a. (ikâ) causing to know, teaching, indicating; m. master of petitions (an official); n. precept; implicit rule (of grammar); -ana, n. notifying, indicating; -anîya, fp. to be made known ornotified as (nm.); -ayitri, m. instructor.
ṭāṅka n. kind of intoxicating liquor.
tapaścaraṇa n. self-castigation, mortification; austerity; -karyâ, f. id.
tapas n. heat; fire (of which there are five, the four directed towards the cardinal points and the sun); torment; penance, self castigation, mortification, religious austerity, devotion; N. of a month(Jan.--Feb.); N. of one of the seven worlds (situated above Ganas).
tāpa m. heating (gold as a test); heat; pain, torment (mental and bodily); -aka, a. burning; purifying; tormenting, distressing; -ana, a. (î) burning, tormenting (--°ree;); m. sun; n. burning; mortification;N. of a hell; -anîya, a. golden: -½upanishad, f. T. of various Upanishads.
tānūnaptra n. ritual oath with in vocation of Tanûnapât when the Âgya is touched by the sacrificer and the priests.
tāla m. palmyra or fan palm (from the sap of which sugar and an intoxicating liquor are prepared); flapping (esp. of elephants' ears); clapping of hands; (musical) measure; dance; cymbal(?); n.palmyra nut; a. made from the palmyra: -ka, m. kind of poisonous insect.
tryakṣa a. (â, î) three-eyed; m. Siva: -ka, -n, m. id.; -½akshara, a. consisting of three sounds or syllables; -½a&ndot;ga, n. army of three members (chariots, cavalry, infantry); -½adhishthâna, a.having three locations (mind, voice, body).
da a. (--°ree;) giving, bestowing, imparting; producing, yielding; indicating.
dākṣāyaṇa a. (î) descended from or relating to Daksha; î, f. daughter of Daksha; m. n. sacrifice of the winter solstice; -yagña, m. a modification of the Darsapaur- namâsa sacrifice lasting fifteen years instead of thirty.
diṅnāga m. elephant of the quar ters; -nâtha, m. regent of a quarter; -mand ala, n. circle of the quarters, horizon; -mâ ta&ndot;ga, m. elephant of the quarters; -mâtra, n. mere indication, mere example; -mukha, n. point of the compass; place, location; -moha, m. bewilderment as to the cardinal points.
upastuti f. invocation.
devaśakti m. N. of a king; -satru, m. foe of the gods, Asura, Râkshasa; -sar man, m. N.; (á)-sishta, pp. taught by the gods; -sunî, f. bitch of the gods, Saramâ; -sesha, n. remnant of a sacrifice to the gods; -samnidhi, m. presence of the gods; -sarasa, n. N. of a locality; -srishta, pp. discharged or created by the gods; -sena, m. N.: &asharp;, f. divine host; N. of Skanda's wife; -smitâ, f. N. of a merchant's daughter; -sva, n. pro perty of the gods; -svâmin, m. N.; (á)-hiti, f. divine ordinance; (á)-hûti, f. invocation of the gods.
deśin a. indicating (--°ree;): -î, f. forefinger.
dravya n. [fp. movable: √ dru] object, thing; substance, matter; property; gold; implement; fit object: -tva, n. sub stantiality; -krisa, a. of slender means, poor; -gâta, n. kind of substance; -prakriti, f. pl. minister, realm, fortresses, treasure and army; -maya, a. substantial, material: -mâtra, n., â, f. gold; -yagña, a. offering material sacri fices; -vat, a. inherent in matter; wealthy; -vriddhi, f. increase of wealth; -suddhi, f. purification of defiled objects.
dvikarmaka a. having two ob jects, governing two accusatives; -gava, a. yoked with two oxen; -gu, m. numeral com pound (the first member being a numeral); (í) guna (or á), a. double, twofold; twice as great or much as (ab., --°ree;); folded double: -tara, cpv. id., -tâ, f., -tva, n. duplication.
dvitva n. two; duality; dual; reduplication; -devatyã, a. sacred to two deities; *-drona, n. sg. two dronas (measure): in. two dronas at a time.
dvirbhāva m. doubling, reduplication; duplicity; -vakana, n. reduplication.
dvirukta pp. said twice, repeated; reduplicated; n. reduplication; -ukti, f. repetition, doubling.
dhūnvat pr. pt. of √ dhû; m. kind of personification.
dhvani m. sound; cry; noise; thunder; figurative style; allusion, indication; -ita, pp. n. sound; noise; thunder.
dhvanana n. sounding; allusion, indication.
nasya a. being in the nose, nasal; n. substance provocative of sneezing, sternuta tory: -karman, n. employment of a sternu tatory.
niyogin m. authorised person, deputy, agent, functionary; -i½artha-graha½u pâya, m. resource of confiscating the property of public functionaries.
nirmakṣika n. freedom from flies: -m kri, clear the premises (Pr.); -mañkana, n. purification; -mandûka, a. destitute of frogs; -matsara, a. free from envy or jealousy; -matsya, a. fishless: -tâ, f.absence of fish: -m nî, clear of fish; -math ana, n. friction, esp. of tinder-wood; churn ing; -mada, a. not in rut; not proud, humble; -manas-ka, a. destitute of intellect: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -manyu, a. free from wrath.
nivid f. direction, precept; invo cation of the gods inserted in certain parts of the liturgy: -dhâna, a. containing the Nivids; n. insertion of the Nivids.
nivedana a. announcing, making known; n. communication, announcement; of fering; -vedin, a. announcing, making known; offering (--°ree;); -vedya, fp. to be reported; n. offering of food to an idol; -vesá, m. enter ing into; settling; encampment, camp; habi tation, residence; settling down, marriage, matrimony; foundation (of a city); building, edifice; impression, mark; -vésana, a. (î) entering into (--°ree;); laying to rest; sheltering; n. entrance; setting down; introduction, ap plication; causing to encamp; settling down, marrying; resting-place, bed, lair, nest; home, abode, dwelling; -vesanîya, fp. to be put down; -vesayitavya, fp. to be placed; -vesa vat, a. lying on (--°ree;); -vesin, a. lying near, being in, resting or based on (--°ree;).
niṣpāṇḍava a. delivered from the Pândavas; -pâda-ka, a. accomplishing; -pâdana, n. accomplishment; -pâdya, fp. to be accomplished, -brought about: -½abda sahasra, full millennium; -pâpa,a. sinless; -pâlaka, a. having no guardian; -pîdana, n. pressure; -putra, a. sonless, childless; -pu rusha, a. having no males; -pulâka, a. free from shrivelled grain: î-kri, free from shrivelled grain; -pesha, m. impact; clash ing sound; -paurusha½âmarsha, a. desti tute of manliness and anger; -prakâra-ka, a. free from specifications; -prakâsa, a. dark; -pragña, a. witless, stupid; -pratâpa, a. destitute of dignity; -pratikriya, a. not to be saved, past help: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -prati graha, a. accepting no gifts: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -pratigha, a. unobstructed; -pratipaksha, a. having no adversary: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -pratibandha, a. free from ob stacles; unobjectionable; -pratîkâra, a. that cannot be helped; irremediable; unhindered; -pratyâsa, a. having given up all hope of (lc. or upari): î-bhu, lose all hope of (prati); -pratyûha, a. free from obstacles: -m, ad. without hindrance; -pradesa, a. having no fixed place; -prapañka, a. unevolved, exempt from multiformity: -sad-âtman, a. having real existence without being evolved; -pra bha, a. deprived of radiance or splendour: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -prabhâva, a. powerless: -tva, n. -ness; -pramâna-ka, a. supported by no authority; -prayogana, a. disinterested (spectator); useless: -m, ad. uselessly; needless, uncalled for; -pravâni, a. fresh from the loom; quite new.
parābhava m. departure; disappearance; defeat, overthrow; humiliation, frustration, mortification (by, in., ab.); -bhâ va, m. defeat; (párâ)-bhûti, f. defeat, humiliation, mortification (by, ab., --°ree;).
parikampin a. trembling vio lently; -kara, m. sg. & pl. retinue, dependents; assistance, expedient; addition; abundance, multitude; girdle for looping up a garment: -m bandh or kri, gird oneself for, prepare to (lc. or inf.); -karita, pp. accompanied by (in.); -karman, n. adoration; decoration of the person, anointing the body; purification, means of purifying; preparation for (--°ree;); -karma-ya, den. P. adorn; -karmin, m. at tendant, servant; -kalayitri, a. enclosing; -kalpana, n. cheating; -kîrtana, n. proclaim ing aloud, promulgation; naming; -kopa, m. violent anger; -krama, m. succession, order; -kraya, m. hire; redemption, peace pur chased with money; -kriyâ, f. attention to (--°ree;); -kleda, m. wetness; -klesa, m. hard ship; trouble, suffering; -kshaya, m. dis appearance, cessation, failure; decline; ruin; -kshâna, n. pl. coal-dust; -kshâma,a. ema ciated; -kshit, a. dwelling around (Agni), extending around (du., heaven and earth); m. N. of various princes; -kshiti, f. wound ing; -kshîna, pp. emaciated, wasted away; -kshepa, m. moving to and fro; surrounding, encompassing; that which encircles; compass.
paritāpa m. heat, warmth; dis tress, anguish, sorrow, affliction; remorse; giving pain; -tâpin, a. burning hot; causing affliction or sorrow, distressing; -tushti, f. satisfaction; -tripti, f. perfect satisfaction; -tosha, m. satisfaction, gratification, glee; pleasure or delight in (g. or lc.); -toshayi tri, a. satisfying, gratifying; -tosha-vat, a. satisfied, gratified; -toshin, a. satisfied with, gratified by (--°ree;); -tyakta, pp.deserted, abandoned; -tyaktri, m. forsaker; -tyâga, m. abandonment, desertion; repudiation; re linquishment, renunciation, loss, privation, sacrifice: -sena, m. N. of a prince; -tyâgin, a. abandoning; resigning, renouncing (--°ree;); liberal; m. renouncer; -tyâgana, n. causing to abandon; depriving of (--°ree;); -tyâgya, fp. to be abandoned, -deserted, -renounced, avoided; -trâna, n. preservation, protection, help, deliverance, rescue from (ab.); shelter, refuge; preventive of (g.); -trâtavya, fp. to be protected from (ab.); -trâtri, m. pro tector, deliverer (with ac. or g.); -trâsa, m. fright, fear.
paribhaya m. apprehension, fear; -bhava, m. disrespect, contumely, insult, in jury, humiliation; disregard, contempt, for (g., lc., --°ree;), on the part of (in., ab., --°ree;): -pa da, -½âspada, n. object of contempt; -bhav ana, n. humiliation: î-ya, fp. who can be insulted or humiliated; to be humbled; -bhavin, a. insulting, despising, mocking (g.); -bhâva, m. disregard, contumely; -bhâvanâ, f. thought, reflexion; -bhâvin, a. slighting; mocking, baffling (--°ree;); -bhâvuka, a. sur passing (ac.); -bhâshana, n. conversation, chatter; reproof, reprimand: î-ya, fp. to be reproved; -bhâshâ, f. speech; censure, re proach, contumely; general rule or maxim; rule defining the application of (grammatical) sûtras; -bhâshin, a. speaking (--°ree;); -bh&usharp;, a. (with ac.) surrounding, encompassing; pervad ing; superior, guiding; (pári)-bhûti, f. su perior might (V.); disrespect, contumely, hu miliation (sts. pl.); -bhûshana, m. (sc. Samdhi) peace bought by the cession of all the revenues of a country; -bheda, m. injury; -bhoktri, m. enjoyer; one who lives on another, spunge; -bhoga, m. enjoyment; sexual intercourse; means of enjoyment or subsistence; -bhramsa, m. escape: -na, n. loss, of (ab.); -bhrama, m. digressions, irrelevant talk: -na, n. turn ing, revolution; going to and fro; circumfer ence; -bhrashta-sukha, a. whose joy has departed, joyless.
paripaṇa n. playing for (--°ree;); -pat ana, n. flying about, hovering; -pantha-ka, m. (obstructor of one's path), adversary, enemy; -pantha-ya, den. P. oppose, resist (ac.); -panthín, a. besetting one'spath; m. waylayer, opponent, enemy; -panthî-bhû, become the adversary of, oppose (g.); -pava na, n. cleansing (of grain), winnowing; flail; -pasavya, a. relating to the sacrificial animal; -pâka, m. becoming fully cooked; digestion; ripening; maturity; perfection; consequence, effect; fulness, fulfilment (of time): -tas, ab. in consequence of; -pâkana, a. cooking fully; maturing; -pâkayitri, a. id.; -pâtala, a. very pale-red; -pât&ibrevcirc;, f. succession; -pâtha, m. complete enumeration: in. (know) com pletely; -p&asharp;na, n. hiding-place; -pândiman, m. extreme whiteness; -pându, a. very white or pale: -ra, a. very white; -pârsva, a.being at the side, close at hand: -vartin, a. remain ing at one's side, standing beside (g.); -pâ laka, a. protecting; maintaining; -pâlana, n. protection; maintenance; nurture: â, f. protection, nurture, î-ya, fp. to be guarded; -maintained; -pâlya, fp. to be protected; -maintained or observed; -pi&ndot;gî-kri, colour deep red-brown; -piñga, a. full of (in.); -piñg ara, a. brownish-red, orange-coloured; -pi pâlayishâ, f. desire to maintain; -pîdana, n. squeezing out; injuring, prejudicing (--°ree;); -pushta-tâ, f. being nourished by, feeding on (--°ree;); -pûti, f. complete purification; -pûra ka, a. fulfilling; bestowing abundance; -pûr ana, n. filling; completion; -pûrin, a. be stowing abundantly; -pûrna, pp. (√ 1. pri) filled with (--°ree;); -pûrnendu, m. full moon; -pûrti, f. becoming full of (--°ree;); completion; -pelava, a. very delicate, tiny; -pothaka, a.furthering, confirming; -poshanîya, fp. to be cherished; -prasna, m. enquiry, after (--°ree;); -prâpti, fp. obtainment; -prepsu, des. a. wishing to reach or obtain, seeking after, de siring (ac.); -plavá, a. running to and fro;m. fluctuation; -pluta, pp. (√ plu) over whelmed; bathed (in tears: --°ree;).
parivatsara m. complete year; &isharp;-na, a. relating to a full year; -vargana, n. avoidance of, abstention from (g. or --°ree;): î-ya, fp. to be avoided; -varta, m. revolution; end of a period, esp. of a cycle (yuga); end; exchange, barter; change; moving to and fro, haste, bustle; abode, place; causing to come to an end: -ka, a. causing to flow back; -vártana, a. (î) causing to turn; n. turn ing; tossing or rolling about on (--°ree;); revo lution; periodic course; end of a period; exchange, barter; change; -vartanîya, fp. to be exchanged for (in.); -vartin, a. turn ing, revolving; winding; circling, under going perpetual cycles, ever renewing itself; turning into, being exchanged for (--°ree;); abid ing or being in, at, or near (lc., -tas, --°ree;); -vartula, a. quite round; -vardhaka, m. groom; -vardhana, n. augmentation, mul tiplication; -vardhita-ka, a.reared; -vas trâ, f. curtain; -vaha, m. one of the seven winds; one of the seven tongues of fire.
pariśaṅkanīya fp. to be dis trusted; n. imps. distrust should be shown; -sa&ndot;kin, a. (--°ree;) fearing; fearful on account of; -sishta, (pp.) n. supplement, appendix; -sîl ana, n.frequent contact, intercourse; study; -suddhi, f. complete purification (also fig.); exoneration; -m kri, prove one's innocence; -sushka, a. perfectly dry or dried up; -sû nya, a. quite empty; quite free from (--°ree;); -sesha,a. remaining, left; m. n. remainder; supplement: in. completely; ab. consequently; -sodhana, n. purification; payment; -sosha, m. dryness: -na, a. drying up (--°ree;); -soshin, a. drying up, withering.
pavitravat a. possessed of a means of purification, a strainer or blades of Kusa grass; purifying, cleansing.
pāta m. manner of flying, flight; throw ing oneself into (lc.); fall, into (lc.), from (ab.); cast, shot, stroke; collapse, death; falling=direction (of the eye or gaze); drop (of blood); application (of ointment, of a knife); case, possibility; entrance, appear ance; --°ree;, falling from, to, into, upon or at: -ka, a. causing to fall (--°ree;); (m.) n. crime or sin depriving of caste; -k-in, a. sinning; wicked; m. criminal.
pādanamra a. bowing down to the feet of any one; -nikrit, a. having a de ficiency of a syllable in each quarter-verse; -nyâsa, m. setting down of the feet, step; footprint; -pa, m. (drinking by the root), plant, esp. tree: -ka, --°ree;, a. id.; -patana, n. throwing oneself at the feet of any one, pros tration; -patita, pp. having thrown oneself at any one's feet; -paddhati, f. line of foot steps, footprints; -padma, m. lotus-foot; -parikâraka, m. humble servant; -pâda dhâvana, n. washing of one foot with the other; -pîtha, n. footstool: î-kri, turn into a footstool; -pûrana, a., n. filling a verse foot; -prakshâlana, n. washing of the feet; -prasârana, n. stretching out the feet; -pra hâra, m. kick; -bhata, m. foot-soldier; -bhâ ga, m. a fourth; -bhâg, a. possessing=equalling only a fourth part of any one (g.) in (lc.); -mudrâ, f. footprint; trace, sign, indication:-pa&ndot;kti, f. line of footprints, track; -mûla, n. root of the foot, tarsus; sometimes used as a respectful designation of a person; foot of a mountain: e ni-pat, fall at the feet of (g.); -yuddha, n. foot-fight; -ragas, n.dust of the feet; -lagna, pp. sticking in the foot (thorn); lying at any one's feet; attached to the foot; -lepa, m. foot-ointment of a peculiarly magical power; -vandana, n. adoration of the feet, reverential salutation;-sabda, m. sound of footsteps; -sas, ad. foot by foot; by a fourth; sauka, n. cleansing of the feet; -stambha, m. supporting beam, pillar.
pāna n. drinking (esp. of strong drink); draught; sipping (the lips); beverage, drink: -ka, m. n. beverage, drink; -pa, a. drinking intoxicating liquors; -pâtra, n. drinking ves sel, cup (esp. for spirituous liquor); -bhû or -bhûmi, f. drinking-place or room; -ma&ndot; gala, n. drinking-bout; -matta, pp. intoxi cated; -mada, m. intoxication.
pāvana a. (î) purifying, sanctifying; pure, holy; m. a kind of fire; n. purification, sanctification; means of purifying.
piśuna a. backbiting, detracting, slanderous, calumnious (person, speech); treacherous; malignant, mischievous, insi dious; wicked, base, vile; --°ree;, betraying, in dicative of; m. backbiter; tale-bearer, in former, betrayer; N. of a minister of Dush yanta: -tâ, f. backbiting, sycophancy; -vak ana, n. calumnious speech, detraction, slan der.
puraḥpāka a. whose fulfilment is imminent; -prahartri, m. champion; -phala, a. prognosticating fruits.
pūti f. purification, purity; 2. a. stinking, putrid; m. pus, matter: -ka, a. putrid, stinking; -gandhá, m. stench, foul smell; -nâsika, a. having a stinking nose; -bhâva, m. putrefaction; -mrittika,m. (hav ing stinking earth), N. of a hell; -vaktra, a. having a stinking (mouth=) breath: -tâ, f. condition of having stinking breath.
pṛthagartha a. having separate and distinct advantages; having a severally distinct meaning: -tâ, f. separate signification; -âlaya, a. pl. having separate dwellings; -upâdâna, n. separate mention.
pracaya m. [√ ki] picking, gathering; accumulation, collection, quantity, multitude; -kayana, n. collecting; -kaya-svara, m. accumulated tone (i. e. tone occurring in a series of syllables), tone of the unaccented syllables following a Svarita; -karana, n. setting to work: &isharp;, f. kind of supplementary wooden ladle (rit.); -karanîya, fp. being in actual use (Br., S.); -karitavya, fp. n. imps. one should set to work;-kala, a. moving, tremulous, shaking; -kalana, n trembling, swaying; fleeing; -kalâyita, (den. pp.), n. nodding while asleep (âsîna-, -in a sitting posture); -kalita, pp. set out, departed, etc.; -kâra, m. walking about, ranging; going in pursuit of (--°ree;); showing oneself, manifestation, appearance; application, employment; currency; conduct, behaviour; pasture-ground; exercising-ground; -kârana, n. scattering; -kârin, a. going about; attaching oneself to (lc., --°ree;); acting, behaving; -kita, pp. (√ ki), pronounced with the Prakaya tone; -kura, a. abundant, ample, much, many, frequent; --°ree;, abounding in, replete with: -gaha&ntod;a,a. having abundance of impervious passages, -tva, n. abundance of (--°ree;), -ratna-dhana½â gama, a. having a large income of gems and money; -kurī-bhû, grow in extent; -kritta- sikha, a. having loosened braids orflowing hair; (á)-ketas, a. heedful, intelligent, wise (V.); m. (C.), ep. of Varuna; N.; -kodana, n. instigation, incitement; command; -kodin, a. driving before one (--°ree;).
prati ad. with verbs and °ree;-- with nouns, against, counter; back, in return; with nouns also=every; prp. 1. with (usually preceding) ac. against, towards, to, upon, in the direction of; before, in the presence or the eyes of; about, near, on, in, at; at the time of, about; through, for (of time); from (protect); compared with; in favour of, for; concerning, in regard to, on account of, through; for, as (with predicative ac., e. g. take for, regard as); according to, by; in or at every; 2. with ab. at the time of, about (only RV.); 3. with g. concerning, with regard to; °ree;-in ad. cpds. towards; at the time of, about; according to; in or at every;âtmânam prati, to oneself (speak); kiram --, for a long time; bhrisam --, repeatedly; mâm --, in my opinion, to my mind; varsham --, every year; na bubhukshitam prati bhâti kim kit, to a hungry man nothing is of any ac count; mâm prati aranyavat pratibhâti, to me seems like a (lonely) forest.
praṇidhāna n. application, em ployment; exertion, endeavour; respectful behaviour, towards (lc.); submission to the will of (--°ree;); profound meditation; vehement desire (B.); vow (B.);-nidhâyin, a. em ploying (emissaries); -nidhi, m. spying; sending out (of emissaries); request; spy, emissary; -nidhî-bhû, become a spy in the service of (--°ree;); -nidheya, fp. to be applied; to be sent out as a spy;-nipatana, n. falling down before any one, prostration; -nipâta, m. prostration, reverent salutation; humble submission to (g.); -nipâtin, a. prostrating oneself, submitting; -n&isharp;, m. leader; (á)-nîta, pp. √ nî: â,f. pl. water fetched (on the morning of the rite), holy water: -karu, m. pot for the holy water, -pranáyana, n. vessel for fetching the holy water; (á)-nîti, f. guidance; leading away.
prativighāta m. warding off; -vitapam, ad. for every branch; -vidyam, ad. at every doctrine; -vidhâtavya, fp. to be employed; -provided against; n. impl. one should take care; -vidhâna, n.counter action, prevention, precaution against (g. or --°ree;); care or provision for (--°ree;); -vidhi, m. remedy for (--°ree;); -vidhitsâ, f. desire or in tention to counteract; -vidheya, fp. to be done against; -rejected; n. impl. one should take precautions; one should take measures against (lc.); -viparîta, pp. exactly opposite; -vibhâga, m. distribution, apportionment; -virati, ad. on each cessation or disappear ance; -visesha, m.peculiarity, particular circumstance; -viseshana, n. detailed speci fication; -visva, a. pl. all and sundry: lc. in all cases; -visha, a. containing an antidote; -vishaya, m. pl. all objects of sense: °ree;-or -m, ad. with regard to each individual object of sense; -vîta, pp. √ vyâ; -vîra, m. op ponent; equal antagonist; -vrittântam, ad. according to the saying, as they say; -vri sha, m. hostile bull; -vedam, ad. in the case of or for every Veda; -vedântam, ad. in every Upanishad; -velam, ad. at every opportunity; -vesa, a. neighbouring; aux iliary, subordinate, minor; m. neighbour; neighbouring house; -vesin, a. neighbouring; m. neighbour; -vesma, ad. in every house; -vesman, n. neighbouring house; -vesya, m. neighbour; -vaira, n. counter-hostility, re venge; -vodhavya, fp. to be carried home.
pratyakṣa a. being before the eyes, evident, visible, perceptible; clear, plain, manifest; undoubted, actual, real; immediate, direct; having a clear knowledge of (g.); n. superintendence of, care for (g.); evidence, immediate perception; cognizance: -m, ad. before one's eyes or face; in the presence of (g. or --°ree;); visibly, evidently, from one's own immediate knowledge; clearly, distinctly; actually, really; immediately, directly, per sonally; ab. actually, really; immediately; in. before one's eyes, to one's face; at sight, evidently; lc. id.; °ree;--, before one's face, visibly; clearly; actually; directly, person ally: -karana, n.personal observation; -kri ta, pp. directly or personally addressed (in the second person); containing a direct invo cation; -kârin, a. moving in bodily shape before (g.); -gñâna, n. immediate know ledge; -tamât, -tam&asharp;m, ad. most evidently, immediately, or actually, etc.; -tas, ad. before one's very eyes: with √ sru, hear with one's own ears; -tâ, f. visibility: in. visibly; -tva, n. manifestness; explicitness; direct ness of perception; -darsana, n. seeing with one's own eyes, power of seeing (a god) bodily; -darsin, a. seeing or having seen anything (g.) with one's own eyes; -dris, a. seeing any thing clearly as if with one's own eyes; -drisya,fp. to be seen with one's own eyes, evident; -drishta, pp. seen with one's own eyes; -pramâ, f. correct conception gained by the evidence of the senses; -bhaksha, m. actual eating; -bhûta, pp. manifested, be come visible, appearing in bodily shape.
pratyāpatti f. turning back from evil, conversion; restoration, restitution; ex piation, sanctification; -plavana, n. leaping back; -mnâna, n. opposite or altered de signation; -mnâya, m. id.; conclusion (in a syllogism).
prathama spv. foremost], a. first; earliest; original; prior, pre vious, former; chief, most excellent, eminent, leading: it may often be translated by an ad.: first, for the first time; previously; just; forthwith: °ree;-or -m, ad. first, first of all, for the first time; only just; forthwith; for merly, previously: with g. before, previously to; ab. first; m. first consonant of a class, unaspirated tenuis; first (=our third) per son; personal endings of the third person; â, f. first or nominative case (including the vocative), termination of the nominative (in cluding the vocative): du. the two first cases, the terminations of the two first cases (=nm. and ac.); n. sg. coll. the first.
pradātavya fp. to be given or be stowed; -given in marriage; -delivered or restored; -granted; -allowed; -placed in (lc.); -dâtrí, m. giver, bestower (often --°ree; with the object, exceptionally with the reci pient); giver of a girl in marriage; imparter of, instructor in (g. or --°ree;); granter (of a wish); -d&asharp;na, n. giving, bestowal; presentation (of an offering in the fire); delivery; donation, gift; giving away a girl (g.) in marriage to (d.); utterance (of a curse); granting, vouch safing (a boon); imparting, teaching, an nouncing; declaring; application; bringing about or to pass: -vat, a. bountiful; -dâp ya, cs. fp. to be forced to give or pay (ac.); -dâya, n. gift: -ka, a. giving, bestowing, granting, imparting; -dây-in, a. id.; causing, producing: (-i)-tva, n. position of supplier of (--°ree;); -dâha, m. burning, heating with fire; destruction of (--°ree;).
pradakṣiṇit ad. in such a manner that one's right side is turned towards an object; -dakshinî-kri, turn one's right side towards (ac.), walk round (ac.) from left to right; -dakshinena, in. ad. from left to right; towards the south; -dagdhavya, fp. to be burnt; -datta, pp. (√ dâ) given up, re stored: -nayana½utsava, a. affording a feast to the eyes; -dará, m. dispersion (of an army); cleft, fissure (in the ground); -darsa, m. ap pearance (--°ree;); direction, injunction: -ka, a. showing, indicating; propounding, teaching; m. teacher; -darsana, n. appearance (often --°ree;); showing, exhibition, designation; teach ing; example: â, f. indication; -darsin, a. (--°ree;) beholding, seeing; showing, indicating; -darsya, cs. gd. having exhibited or shown; -dahana, n. burning (of earthenware).
praditsu des. a. intending to give (ac.); -div, 1. f. (nm. -dyaús) third and uppermost heaven (in which the fathers dwell); also the fifth of seven heavens; -dív, 2. a. of former days, long existing, ancient: ab. from of old, ever; -dís, f. indication, guidance, order, dominion (V.); direction, point of the compass; intermediate point, half-quarter (e.g. north-east): ac. pl. in all directions.
prapakva a. inflamed (med.); -pak sha, m. tip of a wing; -pañka, m. expansion, prolixity, amplification, of (g. or --°ree;); phe nomenon; manifestation or form of (g.); phenomenal world (ph.); mutual flattery (rh.); ludicrous dialogue (dr.): in. or -tas, ad. in detail, -pañka-ka, a. (ikâ) multiply ing (--°ree;); amplifying, explaining in detail; -pañkana, n. detailed or prolix account; -pañka-buddhi, a. crafty, wily; -pañka-ya,den. describe or explain in detail; represent in a false light; -pañka-vakana, n. prolix discourse; -paná, m. trade, barter, purchase; -patana, n. flying away; falling down, from (ab. or --°ree;), into (lc. or --°ree;); -patti, f.pious resignation; (á)-patha, m. onward way, journey; road; -pathín, a. wandering; -pad, f. 1. road; 2. (prá-) fore part of the foot; (prá) pada, n. fore part or tip of the foot; -pada na, n. entry, into (--°ree;); -padam, ad. reciting in such a manner as to cut up verses into sec tions of an equal number of syllables and to interpose between them formulae contain ing the word prapadye (Br.); -panna, pp. (√ pad) reached, arrived; attained, obtained: -pâla, m. protector of suppliants (Krishna); -palâyana, n. flight; -palâyin, a. fleeing, fugitive; -p&asharp;, f. water-tank, reservoir, well; water-hut for travellers; affluent (of a tank etc.); -pâka, m.ripening (of an ulcer etc.); digestion; -pâtha: -ka, m. lesson (subsection in books); -pâni, m. fore-arm: -ka, m. id.; -pându, a. very white: -ra, a. id.; -pâta, m. kind of flight; leaping forward; hasten ing away; fall, from (ab. or --°ree;), into (lc. or --°ree;); falling out (of the hair); effusion (of semen); fall (of a glance on anything); steep declivity, precipice; -pâtana, n. felling, cast ing down; directing or causing (the eye) to alight (--°ree;);-pâna, n. drinking; -pâ-pâlikâ, -pâ-pâlî, f. female watcher of a water-tank, well, or water-hut; -pâ-mandapa, m. water hut (for travellers); -pâlaka, m. protector, guardian; -pâlana, n. guarding, protecting.
pramātha m. tugging; violent ab duction (of a woman); subjugation; destruc tion; N. of a Dânava; -mâthin, a. striking off; stirring, agitating, disturbing, afflicting; m. N.; -m&asharp;da, m.intoxication; heedlessness, inattention, negligence, with regard to (--°ree;): -pâtha, m. wrong reading; -mâdin, a. heedless, careless, negligent, off one's guard; -mâpa-ka, a. proving; -mâpana, 1. (cs. √ mâ) n. form, figure; 2. (cs. √ mî) a. (î) murder ing; m. murderer; n. killing; -mâpayitri, a. leading to destruction: -tva, n. abst. n.; -mâyu, -m&asharp;yuka, a. liable to perish; -mârg aka, a. wiping off, removing; -mârgana, n.wiping away; removal.
praśaṃsaka a. praising (--°ree;); -samsana, n. laudation; -samsanîya, fp. to be praised; -sams&asharp;, f. praise, eulogy, ap plause (sts. pl.); fame; -nâman, n. term of praise, -½âlâpa, m.applause, -vakana, n. laudatory remark, -½âvali, f panegyric poem; -samsin, a. praising, extolling (--°ree;); -sam sâ½upamâ, f. comparison implying praise (rh.); -samstavya, fp. praiseworthy; -sáms ya, fp. id.; better than (ab.); -sama, m. tranquillization, pacification, appeasement; composure, calm; cessation, extinction (of fire), abatement, removal (of obstacles, pain, etc.); mental calm, quietude; -samaka, a. tranquillizing, rendering innocuous (--°ree;); -sam am-kara, a. causing the cessation of (g.), disturbing; -samana, a. tranquillizing, calming, allaying, extinguishing, curing; n. tranquillization, pacification; alleviation, mitigation; healing; rendering innocuous; securing (property); -sas, f. axe, knife; -sasta, pp. (√ sams) praised, commended, etc.: -kalasa, m. N., -tva, n. excellence; -sastav ya, fp. praiseworthy; (á)-sasti, f. praise, laudation; glory; direction, guidance; bene diction expressing a desire for peace in the realm (dr.); (metrical) eulogistic inscription: -krít, a. bestowing praise, approving, -patta, m. written edict; -sásya, fp. praiseworthy, com mendable, excellent; blessed: -tâ, f. excellence.
prasāda m. clearness (of water, the voice); brightness; perspicuity (of speech or style); radiance (of the countenance); calm ness (of mind), serenity; cheerfulness, good temper; kindness, graciousness, favour; help, aid; gracious gift; food offered to an idol; remnants of a preceptor's food (which may be eaten without scruple): -m kri, be gra cious, show favour; grant the favour of (inf. or --°ree;); -sâda-ka, a. making clear, clarifying; cheering, gladdening; -sâdana, a. (î) making clear, clarifying; n. making clear, clarification; soothing, calming, tranquillizing; rendering cheerful; gratifying; propitiation; -sâdanîya, fp. to be propitiated; -sâda-parâ&ndot;mukha, a. (î) indifferent to any one's favour; with drawing one's favour from (g.); -sâda-bhû mi, f. object of favour, favourite; -sâdayi tavya, fp. to be rendered propitious towards (upari); -sâda-vitta: -ka, a. abounding in favour, standing high in the favour of (g. or --°ree;); m. favourite; -sâda½antara, n. another mark of favour; -sâdita, cs. pp. (√ sad) pleased, propitiated, well-satisfied; -sâdin, a. bright (eye, face); clear (neetar); perspi cuous; cheering, gladdening; -sâdî-kri, grant (ac.) as a favour to (g.), graciously present; -sâdya, 1. cs. gd. having ap peased, pleased, or propitiated; 2. fp. to be propitiated; -sâdhaka, a. (ikâ) adorn ing; m. dresser, valet; f. (ikâ) lady's maid; -s&asharp;dhana, a. accomplishing; n. ac complishment; putting in order, arranging; embellishment, personal adornment, toilet; means of decoration, toilet requisites; orna ment of (--°ree;): î, f. comb; -sâdhita, pp. ac complished; decorated; -sâra, m. spreading or stretching out, extension; rising, whirling up (of dust); opening; -sârana, n. stretch ing out, extending; development; extension, diffusion, augmentation; vocalization of a semivowel (gr.); -sâranin, a. containing a semivowel liable to vocalization (gr.); -sâr ita, cs. pp. (√ sri) extended, expanded, dif fused; stretched forth, exposed for sale; -sârin, a. breaking forth, issuing from (--°ree;); stretching oneself out; extending to (--°ree;); -sârya, 1. cs. gd. having extended or put forth; 2. fp. to be vocalized (semivowel).
prasakala a. very full (bosom); -sakta, pp. √ sañg: °ree;-or -m, ad. incessantly; -saktavya, fp. to be attached to (lc.); -sak ti, f. attachment, devotion, or addiction to, indulgence in, occupation with (lc.), occur rence of a case; bearing, applicability; practicableness: -m pra-yâ, be practicable; -sa&ndot;ktavya, fp. to be allowed to occur; -sa&ndot;khyâ, f. sum total; consideration; -sam khyâna, n. enumeration; reflexion, medita tion; fame, reputation; -sa&ndot;ga, m. attach ment, inclination; fondness for, addiction to; indulgence in (lc. or --°ree;); gratification, of (g.); association or intercourse with (--°ree;); illicit pursuit; applicability; contingency; opening, opportunity, occasion; connexion (pl. all that is connected with or results from anything): in. assiduously, with one's whole soul; in the course of (--°ree;); occasionally, in cidentally (also ab., °ree;--, or -tas); amunâ or tat-prasa&ndot;gena, on that occasion; etat prasa&ndot;ge, on this occasion; prasa&ndot;ge ku tra½api, on a certain occasion: -vat, a. occa sional, incidental, -vinivritti, f. non-recur rence of a contingency, prevention of the re currence; -sa&ndot;gin, a. attached or devoted to (--°ree;); connected with anything; contin gent, occurring; secondary, unessential; -sag ya, fp. applicable: -tâ, f. -ness,-pratishe dha, m. negative form of an applicable (posi tive) statement: -tva, n. abst. n.; -satti, f. graciousness; favour, complacency; -sam dhâna, n. combination, union; -sanna, pp. (√ sad) clear; bright; pleased, soothed, de lighted; complacent; gracious, propitious, kindly disposed; plain (meaning); distinct (impression); correct (supposition): -tâ, f. clearness, purity; brightness; perspicuity; complacence, good humour, -tva, n.clearness, brightness, -mukha, a. of a placid counte nance, looking pleased, -salila, a. having clear water; -sabha, °ree;-or -m, ad. forcibly; violently; exceedingly, very much; importu nately: -damana, n. forcible subjugation; -sara, m. advance; diffusion, expansion, ex tension; range; issue (of smoke); free scope, ample space; motion (of the eye); appear ance, manifestation; prevalence, influence; stream, flood; multitude, quantity: -na, n. running away, escaping; coming into force; complaisance, amiability; -sárga (or á), m. gushing forth; dismissal; -sárpana, n. going forward, advancing; betaking oneself to (lc.); -sarpin, a. issuing from (--°ree;); slinking away.
prārthana n. solicitation, entreaty, prayer, request, desire, for (lc. or --°ree;); peti tion, suit; supplication of any one (--°ree;): â, f. (more common), id.: -bha&ndot;ga, m. refusal of a request, -½abhâva, m. absence of a suit, -siddhi, f. fulfilment of a desire or request.
prīti f. satisfaction, gratification, joy, delight, pleasure (in or at, lc. or --°ree;); kindly feeling, favour; friendship, with (sa mam or --°ree;); affection, love, or fondness for (g., lc., --°ree;); Joy(personified, esp. as the daughter of Daksha and as one of the wives of Kâma): in. joyfully; in a friendly way; affectionately: -kara, a. giving satisfaction to, pleasing (--°ree;); -karman, n. act of love, friendlyaction; -kûta, N. of a village; -datta, pp. given through affection or love; -dâna, n. gift of love; -dâya, m. id.; -dhana, n. money given through friendship; -pûrva kam, ad. kindly, affectionately; -pramukha, a. kindly (speech); -mat, a. glad; satisfied; feeling love or friendship for (g. or lc.); kind (word); -maya, a. produced by joy; -yug, a. beloved, dear; -rasâyana, n. elixir of joy; -vakas, n. kind or friendly words; -vardhana, m. (increaser of joy), N. of the fourth month; -visrambha-bhâgana, n. re pository of affection and confidence; -sam gati, f. friendly alliance with (in.).
preta pp. gone forward, i. e. departed, dead; m. dead man, corpse; ghost, spirit: -karman, n. funeral ceremony; -kârya, -kritya, n. id.; -gata, pp. gone to the de parted, dead; -gopa, m. guardian of the dead (in Yama's realm); -kârin, a. moving among the dead (Siva); -tva, n. condition of a dead man, death; condition of a ghost; -dhûma, m. smoke from a burning corpse; -nâtha, m. Lord of the dead, ep. of Yama; -paksha: -ka, m. fortnight of the Manes, dark fortnight in the month Bhâdra; -patâ kâ, f. funeral flag; -pati, m. Lord of the dead, ep. of Yama: -pataha, m. drum of death (fig.); -pinda-bhug, a. partaking of the funeral feast; -pitri, a. whose father is dead; -purî, f. city of the dead, Yama's abode; -prasâdhana, n. adornment of the dead; -bhâva, m. condition of one dead, death; -medha, m. funeral sacrifice; -râga, m. King of the dead,ep. of Yama; -loka, m. world of the dead; -vasa, m. power of the dead; -silâ, f. stone of the dead (a stone near Gayâ on which funeral cakes are offered); -suddhi, f., -sauka, n. purification for the dead or after a death; -samklipta, pp. pre pared in honour of a dead person (food); -sparsin, m. corpse-bearer; -hâra, m. id.
plāva m. [√ plu] flowing over; leaping; -ana, n. ablution, bathing; filling to overflowing (for the purification of fluids); protracted pronunciation of a vowel; -ayi tri, m. ferryman; -ita, cs. pp.√ plu; n. in undation, deluge; -in, a. spreading, divulg ing (--°ree;); flowing from (--°ree;); -ya, fp. to be immersed in (in.).
baddha pp. (√ bandh) bound, etc.: -ka, m. prisoner (V.); -kadambaka, a. forming groups; -kalâpin, a. having his quiver tied on; -graha, a. insisting on something; -kitta, a. having one's thoughts fixed on (lc.); -trishna, a. longing for (--°ree;); -drishti, a. having one's gaze fixed on (lc.); -dvesha, a. entertaining hatred for any one; -niskaya, a. firmly resolved; -netra, a. having the eyes fixed on anything, gazing steadfastly; -pratigña, a. having made a promise; -pratisrut, a. echoing; -bhâva, m. having the affections fixed on, enamoured of (lc.); -bhîma½andhakâra, a. wrapped in terrible gloom; -mandala, a. having circles formed, ranged in circles; -mushti, a. having the fist elenched; close-fisted; -mûla, a. having taken root, firmly rooted; having gained a firm footing: -tâ, f. firm footing; -mauna, a. observing silence; -rabhasa, a.impetuous, passionate; -râga, a. having one's desire fixed on, enamoured of (lc.); -râgga, a. hav ing gained the sovereignty, having succeeded to the throne; -laksha, a. having the gaze fixed on, gazing steadfastly at (--°ree;); -vasati, a. having one's abode fixed in, dwelling in (lc.); -vâk, a. obstructing speech; -vepathu, a. trembling; -vaira, a. having contracted hostility with (in. or --°ree;); -sikha, a. having one's hair tied in a top-knot;-srotra-manas- kakshus, a. having ears, mind, and eyes fixed on (lc.); -sneha, a. entertaining affection for (lc.); -spriha, a. feeling a longing for (--°ree;); -½añgali, a. holding one's hands joined together (in supplication or as a mark of respect); -½âdara, a. attaching great value to (--°ree;); -½ânanda, a. having joy attaching to it, joyful (day); -½anurâga, a. conceiving an attachment, enamoured; -½anusaya, a. con ceiving an unconquerable hatred; -½andha kâra, a. wrapped in darkness; -½avasthiti, a. constant; -½âsa, a. entertaining hope of (--°ree;); -½âsa&ndot;ka, a. conceiving anxiety; -½ut sava, a. entering upon a festival; -½udyama,a. making efforts or prepared to (inf.).
buddhikṛt a. producing the im pression of (--°ree;); -krita, pp. wisely acted; -kintaka, a. thinking wisely; -gîvin, a. sub sisting by intelligence; -tattva, n. the tattva of intellect (produced from Prakriti and Purusha); -pûrva, a. premeditated, inten tional: -m, ad. intentionally; -pûrvaka, a. id.: -m, ad. purposely; -prabha, m. N. of a prince; -prâgalbhî, f. soundness of judg ment; -mat, a. intelligent; shrewd, wise:-tva, n. wisdom; -matikâ, f. N.; -maya, a. consisting of intellect; -moha, m. confusion of mind; -vara, m. N. of a minister of Vikra mâditya; -vargita, pp. destitute of under standing, foolish; -vriddhi, f. increase of understanding or wisdom: -kara, a. produc ing --; -sarîra, m. N.; -sastra, a. armed with wisdom; -sâlin, a. possessed of under standing, intelligent, wise; -suddha, pp. pure of purpose; -suddhi, f. purification of the intellect; -sreshtha, spv. best through intel lect: â-ni karmâni=the works of the intel lect are best; -sampanna, pp. endowed with understanding, intelligent, wise; -sammita, pp. commensurate with reason; -sâgara, m. N.; -stha, a. present to the mind, conscious; -hîna, pp. destitute of intellect, dull-witted: -tva, n. deficiency of intellect, stupidity.
bodha a. understanding, knowing; m. awaking (int.); waking state, conscious ness; expanding, blooming (of flowers); call ing forth (a perfume); beginning to take effect (of a spell); apprehension, knowledge, understanding; designation; N.; -aka, a. (ikâ) awakening, rousing; causing to know, teaching, explaining; designating, indicating (--°ree;); enlightening, instructing; m. teacher, instructor; N.; -ana, a. (î) causing to awake, i.e. to expand (of a flower); arousing, excit ing; instructing, informing, teaching; m. planet Mercury; n. awaking, waking; per ceiving, understanding, knowledge; arous ing; causing to take effect (spell); causing to perceive or understand; instructing, in forming, enlightening; designating, indicat ing; ninth day of the dark fortnight in Bhâ dra, on which Durgâ awakes: î, f. eleventh day of the light fortnight of the month Kârttika, on which Vishnu awakes from his sleep; -anîya, fp. to be admonished; -un derstood; -regarded as.
brahmaloka m. world or heaven of Brahman (sts. pl.); -laukika, a. inhabit ing the world of Brahman; -vaktri, m. ex pounder of the Vedas; -vat, ad. in accord ance with or like the Veda; -vadya, n.recitation of Vedic texts; -vadha, m. mur der of a Brâhman; -vadhyâ, f. id.: -krita, n. perpetrated murder of a Brâhman; -vark asá, n. pre-eminence in sacred knowledge, sanctity; -varkas-in, a. pre-eminent in di vine knowledge, holy; -varkas-vin, a. id.; -vâdá, m. discourse on sacred matters; -vâd ín, a. discoursing on sacred matters; m. theologian, Vedântin; -vâsa, m. Brahman's abode or heaven; (bráhma)-vâhas, a. to whom prayer is offered; -vit-tva, n. sacred knowledge, theology, philosophy; -víd, a. knowing the Vedas; versed in magic; m. theologian, philosopher; -vidy&asharp;, f. knowledge of Brahman or of sacred things; -vidvas, pt. knowing Brahman; -vivardhana, a. increas ing sacred knowledge, ep. of Vishnu; -vrik sha, m. Brahman as a tree; -vritti, f. sub sistence of a Brâhman; -veda, m. Veda of Spells, Atharva-veda; -vedi, f. N. of a local ity; -vedin, a.knowing the Brahman or the Vedas; -vaivarta: -ka, n. T. of a Purâna; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -dhara, a. prac tising --; -sâyin, a. resting in Brahman; -sâlâ, f. Brahman's hall; N. of a sacred locality; -siras, -sîrshan, n. kind of mythi cal missile; -samsad, f. Brahman's audience chamber; -samstha, a. devoted to sacred things; -samhitâ, f. collection of prayers; -sattra, n. sacrifice of prayer; -sattrin, a. offering a sacrifice of prayer; -sadana, n. seat of the Brahman priest; abode or heaven of Brahman; -sabhâ, f. hall or audience chamber of Brahman; -sambhava, a. sprung from Brahman; -saras, n. N. of a bathing place; -savá, m. purification of prayer; kind of sacrificial rite; -sât-kri, bring into har mony with Brahman; -sâmá, -sâmán, n. Sâman chanted after a verse recited by the Brahman priest; -sâyugya, n. complete union or identification with the universal soul; -sârshti-tâ, f. equality with Brahman; -sâ varna, m. N. of the tenth Manu; -sâvarni, m. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of various astrono mical works; -siddhi, m. N. of an ascetic; -suta, m. son of Brahman; -suvarkalâ, f. kind of plant; decoction of this plant (drunk as a penance); -sûtra, n. sacred cord worn by Brâhmans over the shoulder; sacred or theological Sûtra; T. of a Sûtra work on the Vedânta philosophy ascribed to Bâdarâyana or Vyâsa: -pada, n. statement of a theolo gical Sûtra; a. (î) consisting of the state ments of a theological Sûtra; -sûtrin, a. wearing the sacred cord; -srig, m. creator of Brahman, ep. of Siva; -soma, m. N. of a saint; -stamba, m. universe, world; -stena, m. (thief of=) one in unlawful possession of the Veda; -steya, n. (theft of=) unlawful acquisition of the Veda; -sthala, n. N. of a town and of various villages; -sva, n. pro perty of a Brâhman; -haty&asharp;, f. murder of a Brâhman; -hán, m. murderer of a Brâhman; -hridaya, m. n. N. of a star (Capella).
brahmanirvāṇa n. extinction or absorption in Brahman (n.); -nishtha, a. absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman (n.); -nîda, n. resting-place of Brahman (n.); -pattra, n. Brahman's leaf=leaf of the Palâsa tree (Butea frondosa); -patha, m. path to Brahman (m. or n.); -pada, n. place of Brahman (n.); pârâyana, n. complete study or entire text of the Veda; -putrá, m. son of a priest or Brâhman; son of the god Brahman; kind of vegetable poison; N. of a large river rising in the eastern Himâlayas and falling into the bay of Bengal; N. of a lake; -pura, n. Brahman's citadel (in heaven); N. of a city (Theopolis): î, f. id.; ep. of the city of Benares; -puraka, m. pl. N. of a people; -pura½âkhya, a. named Brahmapura; -purâna, n. T. of a Purâna; -purusha, m. servant of the Brahman priest; servant of the god Brahman; -prakriti-ka, a. having Brahman as its source (world): -tva, n. origination from Brahman; -priya, a. found of devotion; -prî, a. id. (RV.); -bandhava, n. function of a priest's assistant; -bandhu, m. priest fellow (used contemptuously), unworthy Brâhman, Brâhman in caste only, nominal Brâhman; sp. Brâhman who does not perform the morning and the evening Samdhyâ ceremony (according to Sâyana); -bindu, m. Dot (Anusvâra) of Brahman, T. of an Upani shad; -bîga, n. seed of the Veda, the sacred syllable &open;om;&close; -bruvâna, pr. pt. Â. calling himself or pretending to be a Brâhman; -bhavana, n. abode of Brahman; -bhâgá, m. share of the Brahman priest; -bhâva, m. absorption in the Absolute; -bhâvana, a. manifesting or teaching the Veda; -bhid, a. dividing the one Brahman into many; -bhuvana, n. world of Brahman; -bhûta, pp. having become one with, i.e. absorbed in Brahman or the Abso lute; -bhûya, n. identification with or absorption in Brahman; rank of a Brâhman, Brâhmanhood; -bhûyas, a. becoming one with Brahman; n. absorption in Brahman; -bhrashta, pp. having forfeited sacred knowledge; -ma&ndot;gala-devatâ, f. ep. of Lakshmî; -matha, m. N. of a monastic school or college; -maya, a. (î) consisting or formed of Brahman; -maha, m. festival in honour of Brâhmans; -mîmâmsâ, f. inquiry into the nature of Brahman, the Vedânta philosophy; -yagñá, m. sacrifice of devotion=Vedic reci tation or study (one of the five daily sacri fices of the householder); -yasas, n.: -a, n. glory of Brahman; -yasas-in, a. possessing the glory of Brâhmans; -yúg, a. yoked by prayer = bringing the god in answer to prayer; -yoni, f. home of Brahman (n.); a. having one's home in Brahman; sprung from Brahman: -stha, a. abiding in Brahman (n.) as one's source; -rakshas, n. kind of evil demon; -ratna, n. valuable present bestowed on Brâh mans; -ratha, m. Brâhman's cart; -râkshasa, m. kind of evil demon; -râga, m. N.; -râta, m.given by Brahman, ep. of Suka; N. of Yâgñavalkya's father; -râsi, m. entire mass or circle of Vedic texts or sacred knowledge.
bhāgadheya n. share, due; lot, fate; property; share of a king, tax; a. (î) due as a share (V.); -bhâg, a. having a share in anything; m. participator; -bhug, m. (enjoying the taxes), king; -mukha, m. N.; -lakshana, n. indirect indication of the part (rh.).
bhāvarūpa a. really existing; -vak ana, a. expressing the abstract verbal notion (activity or state); -vat, a. being in a con dition or relation; -vikâra, m. modification of the notion of being orbecoming; -vritta, pp. relating to creation; -sabda, m. verb; -suddhi, f. purity of heart; -sûnya, a. de void of affection; -samsuddhi, f. purity of heart; -samâhita, pp. composed in mind; -stha, a. being in love, enamoured;-sthira, a. rooted in the heart; -snigdha, pp. heartily or deeply attached.
bhinnakāla a. overstepping the time; -kûta, a. employing different strata gems; -krama, a. having the wrong order, displaced; -ganda-karata, a. whose temples are streaming (elephant); -garbha, a. (hav ing a discordant interior=) suffering from in ternal dissensions, disorganized (army); -gâti, a. pl. of different rank; -gâtîya, a. various; -tva, n. difference from (--°ree;); -darsin, a. see ing a difference, distinguishing; -desa, a. occurring in different places: -tva, n. occur rence in widely distant places; -prakâra, a. of a different sort; -mantra, a. having be trayed counsel; -maryâda, a. breaking down or transgressing the bounds; -ruki, a. having different tastes; -li&ndot;ga, n. incongruity of gender in a simile: -ka, a. (i-kâ) containing words of different gender; -vakana, a. con taining words of different number; n. incon gruity of numberin a simile; -varna, a. co lourless; -vritta, pp. behaving irregularly, leading a bad life; -vritti, a. having differ ent occupations; having a different vocation; leading an evil life: -tâ, f. abst. N.; -½añgana, n. mixed collyrium (applied with oil): -var- na, a. having the colour of mixed collyrium: -tâ, f. abst. N.; -½artha, a. having a different object; having a distinct sense, clear, intel ligible: -tâ, f. clearness, intelligibility.
bheda m. 1. act. vbl. n. breaking, splitting, cleaving, bursting, piercing, per forating, rending; division, separation; be trayal (of a secret); disturbance, interruption, infringement; sowing dissension, winning over an ally (one of the four Upâyas); lead ing astray, seduction; 2. ps. vbl. n. (being broken etc.), bursting, rupture, breach; in jury, hurt; bursting open, blossoming; sprout ing (of the beard); contraction (of the brows); disunion, dissension, between (in.), in (--°ree;); change, alteration, modification; distinction, difference; 3. concrete: division, part; cleft, fissure, chasm; variety, species, kind.
bhoga m. eating, enjoying, con suming; fruition, enjoyment; use, employ ment, application; usufruct; sexual enjoy ment; rule, sway; feeling, perception (of pleasure or pain); utility, advantage; plea sure, joy; object of enjoyment; property, revenue.
maṅgala n. [brightness: √ mañg] luck, fortune, happiness, bliss (sts. pl.); prosperity, welfare; auspiciousness; good omen, whateverconduces to an auspicious issue; benediction, blessing; auspicious or lucky object, amulet; solemn ceremony, auspicious festivity (on important occasions); good old custom; good work; a. auspicious, propitious; m. planet Mars; N.: -karana, n. uttering a prayer for theauspicious issue of an undertaking; -ka lasa-maya, a. consisting of festal jars; -kâr aka, a. productive of prosperity, auspicious; -kâla, m. auspicious time; -kshauma, n. du. two festal garments (upper and lower) of linen; -gâthikâ, f. solemn chant; -gîta, n. id.; -ghata, m. N. of an elephant; -kand ikâ, f. a form of Durgâ; -tûrya, n. musical instrument used on festive occasions: -nisva na, m. sound of auspicious musical instruments; -devatâ, f. tutelary deity (only --°ree;); -pattra, n. leaf used as an amulet; -pâthaka, m. pronouncer of benedictions, professional panegyrist; -pâtra, n. auspicious pot or vessel (containing propitious objects); -pura, n. N. of a town; -pushpa-maya, a. made of auspicious flowers (garland); -pra tisara, m. cord of an amulet; -prada, a. auspicious; -maya, a. (î) consisting of no thing but luck etc.; -vat-î, f. N.; -vâdin, a. pronouncing a blessing; -vrishabha, m. bull with auspicious marks; -sabda, m. benediction, greeting; -sûkaka, a. indicative of good luck, auspicious.
matsara a. [√ mad] gladdening, intoxicating (V.); joyful (V.); selfish; jealous, envious; m. gladdener=Soma (V.); jealousy, envy, of (lc., --°ree;); enmity, hostility; wrath, anger; passion for (lc., --°ree;).
madakara a. intoxicating; -karin, m. elephant in rut; -kala, a. passionately sweet (note); uttering soft sounds of love; drunk with passion; reeling with intoxica tion; being in rut, beginning to rut (elephant); -kârin, -krit, a. intoxicating; -kyút, a. 1. (V.) reeling with excitement, exhilarated with Soma; gladdening, exhilarating; 2. distilling temple-juice (elephant); -gala, n. temple juice (of elephants); -gvara, m.fever of pas sion or pride; -durdina, n. stream of temple juice; -dvipa, m. rutting elephant.
mada m. hilarity, exhilaration, rap ture, intoxication; passion for (--°ree;); wanton ness, lust; rut; pride, arrogance, presump tion, conceit (of, about, g. or --°ree;); intoxicating draught; honey; temple-juice of elephants.
madin a. (V.) gladdening, intoxi cating; lovely.
madātyaya m. excess of intoxi cation, delirium tremens; -½andha, a. blind with intoxication, dead-drunk; blind with passion, rutting; blinded by pride; -½ambu, n. temple-juice (of elephants); -½ambhas, n. id.; -½alasa, a. languid with intoxication: â, f. N.; -½avasthâ, f. wantonness, rut.
madapaṭu a. rutting (elephant); ad. clearly with joy (warble); -prada, a. in toxicating and causing pride or conceit; -prasravana½âvila, a. turbid with temple juice; -muk, a. discharging temple-juice (elephant).
madanikā f. N.; -îya, a. intoxi cating.
madhu a. (u, û, or v-î) sweet, de licious; pleasant, charming, delightful; N. of the first spring month (=Kaitra, March April); spring; N. of two Asuras; N.; n. nectar, mead, Soma (V.); milk, butter (V.); honey (this sp. meaning is doubtful for RV.); sweet intoxicating liquor (C.).
madvan a. (RV.) addicted to joy or intoxication; exhilarating.
madya a. (V.) gladdening, exhilarat ing, intoxicating; n. spirituous liquor, sp. brandy: -kumbha, m. brandy-jar; -pa, a. drinking spirituous liquors; m. drunkard; -pâna, n. drinking of intoxicants; spirituous liquor; -bhânda, n. vessel for intoxicating drinks; -vikraya, m. sale of intoxicants; -½âkshepa, m. addiction to drink; -½âsattaka, m. N.
madhukarāya den. Â. represent bees; -karikâ, f. N.; -karin, m. bee; -karî, f. female bee; N.; -kânana, n. forest of the Asura Madhu (on the Yamunâ); -kâra, m. bee: î, f. female bee; -krit, a.producing sweetness; m. bee; -gandhika, a. sweetly scented; -kkhattra, m. (?) a tree (having a pleasant shade); -kkhandas, m. N. of a Rishi; N. of the fifty-first of the 101 sons of Visvâmitra; -kyut, -kyuta, a. dripping honey; -ga, a. produced from honey; (má dhu)-gihva, a. honey-tongued, sweetly speaking (V.); -taru, m. sugar-cane; -trina, m. n. id.; -tva, n. sweetness; -doham, abs. (milking=) making honey; -dvish, m. foe of Madhu,ep. of Vishnu; -dhârâ, f. stream of honey; stream of sweet intoxicants; -pá, a. drinking sweetness or honey; m. bee; -patala, m. honey-comb; -parká, m. honey mixture: a guest-offering usually consisting of curds with honey or butter; the honey mixture ceremony; -parnikâ, f. N. of various plants; -pavana, m. wind of spring; -pâtra, n. wine cup; -pâna, n. drinking of honey; -pârî, f. wine cup; -pura, n. city of the Asura Madhu, Mathurâ: î, f. city of the Madhus, Mathurâ; (mádhu)-prasa&ndot;ga madhu, n. honey connected with spring; -psaras, eager for sweetness (RV.1); -bhad ra, m. N.; -bhânda, n. cup for spirituous liquors, wine cup; -bhid,m. slayer of Madhu, ep. of Vishnu; -bhug, a. enjoying sweets or delights; -makshâ, -makshikâ, f. (honey fly), bee; (mádhu)-mat, a. sweet; pleasant, charming; mixed with honey; abounding in honey; containing the word &open;madhu&close;: -î, f. N. of a river; N. of a city; N.; -matta, pp. intoxicated by spring; -math, -mathana, m. destroyer of Madhu, ep. of Vishnu; -mada, m. intoxication with wine; -mantha, m. drink stirred with honey; -maya, a. (î) consisting of honey; sweet as honey, honied; -mâdhava, m. du. & n. sg. names of the two spring months (=Kaitra and Vaisâkhâ, March-May); -mâdhavî, f. spring-flower abounding in honey; kind ofintoxicating liquor; -mâsa, m. spring month: -mahot sava, m. great festival of spring, -½avatâra, m. commencement of spring; -mura-nara ka-visâsana, m. destroyer of the Daityas Madhu, Mura, and Naraka, ep. ofVishnu.
madhyamapadalopin a. in which the middle word is dropped (com pound: e. g. sâka-pârthiva=vegetable, sc. loving, king); -purusha, m. kind of personi fication; second person (gr.); -pûrusha, m. mediocre person; -bhâva, m. moderate dis tance; -râtra, m. midnight; -loka, m. mid dle world=earth: -pâla, m. protector of earth, king, -½indu, m. moon of earth, king; -vayas-á, n. middle age; -½ashtakâ,f. eighth day in the dark fortnight of Mâgha.
mantrayantra n. amulet with a magical formula; -yukti, f. application of spells, charm; employment of a sacred for mula; magic (?); -vat, a. attended with sa cred formulas; enchanted, consecrated with spells; familiar with sacred texts; ad. 1. to the accompaniment of sacred texts; 2. accord ing to the rules of counsel; -varna, m. word ing of a sacred text: pl. the syllables of a sacred formula or spell; -vâda, m. substance of a sacred formula; utterance of spells, ma gic: -sloka, m. pl. slokas being sacred verses in substance; -vâdin, m. pronouncer of spells, enchanter; -vid, a. knowing sacred texts or spells; -vidyâ, of spells, magic; -sakti, f. magical power, charm; -sruti, f. consultation listened to; -samvarana, n. con cealment of a consultation or design; -sam skâra, m. consecration with sacred texts: -krit-pati, m.consecrated husband; -sam hitâ, f. the collection of Vedic hymns; -sâdh aka, m. performer of an incantation, magi cian; -sâdhana, n., â, f. performance of an incantation; -sâdhya, fp. to be mastered by incantations; attainable by counsel; -sid dha, pp. accomplished by a spell; thoroughly versed in spells; -siddhi, f. effect of a spell; fulfilment of counsel; -sûtra, n. charm at tached to a cord.
malavat a. dirty; -vad-vâsas, a. having a soiled garment, menstruating; -vâh in, a. conveying or containing impurities (body); -visodhana, a. washing away dirt; -visargana, n. purification (of a temple); -hâraka, a. removing foulness or sin; -½âva ha, a. productive of impurity, defiling.
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
prohibitive ad. cj. (=Gk. mh/) not, O that not; that not, in order that not: 1. with impv.; 2. with potential (not common), may not! will not, I hope; 3. with subj. impf. (rare), aor. (very common), which in C.=in dicative without the augment (the ind. with the augment occurs, but very rarely, gnly. in E.); 4. with fut.=in order that not (C., E., not common); 5. with pr. pt. (very rare: e.g. mâ gîvan, he deserves not to live); 6. with pp., e.g. gatah sa mâ, he cannot have gone (very rare); 7. elliptically without a verb, not so! mâ mâ, mâ mâ½evam, mâ tâvat, not so! yathâ mâ, in order that not; bhavatu mâ vâ½astu, be it or not; mâ katham nu bha vatu, how should not be? mâ bhûd âgatah, can he not have arrived?=surely he must have arrived; mâ nâma rakshinah, heaven forbid that it should be the warders! mâ na, with aor. subj.=ind. without a negative (C.; very rare); m&asharp;½u (mó), and not (prohibitive; V.); mâ sma (with impv. or aor. subj.), not (prohibitive), in order that not; sma m&asharp;, mó sma, id. (Br.); mâ -mâ½uta, not -nor.
mādana a. delighting (RV.1); in toxicating (C.): î-ya, a. intoxicating (C.); n. intoxicating drink.
mādaka (cs.) a. intoxicating, stupe fying: -tva, n. abst. n.
mānayoga m. pl. applications of measurements.
mānapara a. excessively proud: â, f. N.; -parikhandana, n. loss of honour; -purahsaram, ad. with marks of honour; -prâna, a. valuing honour like one's life; -bha&ndot;ga, m. loss of honour, mortification, indignity; -bhadra-ka, m. kind of pavilion; -bhâg, a. receiving honour from (--°ree;); -bhrit, a. proud; -mahat, a. great in pride, exces sively proud.
mānaka n. measure, weight; -ka laha, m. quarrel arising from jealous anger; -kali, m. mutual indignation; a. bestowing honour, showing respect; -kshati, f. injury to honour, mortification, indignity;-gran thi, m. violent anger; -tâ, f. being a proof; -tu&ndot;ga, m. man high in honour; N.; -da, a. bestowing or showing honour; m. giver of honour (gnly. used as a term of address); -danda, m. measuring-rod; -dhana,a. hav ing honour as his wealth, rich in honour; -dhmâta, pp. inflated with pride.
mānavarjita pp. destitute of honour; dishonouring; -vardhana, a. in creasing any one's honour, indicating in creased respect; -vikrayin, a. selling or sacrificing one's honour.
mārjana a. (î) wiping, cleansing; m. washer; n. wiping, -away, cleansing; sweeping away; rubbing a drum-skin with ashes or mud: â, f. id.; sound of a drum; î, f. purification; brush or broom.
mūrchā f. congealment, solidifica tion (of quicksilver); faint, swoon; mental stupefaction, delusion; melody: -½âkshepa, m. indication of dissatisfaction with anything by swooning (rh.); -maya, a.swoon-like.
mūloccheda m. eradication, ex termination; -½utkhâta, pp. dug out by the roots, utterly destroyed; n. digging up of roots; -½uddharana, n. means of eradicating anything (g.).
mṛdūbhāva m. mollification; abatement; -bhû, become soft, relent.
mṛduka a. soft: -m, ad. gently, softly; -kopa, a. slow to anger; -gir, a. soft voiced; -tâ, f. softness; gentleness; weak ness; mollification; -tîkshna, a. gentle and harsh at the same time: -tara, cpv.; -tva,n. softness, gentleness, tenderness; -pûrva, a. soft, bland (speech): -m, ad. gently, coax ingly; -prayatna, a. pronounced with gentle effort; -bhâva, m. gentleness; -bhâsh-in, a. speaking gently: (-i)-tâ, f. gentle speech.
mohama m. kind of personification; -mantra, m. deluding spell; -maya, a. (î) consisting in delusion of mind or error; -sâs tra, n. false doctrine.
yāman n. (V.) going, course, flight; coming; march, foray; approaching the gods, invocation: lc. sts.=this time (=turn).
yukti f. union, connexion; combination of words, sentence (rare); preparation for (lc. or --°ree; of vbl. n.); application, employ ment, use; means, expedient, contrivance, artifice, trick (w. d. or lc. of vbl. n., or yathâ and pot.); magical agency; reasoning, argu ing; argument, proof; reason, motive (rare); suitableness, propriety, aptness, correctness; sensible reflexion, contemplation of the cir cumstances (dr.): -m kri, discover an ex pedient, employ or point out a device; --°ree;, in. sg. & pl., -tas, by means of (--°ree;); °ree;-or in. pl. subtilely, artfully; by means of a cunning device, under some pretext; in. and -tas, suitably, properly, justly; -tas, ad. by means of an argument.
yoga m. [√ yug] yoking; team; vehi cle; equipment (of an army); performance, employment, use, application, of (g., --°ree;); remedy, cure; means, expedient; device, trick; spell, magic; fraud (°ree;-=spurious); opportunity; undertaking (V.); union, con tact, with (in. ± saha or --°ree;); combination, mixture; connexion, relation; connexion with, acquisition of (in., --°ree;); gain, profit; order, succession; aggregate, sum; fitness, propriety; strenuousness, exertion, endea vour, zeal, assiduity; occupation; mental concentration, systematic abstraction, Yoga system of philosophy; follower of the Yoga system; unity of the soul and nature (Sâm khya ph.); connexion of a word with its root, etymology, etymological meaning of a word; syntactical dependence of a word, construc tion; (concentrated sentence), grammatical rule; conjunction (of stars); constellation: in. yogena, by means of an expedient or stratagem; by means or in consequence of, in accordance with (--°ree;, also -yogât and -yoga tas); suitably, duly, in the correct manner; yogatas, id.; strenuously, assiduously.
yogāgnimaya a. having passed through the fire of Yoga; -½a&ndot;ga, n. constituent part of Yoga (of which eight, seven, or six are assumed); -½âkâra, m. prac tice or observance of Yoga;-½âkârya, m. teacher of magic; teacher of the Yoga sys tem; -½âdhamana, n. fraudulent pledge or mortgage; -½âpatti, f. modification of em ployment or application; -½ayoga, m. pl. proper quantity; du. suitableness and un suitableness; -½âsana, n. sitting posture suit able to abstract meditation.
rasapācaka m. cook; -praban dha, m. poetical work, drama; -bhâva-vid, a. knowing the sentiments and emotions; -maya, a. (î) consisting of juice, fluid, water, or quicksilver; charming; -râga, m.quick silver; (rása)-vat, a. juicy, succulent; well flavoured, savoury; filled with juice; sup plied with moisture (field); overflowing with (in.); tasteful, charming; n. tasteful style: -î, f. kitchen; meal; -vat-tâ, f. juiciness; savouriness; tastefulness; -vâda, m. alchemy; -vikrayin, a. vendor of liquors or juices; -vikretri, m. id.; -vid, a. knowing the taste; having good taste; -sâstra, n. alchemy; -sodhana, n. purification of quicksilver; -sid dha,pp. (adept in quicksilver=) skilled in alchemy; familiar with poetical sentiments; -siddhi, f. (adeptness in quicksilver), skill in alchemy.
rāgin a. coloured, dyed; red; full of passion or desire; impassioned; swayed by love, enamoured; passionately fond of or devoted to, yearning after (lc., --°ree;); delight ing (--°ree;; rare): n-î, f.modification of the musical modes called Râga (30 or 36 Râginîs are enumerated).
rājayakṣma m. kind of dangerous disease; later: pulmonary consumption; -yakshman, m. id.; -yakshm-in, a. consumptive; -yagña, m. royal sacrifice; -yâna, n. royal vehicle, palanquin; -ratha,m. royal carriage; -rambhâ, f. kind of plantain; -râkshasa, m. demon of a king; -râg, m. king of kings, emperor; moon; -râga, m. king of kings; ep. of Kubera: -giri, m. ep. of the Himavat; -tâ, f., -tva, n. dignity of a sovereign lord; -râgya, n. sovereignty over all kings; -½rishi, m. royal sage; -lakshana, n. mark indicative of (future) royalty; -lakshman, n. royal emblem; -lakshmî, f. regal glory or majesty; N. of a princess; -loka, m.assemblage of kings; -vamsa, m. royal race, dynasty; -vamsya, a. of royal descent; m. Kshatriya; -vat, 1. ad. like a king (nm. or ac.); as in the case of a king; 2. a. having a king; abounding in kings: lc. =in the presence of a king; m. N.: -î, f. N.; -vadana, m. N.; -vandin, m. N. (=-bandin); -varkasin, a. being in royal service; -valla bha, m. royal favourite: -turamgama, m. favourite steed of a prince; -vasati, f. life at the court of a king; -vahana, a. bearing or ridden by kings; -vâhana, m. N. of a king; -vidyâ, f. kingcraft, statesmanship; -vihâra, m. royal pleasure-seat; royal mon astery; -vîthî, f. royal road, highway; -vri ksha, m. kind of tree; -vritta, n.procedure or vocation of a king; -vesman, n. royal palace; -vesha, m. royal costume; -sârdûla, m. (tiger-like=) illustrious king; -sâsana, n. royal command; -srî, f. glory or majesty of a king.
rūpa n. appearance, colour (esp. pl.), form, shape; dream or phantom shapes (pl.; V.); likeness, image, reflexion; grammatical form, derivative; handsome form, beauty, comeliness; phenomenon; sign, indication, token, symbol, manifestation; characteristic, property, nature; circumstances (opp. time or place); sort, kind; trace of (--°ree;); single specimen; drama; --°ree; a. having a (beautiful etc.) form; having the form, appearance, or colour of, resembling; formed or consisting of, in the form of, that is to say; often --°ree; w. an a. or pp. emphasizing its mg., but fre quently also pleonastic: in. rupena, in the form of (--°ree;); -mkri, assume a form; -the form of (nm., g., a., or --°ree;).
ropa m. [fr. cs. of √ ruh] planting; arrow; -ana, a. (î) putting on; causing to heal (wounds); n. erecting, setting up; heal ing, healing application; planting.
lakṣaṇakarman n. statement of characteristics, correct definition; -gña, a. able to explain marks (on the body); knowing the good characteristics of (g.); -tva, n. condition of being a definition; -bhrashta, pp. deprived of all auspicious signs, ill-fated; -lakshanâ, f. indicative indication (e. g. a herd-station on the Ganges = on the bank of the Ganges); -vat, a. characterised by (in.); possessed of goodmarks; giving correct defi nitions; -samnipâta, m. branding; -samni vesa, m. id.
lakṣaṇa a. indicating, expressing indirectly; n. mark, token, sign, characteristic, attribute (sg. often coll.); stroke; lines drawn on the place of sacrifice; catchword (rit.); lucky or auspicious mark; symptom (of a disease); characteristic of sex, sexual organ; description, definition; designation, name; species, kind; aim, scope; effect, influence; occasion, opportunity: --°ree; a. characterised by; provided with; taking the form of, appearing as; relating to, coming within the scope of.
lakṣa m. n. prize (RV.); mark, token; n. (?) aim, target; pretence, disguise; m. n. a hundred thousand, lac: âkâse laksh am bandh, fix one's gaze on the sky, look vaguely into the air: -ka, a. expressing by indication = elliptically or figuratively; m. N.; n. a hundred thousand.
lakṣitatva n. expression by indication; -itavya, fp. to be defined.
lakṣaya den. P. (Â. metr.) mark; characterise, define; indicate, designate indirectly; have in view, mean; consider, regard as (2 ac.), assume any one (ac.) to be (oratio recta with iti); regard, examine; observe, note, perceive, see (often with second appositional ac.; ord. mg.); see that (yad); ps. lakshyate, be meant; be called (2 nm.); look like, appear to be (nm.±iva): pp. laksh ita, marked, indicated, ordistinguished by (in., --°ree;); expressed by indication; aimed at (--°ree;, of arrows); observed, noticed, perceived, seen; understood; des. pp. lilakshayishita, intended to be expressed, meant. anu, have in view. abhi, pp.marked or determined by (in.); made known, reported; seen, ob served. â, observe, notice, see (±app. ac.); ps. appear (nm.): pp. perceived, seen; heard. upa, define; express figuratively; have in view, regard; consider as (2 ac.); perceive, observe, see (ord. mg.; ± app. ac.); recognise; hear; feel (v.l. upa-labh); ps. be figuratively expressed, be used figuratively for (d.); appear to be (2 nm.): pp. marked or distinguished by (in., --°ree;). sam-upa, direct one's attention to, observe; perceive, see. vi, perceive, observe; (lose sight of one's aim), be confused: pp. embarrassed, perplexed; indignant. sam, perceive, observe, learn (± app. ac.); hear; ps. appear.
lakṣaṇā f. aim; indication, indirect designation, elliptical expression, me tonymy; -anîya, fp. visible; elliptically or figuratively expressed; -an-ya, a. serving as a mark; possessing good marks.
liṅga n. [anything attaching to an object] mark, token, sign, emblem, charac teristic; catchword; deceptive badge (rare, E.); proof, evidence; sign of guilt, stolen property; sign of sex, sexual organ; gram matical gender; Siva's phallus (as an object of worship); image of a god (rare); typical or subtle body (the indestructible original of the gross visible body: Vedânta phil.); nominal base (=prâtipadika: gr.): -deha, m. n. subtle body (phil.); -dhârana, n. bear ing of marks of identification; -nâsa, m. loss of characteristic marks; -pîtha, n. pedestal of a Siva phallus; -purâna, n. T. of a Purâna; -mâtra, n. intellect; -mûrti, a.having the form of a phallus (Siva).
vakrita den. pp. curved, crooked, bent; retrograde (planet); -ima (?), a. curved; -i-man, m. crookedness; equivocation, ambiguity.
vara a. [select: √ 2. vri] best, choicest, most excellent or beautiful, among (ab., g., lc., --°ree;); better, more excellent, than (ab., rarely g.), among (ab., v. r.); n. vár am, ad. specially, rather, better, than (ab. ±&asharp;; RV.); with pr. or impv. it is or were better that or if (the vb. being sts. omitted); with pot. it were more likely that; predica tively without a vb. is or are better, than (ab., in V. id.±&asharp;); varam -na, na ka, na tu, na punah, tad api na, or tathâ½api na, (it is) better (that) or rather -than (with vb. in pr. or pot.); predicatively with ellipse of copula: -is the best thing, and not = -is better than (nm., very rarely in.); varam varam na or na ka khalu varam, better than (nm.).
vardhana a. (î) growing, increas ing, prospering, getting richer; causing in crease, strength, or prosperity, augmenting (in C. very often --°ree;); gladdening (gnly. --°ree;); m. increaser, bestower of prosperity; n. growth, increase, prosperity; increase of power; augmentation, elevation; educating, rearing; refreshment, comfort (RV.).
vākkalaha m. strife of words, dis pute; -kelî, f. jest with words, witty con verse; -kshata, n. wound inflicted with words; -kakshus, n. sg. speech and look; -kapala, a. inconsiderate in speech, talking idly; -kâp alya, n. inconsiderateness in talk; -khala, n. semblance of a voice; sg. & pl. lying talk; prevarication (in argument); -khalya, n. word-arrow, wounding speech; -patu, a. clever in speech, eloquent: -tâ, f.fluency of speech, eloquence; -páti, m. lord of speech; Saiva saint who has attained a certain stage of perfection: -râga, m. N. of a poet; -pa tha, m. opportunity for speech; province of speech (atîta --, a. indescribable): -pâram avâpita, become indescribable; -p&asharp;, a. protecting speech; -pâtava, n. eloquence; -pârushya, n. roughness of voice; scurrilous language; -pushtâ, f. N. of a princess: -½ata vî, f. N. of a forest named after her; -push pa, n. pl. flowers of speech; -pralâpa, m. elo quence; -prasasta, pp. expressly sanctioned as fit for food; -prasâri-kâma, a. desirous of one (i.e. a child) progressing in speech.
vākya n. [√ vak] sg. & pl. utterance, speech, words (ord. mg.); (legal) evidence; ex press statement (opp. li&ndot;ga, indication); mode of expression; argument (in logic); sentence (in grammar);mama vâkyât, in my name.
vācika a. produced by or consist ing in words, verbal, committed by speech (sin); expressed, threatened (destruction); n. oral communication, message; -in, a. (--°ree;) asserting; expressing, signifying, indicating.
vādin a. saying, speaking, talking (often --°ree;); speaking or talking about (--°ree;); declaring, proclaiming, announcing (--°ree;); expressing, indicating, designated as, addressed by (a title, --°ree;); m. speaker; teacher of (--°ree;); propounder or adherent of a theory; disputant; prosecutor.
vikṛta pp. (√ kri) changed etc.; n. deformity; abortion; transformation, change: -tva, n. modification, change; -damshtra, m. (having ugly teeth), N. of a fairy; -bud dhi, a. changed in mind, alienated; -½âkâra, a. having a misshapen aspect; altered in appearance.
vikṛti f. transformation, altera tion, change, modification, variation, changed condition; apparition, spectre; product; de rivative of Prakriti (=vikâra in Sâmkhya phil.); derivative form (in gr.; rare); de velopment (of seed; Br.); change of the nor mal mental condition, perturbation; change of feeling, hostility, defection: -m gam, yâ, vrag, or pra-pad, be changed: -mat, a. liable to change; indisposed, ill.
vikriyā f. [√ 1. kri] transforma tion, alteration, change, modification; vitia tion, disfigurement; failure, misadventure, harm (dîpasya --, extinction); unwonted phe nomenon; product (e. g. of milk); contraction, knitting (of the brows); sudden movement (of the hair=thrill); change in the normal bodily condition, ailment, affection; change in the normal mental condition, perturbation, agitation; change of feeling, alienation, hos tility, defection: -m yâ, undergo a change for the worse, deteriorate, come to nought: -½upamâ, f. transformation simile (in which one thing is represented as produced from another: e. g. &open;thy face is as it were taken from the disc of the moon&close;).
vijñānitā f. familiarity with (--°ree;); -gñânin, a. having knowledge of any thing, acting with knowledge; skilled in an art, specialist; -gnân-îya, a. treating of the doctrine of (--°ree;);-gñâna½îsvara, m. N. of the author of the Mitâksharâ (comm. on Yâgña valkya); -gñâna½eka-skandha-vâda, m. doc trine of the sole reality of knowledge; -gñâ pana, n., â, f. communication, information, request, entreaty (esp. addressed to a su perior); -gñâpanîya, fp. to be announced; to be informed (esp. a superior); -gñâpita, cs. pp. √ gñâ; -gñâpin, a. announcing (--°ree;); -gñâpya, cs. fp. to be announced; to be in formed, of (ac.); -gñéya, fp. to be known, knowable; that one should know; to be recognised or regarded as; (ví)-gya, a. string less (bow); -gvara, a. free from fever; free from anxiety or distress, cheerful; -ghar- ghara, a.disagreeable (sound).
vinaya a. removing (RV.1); m. (C.) removal, withdrawal (of a cloth); guidance, discipline, instruction, training; good beha viour, decorum, discretion, polite manners, good breeding, modest conduct; office (rare); treatise on discipline (B.); instruction; -gyot is, m. N. (conj.), -tâ, f. good behaviour; modesty; -nayana, a. removing, dispelling; n. education, instruction, in (lc.); -nayam dhara, m. N. of a merchant; -naya-pitaka, (basket=) collection of treatises on disci pline (B.); -naya-maya, a. being good breed ing itself; -naya-vat, a. well-behaved (in a-): -î, f. N.; -naya-sûtra, n. Sûtra treat ing of discipline (B.); -naya-svâminî, f. N.; -naya½âditya, m. ep. of Gayâpîda: -pura, n. N. of a town built by Gayâpîda; -naya½âdi-dhara, m. N.; -½avanata, pp. bowing low with modesty; -nayin, a. well bred, well-conducted, modest; -naya½ukti, f. modest speech (pl.).
vinikṣepa m. separation; -ni kshepya, fp. to be thrown into (lc.); -nigad î-kri, free from foot-fetters; -nigamaka, a. deciding between two alternatives; -nigam anâ, f. decision between two alternatives; -nigûhitri, m. concealer, keeper (of a secret); -nigraha, m. separation; restraining, curb ing, subduing (; restriction; -nigrâh ya, fp. to be restrained; -nidra, a. sleep less, awake; occurring in the waking condi tion; passed sleeplessly; expanded (flower); opened (eyes): -ka, a. awake, -tâ, f. sleep lessness; -ninîshu, des. a. intending to guide; -ninda, a. surpassing: â, f. reproach ing, abusing; -nindaka, a. blaming; derid ing; surpassing; -nipâta, m. mischance, calamity; death; failure; -nipâtita, cs. pp. √ pat; -nimaya, m. barter, exchange; reci procity (in kârya-); pledging; -nimitta, a. having no real cause; -nimîlana, n.closure (of a bud); -nimesha, m. wink; -niyama, m. limitation, restriction to (lc.); -niyamya, fp. to be limited; -niyukta½âtman, a. hav ing one's soul directed to (ad.); -niyoktri, m. appointer to (lc.); employer; -niyoga,m. apportionment; appointment to a duty (lc.); commission, charge; employment, use, application (ord. mg.; sp. of a verse in ritual); relation, correlation; -niyogya, fp. to be employed, applied, or used.
vibhakti f. separation, partition; distinction, modification; inflection of a noun, case; case or personal termination.
vibhetavya fp. n. one should be afraid of (ab.); -bhettri, m. destroyer, dis peller; -bheda, m. breaking through, split ting; knitting (of the brows); alteration, change; disturbance; dissension, discord, between (samam); distinction, difference; --°ree;, pl. different kinds of; -bheda-ka, a. dis tinguishing (g.) from (ab.); -bhedana, a. piercing, splitting; n. breaking; setting at variance; -bhedin, a. piercing (--°ree;); remov ing, dispelling; -bhramsa, m. decline, cessa tion; ruin; loss of (--°ree;); -bhramsin, a. fall ing down; -bhrama, m. moving to and fro, heaving (of waves), unsteadiness; wander ing about; vehemence, excess, high degree (--°ree; sts. pl.); amorous play, coquetry; de rangement, disturbance, confusion; erroneous application (of punishment); perturbation, agitation; mental confusion, delusion, error; illusion, illusive appearance, vision; grace, beauty; amorous distraction (of a woman, esp. with regard to dress); --°ree;, mere sem blance of; °ree;--, only in appearance; ab. (--°ree;) under the delusion that it was a --: -½arka, m. N.
vibhūti a. (RV.) extensive, abun dant; mighty, powerful; f. (C.) develop ment, multiplication; abundance; manifes tation of might, power (ord. mg.); sovereign power, greatness; successful issue (of a sacri fice); magnificence, splendour; prosperity, fortune; wealth, riches (common mg.; sg. & pl.); ashes (rare): -mat, a. powerful (C.).
vimati f. divergence of opinion, regarding (lc.); aversion; a. dull, stupid: -tâ, f. stupidity; -matsara, a. free from jealousy; -mada, a. free from intoxication, grown sober; free from rut; free from pride; á, m. N. of a protégé of the gods; N. of a composer of Vedic hymns; (ví)-madhya, n. (?) middle; -manas, a. out of one's senses, beside oneself, discomposed, downcast, dis consolate; -manâ-ya, den. Â. be disconsolate or downcast; -manî-kri, make angry; -man yu, a. free from anger; -marda, m. crush ing, bruising, rubbing, friction; trampling; conflict, encounter, scuffle, fight; destruction, devastation; interruption, disturbance of (--°ree;); contact (rare); refusal, rejection (rare); total eclipse (rare); -marda-ka, a. crushing, destroying; m. N.; -mardana, a. pressing, crushing; destroying; m. N. of a fairy; n. crushing; encounter, conflict; destruction, devastation; -mardin, a. (--°ree;) shattering, destroying, devastating; dispelling; -marsa, m. examination, consideration, reflection; discussion; intelligence (rare); crisis in the plot (of a play); -marsana, n. examination, reflection.
virāga m. loss of colour; dislike (to persons), indifference (to things), to (ab., lc., --°ree;); indifference to worldly objects; a. of various colours, variegated; free from pas sion, indifferent; -râgi-tâ, f.aversion, dis like; -râgin, a. disliking, having a disincli nation for (lc.); -r&asharp;g, a. (V.) ruling; splen did; m. chief, ruler, lord; f. queen; f. exaltation (V.); f. (V.), m. (C.) N. of a divine being, the result of speculation, iden tified with Purusha, Pragâpati, Brahman, Agni, and later Vishnu, sometimes appear ing as the daughter (or son) of Purusha, Pragâpati, Brahman, or Vishnu; is made the subject of all kinds of fanciful allegories in the Brâhmanas; in the Vedânta virâg is a designation of intellect conditioned by the aggregate, so called because of its manifold brilliance; f. N. of various V. metres, chiefly with pâdas of ten syllables: t-tva, n. name of Virâg; -râga, a. brilliant; m. N.; -râg ita, pp. resplendent; -râta, m. N. of a king of the Matsyas; -râtra, end of night; -râd dhri, m. insulter; -râdha, m. N. of a Râk shasa: -gupta, m. N., -han, m. slayer of Virâdha, ep. ofVishnu (Râma); -râma, m. cessation; termination, end; end of a word or sentence, stop, pause (gr.); end of a pâda, caesura within a pâda; stroke below a con sonant indicating the absence of the inherent a (orig. only at the end of a sentence); ab stention (gr.): --°ree; a. ending in (gr.): -m yâ, rest; come to an end; -râva, m. cry, clamour, roar, noise; -râvin, a. crying, warbling, yell ing, roaring; resounding with (in.).
vidhṛti f. (V.) separation; parti tion: du. two blades of grass indicating a par tition between the Barhis and the Prastara.
viśuddhi f. purification, sanctifi cation, purity (also fig.); settlement of a debt (rare); perfect knowledge (rare): -mat, a. pure (rare); -sushka, a. dried up, withered, parched.
viśvaka m. N. of a protégé of the Asvins; -kartri, m. creator of the universe; -karman, n. every action (only °ree;--); (á) karman, a. accomplishing or creating every thing (V., E.); N. of the architect of the universe, resembling Pragâpati and often not distinguished from him; in C. he is the architect and artificer of the gods, also called Pragâpati, and with the pat. Bhauvana, father of Barhishmatî and Samgñâ; ep. of the sun (rare); -krít, a. creating everything; m. creator of the universe; the architect and artificer of the gods, Visvakarman; (á)-krish- ti, a. dwelling among all men, universally known (RV.); -kshaya, m. destruction of the world; -gata, pp. omnipresent; -guru, m. father of the universe; (á)-kakshas, a. all-seeing (RV.); (á)-karshani, a. = -krishti (RV.); -ganá, m. mankind; -gan&isharp;na, a. containing all kinds of people (V.); ruling all people (V.); benefiting the whole world (V., C.); (á)-ganya, a. containing all men (heaven and earth: V.); universal, dear to all men (V.); universally beneficial (discussion); -gít, a. all-subduing (V., P.); m. N. of an Ekâha in the Gavâmayana rite, the fourth day after the Vishuvat (Br., S., C.); -gîva, m. universal soul; -g&usharp;, a. all-impelling (RV.1); (á)-tas, ad. from or on all sides, everywhere; (á)-to-mukha, a. having a face on every side, facing in all directions; (á) tra, ad. everywhere; always; (á)-thâ, ad. in every way, always (V.); -datta, m. N. of a Brâhman; (á)-darsata, a. visible to all (RV.); -d&asharp;nîm, ad. always (V.); (á)-deva, a. all-divine;m. pl. the All-gods, the Visve devâs; (á)-devya, a. relating, dear etc. to all gods (RV.); (á)-devyâ-vat, a. id.; accompanied by the Visve devâs (Indra); (á)-dh&abrevcirc;, ad. in every way, always (RV.); -dhar ana, n.preservation of the universe; (á) dhâyas, a. all-supporting (RV.); -dhâ-vîrya, a. effective in every way (AV.); (á)-dhena, a. all-feeding (RV.); -nâtha, m. lord of the universe, ep. of Siva; N.; -m-tara, a. all-subduing(Buddha); m. N. of a king with the pat. Saushadmana; -pâvana, a. all-purifying; -pís, a. all-adorned (RV.); -prakâsa, m. All-enlightener, T. of a dictionary; (á) psnya, a. all-nourishing (V.); -bhug, a. all-consuming; (á)-bheshaga, a. (î) all-healing (V.); n. dry ginger (C.); (á)-bhogas, a. all-supporting; -maya, a. containing the uni verse; -maha, m. a kind of personification; -mahesvara, m. great lord of all (Siva); -minvá, a. (RV.) all-moving; all-containing; -mûrti, a. whose body is the universe or having all forms; -m-bhará, a. all-supporting; m. ep. of Vishnu: â, f. earth: -bhug, m. king; -yoni, m. f. source or creator of the universe; -ruki, m. N. of a Dânava; -rûpa, n. sg. all kinds of shapes; (á)-rûpa, a. (â, &isharp;) many-coloured, variegated (V.); wearing all forms, manifold, various; N. of a son of Tvashtri, whose three heads were struck off by Indra; â, f.dappled cow (V.); N. of certain verses (Br.); (á-)vâra, a. containing, bestowing etc. all treasures (V.); -vikhyâta, pp. known in the whole world; -víd, a. all-knowing; -visruta, pp. known in the whole world; (á)-vedas, a.all-knowing; (á)-sam bhû, a. beneficial to all; -súk, a. all-enlightening (RV.1); (á)-skandra, a. all-glittering (RV.); -samvanana, n. means of enchanting all; -samhâra, m. general destruction; -sakha, m. universal friend.
viśoka a. free from sorrow; re moving sorrow; m. N. of the charioteer of Bhîma; N. of a Dânava: -tâ, f. freedom from sorrow; -sodha, incorr. for -sodha, pp. √ sah; -sodhana, cs. (√ sudh)a. (î) cleans ing; washing off; n. purification (also in the ritual sense); -sodh-in, a. cleansing: (-i)-tva, n. clearing, freeing from obstruction; -sodh ya, fp. to be subtracted from (ab.); -sosha, m. dryness; -soshana, a.drying; healing (wounds, --°ree;); n. desiccation, drying up; -sosh in, a. drying up, withering; making dry.
viṣṇu m. [Worker: √ vish] N. of a god of the upper region (personification of the sun) who traverses the world in three strides, companion of Indra, mentioned with the Âdityas, husband of Sinîvâlî (V.); jani tor of the gods (Br.); his head when cut off becomes the sun (Br.). In C. he is the second of the triad, the Preserver, husband of Laksh mî or Srî, and Sarasvatî, father of the god of love, rests on the serpent Sesha, and has Garuda for his vehicle, descends to earth in several Avatârs; N. of a lawgiver.
vihati f. blow, stab, shot; preven tion; repulse, defeat; -hantavya, fp. to be destroyed; -hantrí, m. destroyer, frustrator of (g., --°ree;); -hara, a. removing, changing; -harana, n. removing, transporting; trans posing of words; opening (of the mouth); walking about, strolling (ord. mg.); moving backwards and forwards, brandishing (a club); -hartri, m. purloiner, robber; one who en joys himself; -harsha, a.joyless, sad; -ha vá, m. invocation; -hávya (or á), fp. to be invoked or invited (V.); m. N.; -hasati-kâ, -hasiti-kâ, f. laughter; -hasta, a. hand less; trunkless; perplexed, helpless; com pletely absorbed in (--°ree;); adroit, skilled, in (--°ree;): -tâ, f. trunklessness; bewilderment, helplessness; -hastita, den. pp. confused or embarrassed by (--°ree;).
vīrāśaṃsana n. (indicative of heroes), battle-field; -½âsana, n. kind of sit ting posture with ascetics.
vaikṛta a. [vikriti] modified, derivative, secondary; subject to modification; artificial, kept up by adoption (family); n. modification, alteration, disfigurement, ab normal condition, changed state (ord. mg.); unnatural phenomenon, portent; mental change, agitation; change of sentiment, hos tility: -vat, a. morbidly affected by (--°ree;).
vaikārika a. (î) based on or sub ject to modification (vikâra); -ya, n. modifi cation.
vai post positive pcl. emphasizing the preceding word: rare in the Samhitâs, very common in Br. (often indicating the beginning of a clause) and E.; in S. gnly. only in the combination yadi½u vai; in E. and Manu vai is very common at the end of a pâda as a mere expletive; with other pcls.: vâ u (RV.); ha vaí, ha sma vai, eva vai (Br.); api vai, tu vai (C.).
vaijayanta ] m. Indra's banner; flag, banner; Indra's palace; -ikâ, f. flag, ban ner; kind of pearl necklace (Pr.); -î, f. flag, banner; garland prognosticating victory; T. of a dictionary; T. of a commentary to Vishnu's Dharma-sâstra.
vaikriya a. subject to modification (vikriyâ).
vaikṛtya n. [vikrita] modification, alteration; deterioration, degeneration; por tent; repulsiveness; hostility.
vyaṅgya fp. (to be) made manifest; expressed by implication, suggested (rh.; opp. vâkya, directly stated; lakshya, indicated).
vyañjana n. ornament (RV.1); C.: manifesting, indicating; indirect or sym bolical expression, suggestion; mark, token, badge; insignia of a prince; sign of puberty (beard, breasts, etc., sg. & pl.); sauce, con diment; consonant.
vyax{093c}ñjaka a. (ikâ) manifesting, show ing, indicating; expressing implicitly, sug gesting (rh.); m. expression of feeling.
vyavaccheda m. severance from (in., --°ree;); separation, dispersion (in a-); ex clusion; distinction, discrimination; letting fly (an arrow): -ka, a. distinguishing; ex cluding; -kkhedya, fp. to be excluded; -dhâna, n. interposition, intervention (ord. my.); cover; distinction, discrimination; interruption; conclusion: -vat, a. covered with (--°ree;); -dhâyaka, a. (ikâ) intervening; interrupting, disturbing; -dhârana, n.speci fication; -dhi, m. covering; -sâya, m. strenu ous labour; resolution, resolve, determina tion, purpose, to (lc., prati, --°ree;): -vat, a. reso lute, determined, enterprising; -sâyin, a. id., energetic; -sita, pp. √ sâ; n.resolve, pur pose, enterprise; -siti, f. resolution, deter mination; -sthâ, f. respective difference, distinction; continuance in one place (rare); fixity, permanence; fixed limit (rare); deci sion, establishment, settled rule regarding (--°ree;); fixed relation of time or place (gr.); state, condition; case (rare); occasion, oppor tunity (rare): in. according to a fixed rule: lc. in every single case; -sthâna, n. per sistence, continuance, in (lc., --°ree;); steadfast ness; condition, sg. pl. circumstances; -sthâ paka, a. determining, settling, deciding; -sthâpana, n. encouraging; fixing, deter mining; -sthâpanîya, fp. to be determined; -sthita-tva, n. permanence, fixity;-sthiti, f. distinction; perseverance in (lc.); con stancy, steadfastness; fixity, permanence; fixed rule; -hartavya, fp. to be employed or used; n. imps. one should act or proceed; -hartri, m. one engaged on or occupied with (in.); transactor; judge.
vyuccha pr. base, √ 3. vas; -½ukkh- antî, f. pr. pt. id.; -½ukkhân, 3 pl. pr. subj. √ 3. vas; -½ukkhiti, f. interruption; -½uk- kheda, m. id.; -½úkya, fp. n. imps. [√ vak] one should interrupt (V.); -½ũta, pp. √ 4. vâ; -½utkrama, m. transgression; inverted order; -½utkrânta, pp. (√ kram) departed: -gîvita, a. whose life has departed, lifeless; -½ut-thâ tavya, fp. n. one should desist from; -½ut thâna, n. awaking (a certain stage in Yoga); neglect of duties; -½utpatti, f. derivation, etymology; growth in knowledge, education, culture, comprehensive learning: -mat, a. cultured; -½utpâdaka, a. deriving, explaining etymologically; -½utpâdana, n. derivation from (ab.); -½utpâdya, fp. to be derived; - explained; -½udaka, a. waterless; -½udâsa, m. abandonment (rare); rejection, exclusion; end (rare); -½uparama, m.tranquillization, cessation; close (of day); -½upasama, m. cessation; -½ushita, pp. 1. √ vas, dwell; 2. √ vas, shine; n. daybreak (only lc.); -½ũsh- ta, pp. (√ vas) dawned etc.; (ví)-½ushti, f. flush of dawn (V.); reward for (g., lc., --°ree;), requital (good or evil); grace, beauty (rare).
śaṃsa m. (V.) call, invocation, praise; promise; blessing; curse: â, f. (C.) praise (rare); announcement (E., rare).
śaṃsatha m. conversation (rare); -ana, n. recitation; announcement; -anîya, fp. praiseworthy; -itri, m. reciter; -in, a. (--°ree;) reciting; announcing, declaring, showing, telling of, mentioning; foretelling, prognosticating; -tavya, fp. to be recited (Br.); (sáms)-tri, m. reciter (V.); (sáms)-ya, fp. to be recited (RV.); praiseworthy (V.).
śakti f. ability, capacity, power, strength, skill, to (g., lc., inf., --°ree;); efficacy (of a remedy etc.); regal power (which comprises the three elements, prabhâva, majesty, utsâha, energy, and mantra, counsel); active power or female energy of a deity (esp. of Siva); force of a word, signification, function, case-notion; creative power of a poet, imagination: in. saktyâ (± âtmaor sva-), according to ability; param saktyâ, with all one's might; saktim ahâpayitvâ, not re laxing one's efforts, exerting oneself to the utmost.
śata (m.) n. (--°ree; a. î) a hundred (sts. pl. for sg.; with g., apposition, or --°ree;); a smaller number °ree;-is either additional (asîti sate=280) or multiplicative (tri-satam= 300) or the cpd. becomes an ordinal (dvi-sata =200th); with a numeral in -ka it=so many per cent (pañkakam satam=five per cent); a multiplicative is separated from it in a cpd. by the object counted (katur-varsha satam=400 years); it is also sts. °ree;-instead of --°ree;.
śapatha m. curse, imprecation; oath; ordeal (rare): -karana, n. taking an oath; -pûrvakam, ad. with oaths; -½uttaram, ad. id.
śama m. (mental) tranquillity or calmness, equanimity, quietism; peace, with (sârdham); apathy (rare); tranquillization, calm, pacification, alleviation, cessation, ex tinction: -m kri, show calmness, calm oneself, be tranquil: -gir, f. tranquillizing word; -pradhâna, a. devoted to calmness.
śaraṇāgata pp. come for pro tection, seeking refuge; m. suppliant for shelter, refugee: -ghâtaka, -hantri, m. slayer of suppliants for protection, -tâ, f. supplication for protection; -½arthin, a.seeking shelter or refuge.
śarīraka n. (--°ree; a. f. ikâ) a wretched tiny body; the wretched body; body (metr. for sarîra); -kartri, m., -krit, m. father; -karshana, n. emaciation of the body; -grahana, n. assumption of a bodily form; -ga, a. produced from, belonging to, per formed with the body, bodily; m. offspring, son; god of love; -ganman, a. id.; -tulya, a. (equal to=) dear as one's own body; -tyâga, m. abandonment of the body, renunciation of life; -danda, m. corporal punishment; -dhâtu, m. chief constituent of the body (flesh, blood etc.); -dhrik, m. corporeal being; -nipâta, m. collapse of the body, falling down dead; -nyâ sa, m. casting off the body, death; -pâta, m. collapse of the body, death; -pîdâ, f. bodily suffering; -prabhava, m. begetter, father; -baddha, pp. confined in a body, in carnate; -bandha, m. fetters of the body; assumption of a (new) body, rebirth: in. bodily (disappear); -bhâg, m. embodied being; -bheda, m. collapse of the body, death; -yashti, f. slender body, slim figure; -yâtrâ, f. sustenance of the body; -yoga-ga, a. produced from bodily contact; -vat, a.provided with a body; substantial; m. em bodied being; -vimokshana, n. liberation from the body, death; -vritta, pp. careful of his body or life; -vritti, f. maintenance of the body, support of life; -vaikalya, n. in disposition of body, distemper; -susrûshâ, f. personal attendance; -soshana, n. morti fication of the body; -samdhi, m. joint of the body; -sâda, m. bodily exhaustion, emacia tion; -stha, a. existing in the body; -sthiti, f.maintenance of the body.
śasman n. [√ sams] invocation, praise (RV.1); (sas)-ya, fp. [√ sams] to be recited or treated as a Sastra (Br.); to be praised (C.).
śīt onom. ad. w. kri, utter the sound sît (indication of a thrill of pleasure).
śuddhi f. purification, from (--°ree;), purity (also fig.); clearing of what is dan gerous, rendering secure (rare); exculpation, acquittal, by (--°ree;; rare); (proof of) genuine ness, correctness (rare); settlement, payment (of a debt etc.); clearness, accurate knowledge regarding (g., --°ree;): -m kri, procure accurate information; -m labh, receive certain news.
śubhalakṣaṇa a. having aus picious marks; -lagna, n. auspicious or lucky moment; -vâsara, m. auspicious day; -samsin, a. prognosticating good, auspi cious; -sakuna, m. bird of good omen; -samanvita, pp. charming.
śauca n. cleanness, purity (also ritual); purification by (--°ree;); integrity, honesty: -tva, n. id.; -vat, a. pure (also fig.).
śoṣa a. (--°ree;) drying up; removing, destroying; m. drying up, withering, decay; dryness; -ana, a. (î) drying up, parching, withering; removing, destroying; n. desic cation; emaciation; -in, a. drying up, wast ing away; drying up, withering (tr.).
śodhaka a. [√ sudh] purifying; -ana, a. id.; n. means of purification; cleans ing, purifying; removal; subtraction; clear ing up, sifting, investigation, examination: -ka, m. servant charged withcleaning and keeping a house in order; -anîya, fp. to be cleansed or purified; -discharged or paid; -in, a. cleansing, purifying; -ya, fp. to be purified; to be rectified or corrected.
śleṣa m. adherence to (lc.); union, connexion; embrace; euphonious combina tion of words (as a rhet. figure); combination of contrasts (as a rhet. figure); ambiguity, equivocation; augment (gr.):-kavi, m. poet skilled in equivocation; -½upamâ, f. simile containing ambiguities.
śliṣṭaparaṃparitarūpaka n. continuous chain of ambiguities (a kind of metaphor); -rûpaka, n. ambiguity as a metaphor; -½âkshepa, m. expression of dissatisfaction by means of equivocation (rh.); -½ukti, f. ambiguous expression.
śrānta pp. (√ sram) wearied etc.; n. fatigue; mortification, fruit of religious austerities: -½âgata, pp. arriving wearied.
ṣaṣṭhī f. sixth (sc. tithi) day of a fortnight; sixth (sc. vibhakti) case, genitive; personification of the sixth day after the birth of a child (when the main risks are over): -gâgara, m. watch on the sixth day after the birth of a child (a certain ceremony); -tatpurusha, m. genitive Tatpurusha compound (in which the first member has the sense of a genitive); -samâsa, m. compound in which the first member has the sense of a genitive.
saṃvijñāna n. implication; knowledge: -bhûta, pp. generally known; -vitti, f. knowledge; perception, sense, of (--°ree;); 1. -víd, f. V., C.: consciousness, of (--°ree;); knowledge; understanding, agreement, cove nant, regarding (--°ree;; ord. mg.); C.: feeling, of (--°ree;); plan, scheme; conversation, about (--°ree;); established usage, custom; name; gratification: -am kri, sthâpaya, or vi-dhâ, make an agreement, with (in. ± saha, g.), to (d., inf.), regarding (--°ree;); -am la&ndot;ghaya or vi½ati-kram, break an agreement; 2. -víd, f. acquisition, property (V.); -vida, a. con scious (in a-, Br.); n. agreement (perh. incorr. for -vid); -vidhâ, f. arrangement, contriv ance, preparation; mode of life; -vidhâ tavya, fp. to be arranged, contrived, or man aged; n. imps. one should act; -vidhâtri, m. arranger, ordainer, creator, god; -vidhâna, n. arrangement, contrivance, preparation: -ka, n. peculiar mode of action; -vidhi, m. arrangement, preparation, provision; -vidhe ya, fp. to be brought about; -vibhagana, n. sharing with another; -vibhaganîya, fp. to be distributed among (d.); -vibhâga, m. par tition, sharing with others; bestowal of a share, on (d., lc.); bestowal or distribution of (--°ree;); causing to participate in (--°ree;); giving (an order, --°ree;); share: -m kri, Â. partici pate inanything (in.) with any one (g.): -sîla, a. accustomed to share with others; -vibhâgi-tva, n. virtue of sharing with others; -vibhâgin, a. accustomed to share with others, in the habit of sharing with (g.); receiving a share of (g.); -vibhâgya, a. to be presented with something; -vîta, pp. √ vyâ; n. clothing.
saṃśayita pp. √ sî; n. doubt, un certainty; -sayitavya, fp. dubious; -saya½u pamâ, f. comparison expressed in the form of a doubt; -sarana, n. taking refuge with any one; -sânti, f. extinction;-sita, pp. √ sâ: -vâk, a. speaking sharply, -½âtman, a. firmly resolved; -siti, f. sharpening (Br.); -sîta, a. cold; -sîti, f. doubt; -sîlana, n. practice; frequent intercourse with (in.); -suddhi, f. purity; -sushka, a. dried up, dry, withered, sere, emaciated; -soka-ga, a. produced from moist heat; m. vermin pro duced from damp heat; -sodhana, a. (î) purifying; n. purification; -sraya, m. con nexion, association with (g., --°ree;); league for mutual protection; refuge, shelter, protec tion, asylum; residence, habitation; reference, relation; resorting to (lc., --°ree;; rare); recourse, addiction or devotion to: ab. in consequence of (--°ree;); with the help of, by means of (--°ree;): --°ree; a. dwelling, living in, staying with (a teacher), standing in (a boat), being in or on, growing (tree) near; relating or referring to; devoted to, practising; -srayanîya, fp. to be resorted to, -taken refuge with: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -srayitavya, fp. to be sought refuge in (fortress); -srayin, a. having sought the protection or entered the service of any one; dwelling, resting or standing in, being in or on (--°ree;); m.dependent, servant; -srava, m. hearing; ear-shot (lc. within hearing of, g.); promise; -sravana, n. hearing, -about (--°ree;); ear-shot: lc. within hearing, aloud; (sám)- srita, pp. √ sri; m. dependent, servant: -vat, pp. act. clinging to, having wedded (in.); -sri tavya, fp. incorr. for -srayitavya; -slish- ta-karman, a. in whose actions good and evil are not kept apart, indifferent as to the morality of his actions; -slesha, m. con nexion, union, contact, with (in., --°ree;); em brace: -m labh, attain; -sleshana, n. con necting; means of binding together, bond; -sleshin, a. connecting.
saṃśaptaka m. pl. confederates (Trigarta and his brothers) who had sworn to slay Arguna but perished in the attempt (E.); -sabdana, n. mention (sts. pl.); -sam ana, a. (î) calming, allaying; n.pacification; sedative.
saṃskāra m. [√ kri] preparation, dressing (of food); refining (of metals etc.); polishing (of gems); cleansing, purifying; embellishment, decoration, adornment; rear ing (of animals or plants); toilet, attire (rare); correct formation or use (of a word); train ing, education; correctness (of pronuncia tion or expression); purificatory rite, domes tic consecration (applicable to all members of the first three castes), sacrament; sacrament of the dead, cremation (rare); mental impres sion (left by causes no longer operative and sts. dating from a previous birth; there are three kinds, vega, impulse, sthiti-sthâpaka, elasticity, andbhâvanâ, reproductive ima gination); after-effect; creation of the mind (regarded by it as real though actually non existent, such as material phenomena and all connected therewith; B.): -tâ, f. abst. n. of a cpd. ending insamskâra (=mental impres sion); -tva, n. decoration: kakshushâm samskâra-tvam sam-âp, become a feast to the eye; -nâman, n. sacramental name (= our baptismal name); -maya, a. (--°ree;) con sisting in the consecration of (rite); -vat, a. grammatically correct; -visishta, pp. better prepared (food).
saṃkranda m. lamentation; battle; -krándana, a. shouting, roaring; m. ep. of Indra; n. battle: -nandana, m. pat. of Ar guna and of the monkey Vâlin; -kramá, m. going together (V.); C.: course, progress; tran sition, transference to (lc.); entry of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; bridge (ord. mg.); stair (esp. leading down to water); N. of a fairy prince; -krámana, n. entrance, commencement; transition, entrance into (lc., --°ree;); entry of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; transfer to another world, de cease; -kramî-kri, make a bridge or medium of: gd. by means of (ac.); -krânta, pp. √ kram; -krânti, f. entrance into (lc., --°ree;); transference, communication; passage of the sun to another sign of the zodiac (--°ree;): pa yaso gandûsha-samkrântayah, transfer ence of water to swallowing = water meant for drinking; -krâmin, a.being transferred to others; -krîda, m. play, sport; -krosá, m. shout; -klishta-karman, a. acting with difficulty; -kleda, m. saturation, wetting, with (--°ree;): -bhûta, pp. forming a moist mass (foetus); -klesa, m. pain, suffering; -kshaya, m. decay, loss, complete consump tion or disappearance; drying up (of water); ruin, destruction; end; -kshâlanâ, f. wash ing, ablution; -kshipti: -kâ, f. simple ex pedient (dr.); -kshepa, m. throwing together, destruction (rare); abridgment, compres sion, conciseness, brief exposition; quintes sence of (g.); aggregate (rare): in., ab., °ree;--, -tas, briefly, concisely; in., -tas, in the aggregate; -kshobha, m. jolt, shock, com motion, disturbance; agitation, excitement.
satyāpana (den.) n. ratification (of a bargain etc.).
satya a. actual, real, genuine, true; successful, effectual (invocation), realised (wish); trustworthy, faithful, sincere; valid (agreement): -m kri, make true, fulfil; (á)-m, ad. truly, really, actually, indeed, certainly, rightly; very well (in answers); it is true (also w. tu, kim tu, tathâ½api, but, yet); yat satyam, indeed, certainly; m. ninth Kalpa or cosmic period; ep. of Krishna; N. of a certain genius; N.; n. reality, truth; truth fulness, veracity; promise, oath, word; first age (=krita); N. of the highest of the seven worlds: -m ka te gñâtvâ, having ascer tained the truth about you (i. e. that you are actually so); -m kikîrshamâna, wishing to keepone's word; tena satyena, on the strength of that truth, so truly; yathâ -tena or evam satyena, as certainly -so truly; â, f. ep. of Durgâ; abbreviated for Satyabhâmâ.
sadyaḥkṛtta pp. recently cut; -pâtin, a. quickly sinking or drooping (heart); -pragñâ-kara, a. (î) producing intelligence at once; -pragñâ-hara, a. at once depriving of intelligence; -prasûtâ, pp. f. having recently brought forth or calved; -prâna-kara, a. at once restoring vitality; -prâna-hara, a. at once depriving of vitality; -phala, a. at once bearing fruit: -sakti-hara, a. at once de priving of strength; -sauka, n.instantaneous purification; -srâddhin, a. having just par taken of a funeral feast.
saṃnahana n. tying together; pre paration; cord; equipment; -nâda, m. sound, din, cry, roar; -nâdana, a. causing to sound, filling with noise; -nâma, m. subjection; modification; -nâha, m. tying up, girding; preparation, equipment; undertaking; cord; armour, mail; trappings of a horse; -nikar sha, m. drawing together, approximation, close contact, with (--°ree;); connexion with, re lation to (--°ree;); nearness, proximity: -m, ac. (go etc.) near; ab. from one's presence (de- part etc.); lc. in the neighbourhood of (g., --°ree;); -nikâsa, --°ree; a. having the appearance of; -nikrishta, pp. near etc.; n. nearness, prox imity: -m, ad.near (--°ree;); lc. in the neigh bourhood of (g., --°ree;); -nikaya, m. accumula tion; abundance, plenty, store; -nidhâtri, m. one who is near; receiver (of stolen goods); official on duty; -nidhâna, n. (putting toge ther into), receptacle; nearness, proximity, presence; existence: ab. from (g.); lc. in the neighbourhood or presence of (g., --°ree;); -nidhi, m. juxtaposition; proximity, vicinity, pre sence, existence: lc. in the presence of, near (g., --°ree;); -m, into the presence of, near (g., --°ree;); -m kri, bandh, or vi-dhâ, take up one's position or abode in (lc.); -nipâta, m. con tact, collision, encounter, with (in.); con junction, combination, aggregation, mixture; (morbid combination=) disorder of the three bodily humours; fall, descent (in lakshana-); collapse, death (very rare): -nidrâ, f. trance; -nipâtita, cs. pp. brought together, assembled; -nipâtya, fp. to be shot (arrow) at (lc.); -nibarhana, n. repression, mastery (of the heart); -nibha, a. resembling, like, -ish (--°ree;; sometimes with names of colours).
saṃdeśa m. command, commission, errand, message, to (g., lc.): -ka, m. con mu nication of (--°ree;); -tas, ad. by order of (g.); -pada, n. pl. words of a message; -hara, m. news-bearer, messenger, envoy; -hârin, m. id.; -½artha, m. subject-matter of a message.
saptama a. (&isharp;) seventh: î, f. seventh day of a fortnight; (terminations of the) seventh or locative case: -samâsa, m. com pound in which the first member has a loca tive sense.
saptanavata a. ninety-seventh; -pattra, a. seven-leaved; yoked with seven horses; m. a tree (Alstonia scholaris; = -kkhada); (á)-pad, a. (-î) taking seven steps (with which an alliance or marriage is con cluded); concluded, confirmed; (á)-pada, a. taking seven steps (with which an alliance or marriage is concluded); consisting of seven Pâdas: î, f. seven steps: -karana, n. ratification of a marriage by the seven steps taken by the bride; -parna, m. (seven leaved) a tree (Alstonia scholaris = -kkhada); -palâsa, a. consisting of seven leaves; -bha&ndot; g&ibrevcirc;-naya, m. method of the seven formulas beginning with &open;perhaps&close; (syât) in the scep tical dialectics of the Jains; -bhûmika, a. id.
saprakāraka a. containing a specification; -praga, a. possessing offspring; -pragâpati-ka, a. together with Pragâpati; -pragña, a. endowed with understanding; -pranaya, a. with the sacred syllable om; -pranâmam, ad. with a bow; -pratiban dha, a. entailing obstacles (legacy, which owing to the absence of direct male descend ants devolves on a collateral branch, a widow, etc.); -pratibha, a. possessed of ready in telligence, of quick discernment; -pratîkâsa, a. together with the reflection; -pratîvâpa, a. with an admixture; -pratyaya, a. having confidence in (lc.); trustworthy, sure: -ka, a. together with the suffix; -pratyâsam, ad. expectantly; -práthas (or sá-, YV.) a. (V.) extensive; extending, sounding, or shining far; -prabha, a. having the same lustre or appear ance as (--°ree;); -prabhâva, a. mighty, power ful; -pramâda, a.heedless, off one's guard; -pramodam, ad. joyfully; -prasrayam, ad. respectfully, modestly; -prasava, a. blessed with progeny: â, f. pregnant; -prasâda, a. gracious: -m, ad. -ly; -prahâsam, ad. burst ing into a laugh; (sá)-prâna, a. breathing, living; -prema, a. loving; -preman, a. re joicing in (lc.).
samarthana n. reflection, contem plation; corroboration, vindication, justifica tion; ability, competence (ab., by virtue of, g.): -m kri, reflect; -arthanîya, fp. to be established, justified, or cleared up; -artha ya, den. (v. arthaya) arrange etc.; connect with, construe grammatically: pp. ita, capable; -arthya, fp. to be established, corroborated, or justified; -ardhana, a. (î) causing to suc ceed; -ardhayitri, m. fulfiller, bestower: trî, f.; -arpaka, a. delivering, yielding up; -árpana, n. placing or throwing upon (Br.); C.: delivering, handing over, consigning, be stowing; making known, communicating; -arpanîya, fp. to be delivered, handed over, or entrusted; -arpayitavya, fp. id.; -arpita, cs. pp. (√ i) handed over etc.
samārādhana n. gratification, propitiation; means of propitiating any one (g.); -rurukshu, des. a. wishing to ascend to (ac.); -ropa, m. placing in (lc.); stringing (a bow); transference to (lc.); attribution; -ropana, n. transference; stringing (of a bow); -róhana, m. ascent, to (g.; Br.); n. (C.) ascending to (--°ree;); growth (of hair).
samājñā f. appellation, name; -gñâna, n. recognition as (--°ree;); -dâna, n. taking upon oneself, incurring, contracting; -deya, fp. to be received; -desa, m. direction, instruction; command, order; -dhâtavya, fp. to be set to rights, repaired, or adjusted; -dhâna, n. adjustment, settlement; recon cilement; justification of a statement, de monstration; mental concentration, atten tion; deep contemplation or devotion:-m kri, attend; -dhi, m. putting together, join ing, with (in.); joint (of the neck); union, combination; performance; adjustment, set tlement; justification of a statement, proof; attention (to, lc.), intentness on (--°ree;); deep meditation on the supreme soul, profound devotion (ord. mg.); N. of various figures of speech: -m kri, direct one's attention, to (lc.); -dhi-ta, den. pp. reconciled; -dhitsu, des. a. (√ dhâ) wishing to prove.
samudanta a. rising above the edge, about to overflow (V.); -aya, m. union, junction (of forces); combination, aggregate; income, revenue (rare); success (rare): -m kri, collect or assemble (an army); -âkâra, m. presentation, offering, of (--°ree;); good or courteous behaviour; intercourse with (in.); address; -âya, m. combination, collection, aggregate, whole; genus (elephant); -âyin, a. combining, forming an aggregate; -ita mukha, a. with one voice, all at once; -ga, m. round casket; kind of artificial stanza (in which the two halves are identical in sound but different in meaning, e.g. Kirâtâr gunîya XV, 16): -ka, m. n. round casket; -gama, m. rise (of the sun), rising (of dust, of the breast); -danda, a. uplifted (arm); -desa, m. exposition, doctrine; locality, place; -dhata, pp. √ han: -lâ&ndot;gûla, a. cocking his tail; -dharana, n. upraising, extrication; removal; -dhartri, m. deliverer from (the ocean, danger, ab.); extirpator; -dhâra, m. extraction; rescue; removal, destruction; -bandhana, n. hanging up: âtmanah --, hanging oneself; -bodhana, n.resuscitation; -bhava, m. production, origin; appearance: --°ree; a. arising or produced from, being the source of; -bhâsana, n. illuminating; -bhe da, m. development; source; -yama, m. lift ing up; exertion, effort, labour, setting about (d., lc., --°ree;); -yamin, a. exerting oneself, strenuous; -yoga, m. employment, use (rare); preparation, equipment; energy; concurrence (of causes).
samudreka m. predominance; -unnati, f. rising (of the breast); height; ex altation, high position, eminence; increase; elevation (of mind): kittam samunnatim asnute, the soul feels elevated; -unneya, fp. to be inferred or concluded; -unmukhî- kri, lift up; -unmûlana, n. eradication, complete destruction.
saṃmukha a. (î, sts. â) confronting, facing (g., --°ree;); favourable, to any one (g.), propitious (fortune); intent on (lc., --°ree;): -m, ad. (come etc.) towards; (draw) to (oneself, âtmanah); (look) intoone's face; face to face; opposite, in the presence of (g.); lc. oppo site, before, in front or the presence of (g.): w. bhû, oppose any one (g.); w. sthâ, look any one (g.) in the face; °ree;--, towards; into one's face; -mukhî-kri, place opposite, make one's aim; -mukhîna, a. confronting, facing, opposite; favourable to (g.): -tva, n. condi tion of facing; presence; -mukhî-bhû, post oneself opposite; -mugdham, (pp.) ad. clandestinely; -mûdha,pp. √ muh: -tâ, f., -tva, n. dazed condition; -mûrkhana, n. congealment, densification, accumulation; -melana, n. meeting together, mixture, union; -mohá, m. stupefaction, swoon; infatuation, delusion; -mohana, a.(î) deluding, infatu ating; m. N. of one of the arrows of the god of love; n. leading astray, deluding, infatu ating; a certain mythical missile.
saṃbaddham ad. moreover, in ad dition; -bandha, m. collection (rare); con nexion, relation (with, to, in. ± saha, --°ree;); connexion by marriage, matrimonial alliance, relationship, friendship, intimacy (with, in. ± saha, lc., --°ree;); kinsman; friend, ally; --°ree; often incorr. for sambaddha: -ka, n. rela tionship etc.; bad reading for -ga; -bandh in, a. connected, -with, relating or belonging to (g., --°ree;); united with, possessing (--°ree;, rare); related, connected by marriage; m. relation, connexion: (-i)-tâ, f. belonging; connexion with, relation to (in., --°ree;); relationship, con nexion by marriage, (-i)-tva, n. connexion with, relation to (in., --°ree;); -bâdhá, m. C.: throng, crowd; contracted space; pressure, distress, affliction (V., E.): a. (C.) narrow, contracted; crammed with (in.); --°ree;, crowded, thronged or blocked up with, abounding in, full of; -buddhi, f. calling to any one; (end ing of) the vocative singular; -bodha, m. knowledge, understanding; -bodhana, a. awakening (rare); n. perceiving, noticing; recognising; reminding; calling, to any one (g.); (ending of) the vocative singular; -bodhya, fp. to be enlightened or instructed.
saṃpriya a. mutually dear, being on good terms with (in.; V.); n. satisfaction (E., rare); -prîti, f. joy, delight, in (lc., --°ree;); good will, friendship (with, for, in. ± saha), love for (g., lc.); -preshana, n.sending, de spatch (sts. pl.); dismission; -praishá, m. summons, direction to an officiating priest (V.); -plava, m. flowing together of waters, flood, deluge; swell, surge (of the sea); dense mass, multitude, shower; tumult (of battle, --°ree;); submersion, ruin; -phulla, pp. expanded, blooming; -pheta, m. altercation.
sarvaśūnya a. entirely empty: -tâ, f. complete void; theory that everything is non-existent, nihilism, -tva, n. id.: -vâdin, m. nihilist; -samhârin, a. all-destroying; -sa-guna, a. possessing excellences in every thing; -sama-tâ, f. impartiality towards everything; (á)-samriddha, pp. entirely well arranged (V.); -sampatti, f. success in everything; abundance of everything; -sam panna, pp. provided with everything: -sas ya, a. having abundant corn everywhere (earth); -saha, a. enduring everything; -sâdhana, a. accomplishing everything; -sâdhârana, a. (â, î) common to all; -sâdhu, ad. very good (as an exclamation); -sâmân ya, a.common to all; -siddhârtha, a. having all one's aims accomplished, having every thing one desires; -sukha-krit, a. causing universal happiness; (sárva)-sena, a. leading all his host (RV.); -sthâna-gavâta, m. N. of a Yaksha; -sva, n. entire property; --°ree;, entirety, whole, or sum of: -phal-in, a. with all their goods and fruits; -svarna-maya, a. (î) entirely golden; -hara, a. appropriating everything; all-destroying (death); -hara- na, n.confiscation of the entire property; -hâra, m. id.: -m, abs. confiscating his whole property; -hâsya, fp. derided by all; -hút, a. offered completely (sacrifice; V.); -huti, f. entire sacrifice (Br.).
savāsas a. clothed, with one's clothes; -vikalpa, a. possessing or admitting of variety or distinctions, differentiated: -ka, a. id.; -vikâra, a. together with its develop ments or derivatives; together with its pro ducts (milk); enamoured; subject to modi fication or decomposition (food); -vikâsa, a. shining; -vikrama, a. vigorous, energetic; -viklavam, ad. dejectedly; -vigraha, a. embodied; -vikikitsitam, ad.doubtfully; -vitarkam, ad. thoughtfully; -vitâna, a. having a canopy.
sava m. 1. [√ 1. su] extraction of Soma (V.); 2. (√ 2. su) V.: stimulator, commander; instigation, command, order; vivification (the activity of Savitri); Br.: sacrificial rite of consecration, initiation, inauguration; C.: sacrifice.
sahūti f. joint invocation (RV.); (sá)-hridaya, a. V., C.: together with the heart; V.: hearty; C.: warm-hearted, feel ing; having a sense of the beautiful; -hetu ka, a. together with the reason; having a reason, justifiable; -hema-ka, a. together with the gold pieces; -hela, a. unconcerned: °ree;-or -m, ad. without more ado; m. N.: -ka, m. id.
sāttvika a. (î) spirited, vigorous (person); relating to, dominated by etc. the quality of Sattva; indicating an inward feel ing or sentiment (rh., dr.).
sāmarthya n. [samartha] suitableness, adequacy; justification for (lc., --°ree;); connexion in sense; power, strength, efficacy, capacity, ability (for, to, d., lc., inf., --°ree;); force, meaning, or function(of a word): -m kri, do one's utmost; ab. by virtue of, in con sequence of, in accordance with (also-yogât); according to the state of the case, as a matter of course (also -tas); -yogât, ab. according to circumstances; -vat,a. capable; -hîna, pp. deprived of strength.
sāvakāśa a. applicable; -½ava graha, a. limited; analysed (compound); withholding its water (cloud); -½avakârana, a. together with the application; -½avagña, a. disdainful, of (lc.): -m, ad.contemptu ously; -½avadya, a. censurable (act); inferior (commodity); -½avadhâna, a. attentive, heed ful, careful: -m, ad. attentively, -tâ, f. carefulness; -½avadhârana, a. attended with a limitation; restrictive (so as to exclude everything but what has been stated); -½ava dhi, a. limited, circumscribed.
sukaṇṭha a. (î) sweet-voiced: î, f. N. of an Apsaras; -kathâ, f. beautiful story; -kany&asharp;, f. N. of a daughter of Saryâta and wife of Kyavana (Br., C.); -kára, a. easily done, easy, for (g.), to (inf.): -tva, n. easi ness, feasibleness, -samdhi, a. easily united; -kárman, a. expert (V.); virtuous (C.); m. artificer (V.); -kalatra, n. good wife; -kavi, m. good poet; -kânta, pp. very handsome (youth); -kâlin, m. pl. a class of Manes; -kimsuká, a. adorned with Kimsuka flowers (car of Sûryâ; RV.1); -kîrtí, f. worthy praise (RV.); a. easily praised (RV.); m. N. of the composer of RV. X, 131 and of that hymn; -kukâ, a. f. having beautiful breasts; -ku mâra, a. (î) very tender or delicate; m. tender youth: -tva, n. tenderness, -½a&ndot;gî, a. f. very delicate-limbed; -kula, n. noble family; a. sprung from a noble family: -ga, -ganman, a. id., -tâ, f. noble birth;-kulîna, a. well-born; -kûrkura, m. N. of a demon injurious to children; -krit, a. doing good, benevolent; righteous, pious; m. pl. the Pious deceased, the Fathers who enjoy the reward of virtue in the other world (V.); 1.-kritá, n. good deed, meritorious act, righteousness, virtue, moral merit (V., C.); benefit, bounty, friendly aid, favour (C.); world of virtue, heaven (V., rare); a. well done (RV.1); 2. (sú)-krita, pp. well done, made, orexecuted; well-formed, adorned, fine: w. karman, n. good work; w. loká, m.= sukritasya loka, world of righteousness (V.); -krita-karman, n. good or meritorious act; a. doing good deeds, virtuous; -krita-krit, a. id.; -krita-bhâg, a. meritorious; -krita½ar tha, a. having fully attained one's object; -kriti, f. good conduct; a. righteous, vir tuous; -kritin, a. doing good actions, vir tuous; prosperous, fortunate; cultivated, wise; -kritya, n.good work to be done, duty; good action; -krity&asharp;, f. (RV.) ex pertness; right conduct, virtue; -krishta, pp. well-ploughed; -kéta, a. benevolent (V.); m. N. of an Âditya (V.); -ketú, a. radiant (dawn; RV.1); m. N. of a prince of the Yak shas and of various kings (C.): -sutâ, f. daughter of Suketu, Tâdakâ; -ketri, m. a personification (identified with the sun); -kesa, a. (î) beautiful-haired; -kesânta, a. having fair locks; -komala, a. very soft or tender; -krátu, a. skilful, wise (gods; RV.); -klesa, a. very distressing; -kshatrá, a. (V.) ruling well (gods); conferring power (wealth); -kshatriya, a. good Kshatriya; -kshití, f. (V.) good abode, security, refuge; -kshétra, n. fine field, good soil; a. affording a fair field or dwelling-place; having fair fields; -kshetriy&asharp;, f. desire of fair fields (RV.1); -kshobhya, fp. easily agitated.
supakva a. well-cooked; thoroughly ripe or mature (also fig.); -pa&ndot;ka, m. (?) good clay; -patha, a. easy to read, legible; -pati, m. good husband; -pattra, a. having beau tiful wings; well-feathered (arrow); having a beautiful vehicle; -pátnî, a. f. having a good husband; -páth, m. good path; -pátha, n. (V.), m. (C.) good road (V., C.); virtuous course (C.); -pathin, m. (nm. -panthâs) good path; -pad, a. (-î) swift-footed (RV.1); -pa p[a]t-aní, f. swift flight (RV.1); -parigñâta, pp. well-ascertained; -parisrânta, pp. com pletely exhausted; -parihara, a. easy to avoid; -parîkshana, n. careful examina tion; -parîkshita, pp.carefully examined; -parus, a. having beautiful knots (arrow); -parná, a. (&isharp;) having beautiful wings (RV.); m. a large bird of prey, vulture, eagle (fig. of sun, moon, and clouds; du. = sun and moon; V.); a mythical bird, identified with Garuda (C.): -ketu, m. ep. of Vishnu Krishna; -paryavasita, pp. well carried out; -paryâpta, pp. very spacious (house); -par van, a. having beautiful joints; having beauti ful sections orbooks (Mahâbhârata); famous; -palâyita, (pp.) n. skilful or opportune re treat; -pâni, V. a. beautiful-handed; dex terous-handed; -pâtra, n. good receptacle, worthy person (esp. to receive gifts); -pârá, a. (RV.) easy to cross; easy to bear; easily passing over (rain); conducting to a pros perous issue (also TS.); m. a certain per sonification: (á)-kshatra, a. easily traversing his realm (Varuna; RV.1); -pârsva, a. hav ing beautiful sides; m. N.; -pippalá, a. bear ing good berries (V.); -pihita-vat, pp. act. having (the ears, ac.) carefully closed: -î, f. =finite vb.; -punya, a. very excellent; n. great religious or moral merit; -putra, m. good son; á, a. having manyor good chil dren (V., E.); -purusha, m. a certain per sonification; -pushkala, a. very abundant; -pushta, pp. well-fed; -pushpa, a. having beautiful flowers; -pushpita, den. pp. adorned with beautiful flowers; -pûgita,pp. highly honoured; (sú)-pûta, pp. well-clarified; -pûra, a. easy to fill; (sú)-pûrna, pp. well filled, quite full; -pûrvam, ad. very early in the morning; -pûrvâhne, lc. early in the forenoon; -pésas, a. well-adorned, beauti ful, fair (V., rarely P.).
subaddha pp. bound fast (RV.1); firmly clenched (fist; C.); -bándhu (or ú, AV.), a. closely connected or related; m. good friend; N.; -bala, m. N.; -bahu, a. (v-î) very much or many; -bâhú, a. fair armed (V., E.); m. (C.) N. of various men; N. of a Dânava and of a Râkshasa: -satru, m. foe of Subâhu, ep. of Râma; -bîga, n. good seed; -buddhi, f. good understanding; a. intelligent, shrewd, wise; m. Good-wit, N. of a crow: -mat, a. very intelligent or wise; -bodha, a. easy to recognise or understand; -bodhinî, f. (facilitating understanding) T. of commentaries; -brahmanyá, a. very fa vourable to Brâhmans; m. one of the three assistants of the Udgâtri priest: &asharp;, f. invo cation of the gods by this priest to partake of the Soma (sts.=the priest himself); 1. (sú)-brahman, n. good Brahman (Br.); 2. -bráhman, a. attended with good prayers (RV.).
surabhūya n. deification; -mandira, n. house of god, temple; -muni, m. divine sage: pl. the seven stars of the Great Bear.
suhata pp. thoroughly beaten; justly killed; -hána, a. easy to slay (V.); -hántu, a. id. (RV.); -háva, a. (V.) easily invoked, listening willingly; invoking well; n. (V.) successful invocation; -hásta, a. (V.)fair handed; deft of hand; (sú)-hita, pp. C.: very suitable; very salutary; perfectly satis fied, fully sated (esp. with food and drink; Br., S.; rare in C.); (sú)-huta, pp. V., E.: well offered (sacrifice); well sacrificed to (C.); n.right sacrifice (V.): -hut, a. offering a right sacrifice (S.); -hrik-khoka-vivardha na, a. increasing the sorrow of one's friends; -hrig-gana, m. sg. friend, friends: pl. friends; -hrit-tama, spv. best of friends; -hrit-tâ, f., -hrit-tva, n. friendship; -hrit-tyâga, m. desertion of a friend: -hrid, m. [good hearted] friend; ally (-hrido ganâh, friends): --°ree; a. fond of, addicted to; closely resembling; -hridaya, a. kind-hearted (V.): -tama, spv.; -hrid-bheda, m. separation of friends; -hrid vadha, m. slaying a friend; -hrid-vâkya, n. speech or advice of a friend; -hrin-nârî, f. female friend; -hrin-mitra, n. sg. friends and allies; -hemanta, m. good winter (S.); -hótri (orsú-), m. good sacrificer (V.); -hotra, m. N.
sūcaka a. (ikâ) indicating, showing, designating (g., --°ree;); m. informer; -ana, n. indication, communication; -anîya, fp. to be indicated.
sūryā f. female personification of the Sun; hymn of the wedding of Sûryâ (RV. X, 85).
senā f. 1. [√ 2. si] V.: missile, dart; Indra's wife (personification of his bolt); 2. √ sî] V., C.: battle-array, army; often --°ree;, in names, esp. of courtesans.
styāyana n. densification, accu mulation.
sthiti f. [√ sthâ] C.: standing; re maining, staying, stay, residence (in, on, at, with any one, lc., --°ree;; ord. mg.); upright posi tion (of the breasts); depositing, keeping (of records, money); halting-place, abode (also rarely in Br.); station, position, rank, dignity; steady application to, addiction to, intentness on (lc.); steadfastness, stability; sustained existence, continuance, permanence (common mg.; also U.); duration; existence, occur rence; procedure, behaviour, conduct; state, condition; decree, ordinance; settled rule, maxim (also Br.); usage, custom, institution; fixed opinion, conviction; attaching importance to (youth, lc.); steady adherence to the path of duty or law, moral rectitude; limit, bounds (esp. of morality): -m â-kar, remain standing; -m kri, grah, bhag, or vi-dhâ, make a stay, take up one's abode.
svaharaṇa n. confiscation of pro perty; -hasta, m. own hand: -gata, pp. fallen into or being in one's own hand, -svas tika-stanî, a. f. covering her breasts with crossed hands; -hastikâ, f. hoe, mattock, pickaxe; -hastita, pp. held or supported by one's hand; -hita, pp. beneficial to oneself; well disposed to one; n. one's own welfare.
svāhā indecl. [perhaps old in., aus- picious word: √ ah; cp. su½asti] hail! bless ing! (to, on, d. of deity); at the end of in vocations=amen: with kri, pronounce the exclamation svâhâ over(ac.); f. personified as daughter of Daksha and wife of Agni: -kârá, m. utterance of or consecration with the exclamation svâhâ; (sv&asharp;hâ)-krita, pp. consecrated or offered with &open;svâhâ&close;;(sv&asharp;hâ) krit&ibrevcirc;, f. consecration with &open;svâhâ&close;; a deity of the Âprî hymns; -pati, m. husband of Svâhâ, Agni; -vallabha, m. id.
hara a. --°ree; (â, sts. î) bearing, wearing; taking, conveying; bringing (news) to (prati); taking away, depriving or robbing of; sur passing; removing, dispelling, destroying; receiving, obtaining; (taking=) captivating; m. Destroyer, ep. of Siva; N.; (hár)-ana, a. (â, î) conveying, containing; taking away, removing; n. bringing, fetching; offering; carrying off, stealing, theft, abduction (of a girl); withholding; confiscation (of property); obtainment; removal or destruction of (--°ree;).
havīman m. or n. [√ hû] invocation (RV.).
haó्rā f. 1. (V.) [√ 1. hu] priestly office, sp. function of the Hotrakas: also= the Hotrakas themselves; 2. [√ hû] invoca tion (V.); also personified: -víd, a. knowing invocation (RV.); -samsin,m. (reciting the part of the Hotraka), assistant of the Hotri, Hotraka (Br., S.).
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cati rocati rocanā AVP.15.21.6d.
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"cati" has 230 results
akārakanot causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
agamakatvanon-communicativeness, inability to communicate adequately the intended meaning. confer, compare सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: confer, compare also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiprasaṅgaover-application of a definition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
anatidiṣṭanot resulting from any extended application or अतिदेश, confer, compare प्रकृत्याश्रयं अनतिदिष्टं भवति M.Bh. on IV. 1.151.
anabhyāsaa wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already reduplicated; confer, compare लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
anyārtha(1)having another purpose or signification: confer, compare अन्यार्थं प्रकृतं अन्यार्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on l.1.23; (2) another sense which is different from what is expressed confer, compare अन्यार्थो बहुव्रीहिः Cān. II.2.46.
aprasaṅganon-application of a rule of grammar or of a technical term; confer, compare अन्यत्र सहवचनात् समुदाये संज्ञाsप्रसङ्गः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
aprāptavikalpasame as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional application of a rule; confer, compare त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthanirdeśamention or specification of sense. confer, compare अवश्यमुत्तरार्थमर्थनिर्देशः कर्तव्यः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). IV.1.92.
alākṣaṇika(1)not used in a secondary sense; (2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule: confer, compareनिपातनैः सह निर्देशादत्रापि किंचिदलाक्षणिकं कार्यमस्ति Kāś. on III.2.59.
avakāśaoccasion; possibility of application; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avighātārthameant for not preventing the application (of a particular term) to others where it should apply. The word is frequently used in the Kāśikā; cf अजाद्यतष्टाप् । टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः । Kāś. on P. IV.I.4, also see Kāś. on III.1. 133; III.2,67,73 IV.1.78.
avidhinon-application, non-prescription (अविधान); confer, compare अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तौ अविधिर्निष्ठितस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.I.30; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 92.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
aviśeṣaabsence of specification; confer, compare गामादाग्रहणेष्वविशेषः M.Bh.I.1.20 Vārt 1; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 106.
avyavasthāabsence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regarding the application of a rule: confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.60 V. 5.
avyāptiinsufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over application; confer, compareसर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यतिव्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.1.32.
aṣṭamaa term used by ancient grammarians for the vocative case.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
ācāryasaṃpadnecessary qualification to teach the Veda with all its pāṭhas having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrās and the like. confer, compare पदक्रमविभागज्ञो वर्णक्रमविचक्षणः स्वरमात्राविशेषज्ञो गच्छेदाचार्यसंपदम् R. Prāt.I.8.
āditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter अा signifying the nonapplication of the augment इ (इट् ) to the past-passive voice. participle. term क्त. e. g. क्ष्विण्ण from the root ञिक्ष्विदाः similarly खिन्न, भिन्न et cetera, and others confer, compare आदितश्र P.VII. 2.16.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādyudāttaa word beginning with an acute-accent id est, that is which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; confer, compareP. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216.
aāpatti(1)production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्धन्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's commentary thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं explained as यमभावं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 9. (2) modification; confer, compare अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) contingency, undesired result.
abhyāsachanges prescribed in connection with the अभ्यास or reduplicative syllable; confer, compare अभ्यासविकार अाभ्यासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.6.
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
aāmantryaa word in the vocative case; literally a word possessed of the sense of invocation; confer, compare अामन्त्र्यमाणेर्थं वर्तमानः शब्द अामन्त्र्यः Śāk. I.3.88; confer, compare also अमन्त्रयते यत्तदामन्त्र्यम् commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.1.25.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itthaṃbhūtalakṣaṇacharacterization; indication by a mark: e. g. जटाभिस्तापसः confer, compare इत्थंभूतलक्षणे च ( तृतीया ) P. II.3.21.
īpa technical term in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for सप्तमी (the locative case).
irmute indicatory ending of roots, signifying the application of the aorist sign अ(अङ्) optionally;e g. अभिदत् or अभैत्सीत् from the root भिद् (भिदिर् in Dhātupāṭha); confer, compare also अच्छिदत्,अच्छैत्सीत् from छिद्(छिदिर्); confer, compare P.III.1.57.
īyaṅ'afix ईय added to the root ऋत्, ङ् showing the application of the Ātmanepada affixes; e. g. ऋतीयते confer, compare P. III.1.29
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upadeśivadbhāvaoccurrence in the original statement before the application of any affixes et cetera, and others, confer, compare एवमप्युपदेशिवद्भावो वक्तव्यः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.56, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 23.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upalakṣaṇaimplication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; confer, compare Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित et cetera, and others possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upādhicondition, limitation, determinant, qualification: exempli gratia, for example न हि उपाधेरुपाधिर्भवति, विशेषणस्य वा विशेषणम् M.Bh. on I.3.2 as also on V.1.16; confer, compare also इह यो विशेष उपाधिर्वोपादीयते द्योत्ये तस्मिंस्तेन भवितव्यम् । M.Bh. on III.1.7.
ubhayagatiboth the alternatives; both the senses; double signification; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति P.I.1.23,Vārt 4,Pari. Śek, Par. 9 where the word ubhaya refers to both the senses-the ordinary one ( अकृत्रिम } and the technical one ( कृत्रिम)--exempli gratia, for example the meanings ( i ) numeral, and ( ii ) words बहु, गण et cetera, and others of the word संख्या.
ūkaugment ऊ added to the अभ्यास or the reduplicative syllable of the root पठ् which is doubled before the affix क which is used instead of घ ( घञर्थे कः ); exempli gratia, for example पाटूपटः.
ūhamodification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra: confer, compare ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
aupamikafigurative metaphorical application or statement: confer, compare ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI. 1.72.
aupasaṃkhyānikasubsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; confer, compare औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; confer, compare also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
kāryakālaparibhāṣāone of the important Paribhāṣā, regarding the application of the Paribhāṣā rules. See कायैकाल. For details see Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 3.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
ṅicase-ending of the locative case, changed into (a) अाम् after bases termed Nadi, feminine. bases ending in अा and the word नी, (b) into औ after bases ending in इ and उ, and (c) into स्मिन् after bases of pronouns;confer, compare P.IV. 1. 2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, 119 and VII. 1. 15, 16.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
caṅa Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; confer, compare P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; confer, compare also P. VII. 4.93.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
ḍarakrt affix अर added to the root खन् in the sense of 'instrument' or 'location' exempli gratia, for example आखरः, confer, compare P.III.3. 125 Vartika.
ḍvita root marked with the mute syllable डु (at the beginning) to Signify the application of the krt affix त्रि which is invariably followed by the addition of म ( मप् ), in the sense of 'achieved by' e. g. पक्त्रिमम् ; कृत्रिमम्: confer, compare P. III. 3.88 ; and IV. 4.20.
ḍhataddhita affix. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; confer, compare IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tujādiroots such as the root तुज् and the like, which have their vowel of the reduplicative syllable lengthened as seen mostly in Vedic Literature: e. g. तूतुजानः, मामहानः, दाधार et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.7.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
trātaddhita affix. affix त्रा in the sense of something donated, as also to the words देव, मनुष्य, पुरुष, पुरु and मर्त्य ending in the accusative or the locative case; e. g. व्राह्मणत्रा करोति, देवत्रा वसतिः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.55,56. ’There is avagraha before the taddhita affix. affix त्रा. देवत्रेति देवSत्रा्; confer, compare V.Pr. V.9.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
dānīmtaddhita affix. affix called विभक्ति, applied to तद् and इदम् in the sense of the locative case exempli gratia, for example तदानीम्, इदानीम्; confer, compare P. V.3.18, 19.
dṛṣṭānuvidhitaking place of an operation, or application of a rule of grammar in accordance with the words seen in use. See दृष्ट.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dviḥdoubled; the term is used in connection with reduplication in the Katantra and Haima grammars confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV.1.1, Kat.III 8. 10.
dvitīyadvirvacanathe reduplication of a root beginning with a vowel prescribed by the rule अजादेर्द्वितीयस्य P. VI. 1.2.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvirbhāvarepetition, reduplication. See द्वित्व.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nimittasaptamīlocative case, used in the sense of a cause as prescribed by निमित्तात्कर्मसंयोगे, P. II.3 36 Vart. 6 and illustrated by the usually quoted verse चर्मणि द्वीपिनं हन्ति दन्तयोर्हन्ति कुञ्जरम् । केशेषु चमरीं हन्ति सीम्नि पुष्कलको हत: M.Bh.on II.3.36 Vart. 6, also confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.57.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niravakāśapossessed of no scope of, or occasion for, application; the word अनवकाश is also used in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the general rules which are always present wherever they i. e. the niravakasa rules are possible to be appliedition Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for बाध or sublation, the other one being सामान्यविशेषभाव as illustrated by the usual maxim, known as तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय. See तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; confer, compare also अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.
nirūḍhalakṣaṇāpotentiality of implicaion which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication; e. g. रथो गच्छति.
nivṛtti(1)cessation of recurrence of a word or words from a rule to a subsequent rule or rules; non-application of a rule consequent upon the cessation of recurrence or anuvrtti cf; न ज्ञायते केनाभिप्रायेण प्रसजति केन निवृत्तिं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.44 Vart.8. confer, compare also एकयोगनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिः सह वा निवृत्तिः Kat. Par. Vr. Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal; confer, compare न च संज्ञाया निवृत्तिरुच्यते । स्वभावतः संज्ञा संज्ञिन; प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते । तेन अनुबन्धानामपि निवृत्तिर्भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. Vart. 7; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 3 et cetera, and others; confer, compare also the usual word उदात्तनिवृत्तिस्वरः.
nīkaugment नी affixed to the reduplicative syllables of the roots फण्, वञ्च् , स्रंस,ध्वंस्, भ्रंस् कस्, पत्, पद् and स्कन्द् in the intensive; e. g. अापनीफणत्, वनीवच्यते et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 4.65 and 84.
nukaugment न् (l) affixed to the words अन्तर्वत् and पतिवत् before the feminine affix ङीप् e. g. अन्तर्वत्नी, पतिवत्नी, confer, compare P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to the root ली before the causal affix णिच् , e. g. विलीनयति, confer, compare P. VII. 3.39; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate अ as also of the roots जप्, जभ् , दह् , दश्, भञ्ज्, पश्, चर्, and फल् in the intensive; e. g. जङ्गम्यते, तन्तन्यते, यंयमीति, जङ्गमीति, जञ्जप्यते, दन्दह्यते, दन्दशीति. चञ्चूर्यते, पम्फु लीति confer, compare P. VII 4.85, 86, 87.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
nairdeśikamatter of communication; statement made for communication. Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.explains the word as निर्देशः बोधः प्रयोजनमस्य नैर्देशिकः । confer, compare एते खल्वपि नैर्देशिकानां वार्ततरका भवन्ति ये सर्वनाम्ना निर्देशाः क्रियन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.67.
nyāyasiddhaestablished by a maxim; with full justification; confer, compare न्यायसिद्धमेवैतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on V.1.19.The word is used as opposed to ज्ञापकसिद्ध by Nāgesa; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 1.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
paratvanyāyaapplication of the later rule before the former one, according to the dictum laid down by Paanini in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4.2 ; confer, compare परत्वन्यायो 'न लङ्कितो भवति Sira. Pari. 84,
parasaptamīa locative case in the sense of 'what follows', as contrasted with विषयसप्तमी, अधिकरणसप्तमी and the like; confer, compare लुकीति नैषा परसप्तमी शक्या विज्ञातुं न हि लुका पौर्वापर्यमस्ति । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी M.Bh. on P.I.2. 49.
parāṅgavadbhāvabehaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ; treatment of a word as a part of another. The term is used by Panini in connection with a word followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked upon as a part for purposes of accent, e. g. कुण्डेनाटन् , मद्राणां राजन् et cetera, and others Here the words अटन् and राजन् , being in the vocative case, are अाद्युदात्त, id est, that is अ ( at the beginning of अटन्) and अा (in राजन्) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in कुण्डेनाटन् and मद्राणां राजन् become अनुदात्त or grave; confer, compare सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2.
parādisasvaraa consonant belonging to the succeeding vowel in sylllabication; confer, compare R.Pr.I.15.
parisamāptiapplication of the complete sense; the word is found used in the three alternative views about the application of the full sense of a sentence,collectively, individually or in both the ways, to the individuals concerned ; confer, compareप्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति:, समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः, उभयथा वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः ; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 Vart12; ( 2 ) completion ; confer, compare वृत्करणं ल्वादीनां प्वादीनां च परिसमाप्त्यर्थमिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII. 3.80.
parjanyavallakṣaṇapravṛttithe application of a grammatical rule or operation like the rains which occur on dry land as also on the sea surface: confer, compare कृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रं पर्जन्यवत् । तद्यथा । पर्जन्यो यावदूनं पूर्णे च सर्वमभिवर्षति । M.Bh. on P.I. 1.29 ; VI. 1.127: cf also यथा पर्जन्यः यावदूनं पूर्णे वाभिवर्षति एवं लक्षणमपि दीर्घस्य दीर्घत्वम् । चिचीषति, बुभूषति। Vyaadi. Pari. 58, confer, compare कृतकारि शास्त्रं मेघवत् न चाकृतकारि दहनवत् Puruso. Pari. 86.
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
punarvacanause of the same word or expression, which, if noticed in the writing of the Sūtrakāra, is indicative of something in the mind of the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अणः पुनर्वचनमपवादविषये अनिवृत्त्यर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of P III. 3. 12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1; cf also पुनर्वचनमनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् । Kāś. on P. I. 41"
pūraṇaan ordinal numeral; literally the word means completion of a particular number ( संख्या ); confer, compare येन संख्या संख्यानं पूर्यते संपद्यते स तस्याः पूरणः । एकादंशानां पूरणः एकादशः । Kas, on P.V. 2.48. The word is used also in the sense of an affix by the application of which the particular number ( संख्या ) referring to an object, is shown as complete; confer, compare यस्मिन्नुपसंजाते अन्या संख्या संपद्यते स प्रत्ययार्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.48. These Purana pratyayas are given in P. V. 2. 48-58, confer, compare पूरणं नामार्थः । तमाह Xतीयशव्दः । अतः पूरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.3. The word also means 'an ordinal number'; confer, compare पूरणगुणसुहितार्थसदव्ययतव्यसमानाधिकरणेन P.II.2.11.
pūrvatrāsiddhavacanathe dictum of Panini about rules in his second, third and fourth quarters (Padas) of the eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (viz. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth as laid down by him in the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. The rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् is taken also as a governing rule id est, that is अधिकार laying down that in the last three quarters also of his grammar, a subsequent rule is invalid to the preceding rule. The purpose of this dictum is to prohibit the application of the rules in the last three quarters as also that of a subsequent rule in the last three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable in the formation of a word, have been given effect to; confer, compare एवमिहापि पर्वेत्रासिद्धवचनं अादेशलक्षणप्रतिषेधार्थमुत्सर्गलक्षणभावार्थं च M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.1 Vart. 8.
pūrvāntasasvarabelonging to the previous vowel in syllabication; e. g. a consonant at the end of a word or the first in a consonant group ( संयोग ).
prakṛtibhāvaphonetical maintenance of a wording without allowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ई,ऊ or ए,as also in other specified cases; confer, compareईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् and the following rules P.I. 1.11 to 19, as also प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् VI.1.125
pratiṣiddhaa rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented from application by a specific negation of it by another rule or operation laid down to prohibit it. Generally the prohibited rule does not apply again; confer, compare सकृद्रतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्वाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Par, Sek.Pari. 40; confer, compareनोत्सहते प्रतिषिद्धा सती बाधितुम् । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.43. The word प्रातिषिद्ध which is generally used in ancient works appears to be an earlier word as compared with निषिद्ध which is used by later grammarians.
pratyudāharaṇacounter instance. In order to explain the wording of a grammatical rule clearly, it is customary to give along with the instances of the rule (where the rule has been effectively employed), a few words which would have resulted into other faulty words by the application of the particular rule in case that rule had not been stated or a word or more of it had been omitted; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐच् इति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1.
pradeśaliterally district; sphere of application, place of the application of a rule. The word is frequently used in this sense in the Kasika Vritti; confer, compare प्रत्ययप्रदेशाः प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणमित्येवमादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.1 . confer, compare also अनुदात्तप्रदेशाः अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ इत्यादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.30. The word प्रदेश is also used in the sense of the place of use or utility; confer, compare संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः किं तु प्रदेशवाक्येन सहैव । ... कार्यज्ञानं च प्रदेशदेश एव Par. Sek. Pari. 3.
prapañcaamplification, further explanation,clarification. The expression पूर्वस्यैवायं प्रपञ्चः or तस्यैवायं प्रपञ्चः is very frequently used in the Kasika vrtti; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 1.33,37,41, 58, II.4.28, III.2.6I et cetera, and others
pravṛtti(l)application or presentation of a rule as opposed to निवृत्ति; cf क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः कचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्येदेवः (2) working; function; confer, compare नान्तरेण साधन क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिर्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.3.7.
pravṛttinimittacause of the application of a word which is shown by the word when the affix त्च or ता is added to it: confer, compare तस्य भावस्त्वतलौ । शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.119. There are given four such causes जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा ।
pravṛttibhedadifference regarding the cause of application; confer, compare पूर्वमिति वर्तमाने पुनः पूर्वग्रहणं प्रवृत्तिभेदेन नियमप्रतिपत्त्यर्थम्; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.2:174.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prākṛta(1)original, primary,belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted with a वैकृत modification or a modified thing; cf प्रकृतिः स्वभावः, तत्संबन्धी प्राकृतः. commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 28: confer, compare एतद्विकारा एवान्ये, सर्वे तु प्राकृताः समाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 23; confer, compare also तहीन् ... पशूंस्तकारपरः ( नकारः ) सकारं प्राकृतो नित्ये Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI. 14; (2) natural, which can be so ordinarily, without any specific effort; confer, compare तस्मात् प्राकृतमेवैतत् कर्म यथा कटं करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.5, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III 1.5 Vart. 8, 9.
prāptiapplication of a rule, arrival at a particular form; incidence, occurrence of a particular rule;confer, compare अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.43.
prāptijñaa person who knows only the application of a rule and the realization from it of the form that can be arrived at, as opposed to one who knows the form that is desired or current; cf प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियः न त्विष्टिज्ञः इष्यते एतदूपमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4. 56 Vart. l ; confer, compare also किरतिं चर्करीतान्तं पचतीत्यत्र यो नयेत् । प्रातिज्ञं तमहं मन्ये प्रारब्धस्तेन संग्रहः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 4.92.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bāhulakathe application of a grammatical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature especially in the Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers, which cannot be explained easily by the regular application of the stated rules; confer, compare सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिदनराणां कालहलच्स्वरकर्तृयङां च । व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1.85; also confer, compare बाहुलकं प्रकृतेस्तनुदृष्टेः प्रायसमुच्चयनादपि तेषाम् । कार्यसशेषविधेश्च तदुक्तं नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु M.Bh. on P. III.3.1. In many sutras, Panini has put the word बहुलम् to arrive at such forms; e.g see P.II.1.32,57; II.3.62. II.4.39,73,76,84 et cetera, and others
bodhyaa technical term for the vocative case in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
bhedaka(1)literallydistinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 13; (2) adjective; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; confer, compare सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; confer, compare संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
bhraṣṭāvasaraliterally a person or a thing of which the proper occasion has passed; the word is used in connection with the application of a rule even though the proper time of its application is gone, on the analogy of a man who is paid his Dakṣiṇā although the proper time has gone ( भ्रष्टावसरन्यायेन दक्षिणा दीयते); confer, compare न च पुनर्लुक्शास्त्रं प्रवर्तते भ्रष्टावसरत्वात् Kāś. on P. VII.2.101.
mīyataddhita affix. affix मीय along with म ( मण्) applied to the word मध्य in the sense of a case-affix ( locative case-affix) exempli gratia, for example मध्यमीय ; cf मण्मीयौ च प्रत्ययौ वक्तव्यौ Kaas. on P. IV.3.60.
yathāśrutārthagrāhinone who grasps the sense as given by the actual wording without going into details re: the use or application et cetera, and others: cf यथाश्रुतग्राहिप्रतिपत्रपेक्षोयम् यथोद्देशपक्षः इति कैयटः : Par. Sek. Pari. 2
yathodeśa( परिभाषा)a short phrase or term for the Paribhaasaa or guiding statement यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् 'technical terms and Paribhaasaas are to be interpreted at the place where they are stated, and not at the place or places of their application or utility'.
yastaddhita affix. affix य with mute स् to indicate the application of the term पद् to the preceding base as a consequence of which the final म् of the words कम् and शम्, after which यस् is prescribed, gets changed into anusvara e. g. कंयु:, दंयु:: cf P.W.2.138.
yugapatprasaṅgasimultaneous possibility of the application of two rules or operations, when in grammar no option re : their application is admissible as it is admissible according to Mimamsa rules re : two operations enjoined by Vedic behests. In Grammar, only one of such rules applies, the priority of application being based upon the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व: confer, compare शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधो नाम भवति यत्रोभयोर्युगप्रसङ्ग: | M.Bh. on VI. 1.158 Vart, 12.
yaugapadyasimultaneity of occurrence; simultaneous possibility of the application of two rules which evidently cannot apply simultaneously, but scope has to be given to one of the two, the priority being decided on the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व;confer, compare न चास्ति यौगपदद्येन संभव: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.57; cf also M.Bh. on I. 4.1 , I. 4.2, II. 1.3 et cetera, and others
rikan augment added optionally with रुक् and रीक् to the reduplicative syllable of the frequentative root from a primitive root which ends in ऋ or has a penultimate ऋ; e. g. चरिकर्ति, नरिनर्ति भरिभ्रत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare रुग्रिकौ च लुकि, P.VII. 4.9l and ऋतश्च VII.4.92.
rīkaugment री added optionally with रुक् and रिक् to the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास ) of the frequentative base of roots having ऋ as their penultimate vowel; exempli gratia, for example वरीवृश्च्यते वरीवृश्चीति, नरीनर्ति, चरीकर्ति; cf रीगृदुपधस्य च P.VII. 4.90.
rukaugment र् added optionally with रिक् to the reduplicative syllable; (see रिक् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.); e.gचर्कर्ति, नर्नर्त्ति; cf P. VII. 4. 91, 92 as also VII. 4.65.
rhil(1)a taddhita affix. affix termed also विभक्ति which is applied to the word इदभ् in the sense of the locative case, the word इदम् being changed into एत; e. g. एतर्हि; confer, compare इदमो र्हिल् P. V. 3.16 and एतेतौ रथो: P. V. 3.4. (2) taddhita affix. affix applied in Veda to तत् and other pronouns: exempli gratia, for exampleतर्हि, कर्हि, यर्हि, confer, compare P. V. 3.20, 21.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakṣaṇapratipadoktaa short term used for the well-known Paribhāşā लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. I05, laying down that when a question arises as to which of the two words लक्षणोक्त (arrived at by certain changes or modifications) and प्रतिपदोक्त, (directly expressed) be accepted, the latter should be preferredition
lakṣaṇāimplication; potentiality of implication; this potentiality of words viz. लक्षणा is not recognised by grammarians as a potentiality different from the अभिधाशक्ति or the power of denotation. Later grammarians, however, like the Ālamkārikas, have used the word in the sense of potentiality of implication as different from that of denotation; confer, compare अन्त्यशब्द लक्षणा न च Paribhāşenduśekhara.
liṅgaviśiṣṭagrahaṇainclusion of the feminine form of a word when a word in the masculine gender is used in a rule, for certain operations such as the application of affixes and the like;confer, compare the usual dictum regarding this practice viz. the Paribhāșā प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 71. as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 to Vārt, 15 for places of the application of the dictum and those of its rejection.
lopabalīyastvathe superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; confer, compare सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vacana(1)literally statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; confer, compare अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; confer, compare ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन et cetera, and others; confer, compare वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन et cetera, and others as classes of words; confer, compare also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.8.
vatinirdeśaspecific statement by putting the word वत् for the sake of extended application ( अतिदेश ) ; exempli gratia, for example ब्राह्मणवदधीते: confer, compare स तर्हि वतिनिदेश: कर्तव्यः । न ह्यन्तरेण वतिमातदेशो गम्यते । M.Bh.on P. I.1.23 Vart. 4.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
a term often used in the sutras of Panini and others,' to show the optional application of a rule: confer, compare न वेति विभाषा P.I.2.44: confer, compare also वा गम:I.2.13 et cetera, and others See विभाषा.
vikalpachoice or option re : the application of a rule as stated by the word वा, विभाषा, अन्यतरस्याम् or the like: confer, compareनेति प्रतिषेधो वेति विकल्प: तयो: प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोः ' विभाषा ' इति संज्ञा भवति , विभाषाप्रकरणे प्रतिपेधविकल्पो उपतिष्ठते । तत्र प्रतिपेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, I. 1 44.
vikāraliterally change: modification; modification of a word-base or an affix, caused generally by the addition of suffixes: confer, compare प्रकृतेरवस्थान्तरं विकार: Kas, on P. IV.3.134: confer, compare also लेपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हि सम्यग्वेदान् परिपालयिष्यति Mahabhasya Ahnika 1.
vikṛtichange, modification as different from the original which is called प्रकृतिः confer, compareप्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं । तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.I.12. विकृतिवल्ली a work on the modified recital of the Veda words, or पदपाठविकृति, ascribed to Vyadi who is believed to have been a pupil of वर्ष.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
vimokṣaliberation of the last letter (especially a class consonant) of a word from phonetic modifications by coalescence with the initial letter of the following word, or liberation of modification of a consonant or vowel standing at the end of a verse or sometimes even in the middle of a verse: exempli gratia, for example तत् नो मित्रः,सम् यौमि, संमधुमतीर्मधुमतीभिः पृच्यन्ताम् शुक्रं दुदुह्रे अह्नय; confer, compare V. Pr.I.90,91.
virodhaopposition or conflict between two rules where, the rule which is subsequen tly mentioned is regarded as stronger and given preference to, as far as its application is concerned; confer, compare तुल्यबलयोर्विरोधो विप्रतिषेधः । विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: (2) contradiction where one thing prevents another confer, compare सर्वनामस्थाने इति अनुवर्तमानमपि विरोधादिह न संबध्यते Kāś.on P.VII.1.86.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
viṣayārthameant for showing the province or domain of the application of a particular rule; confer, compare तत्रग्रहृणं ( in तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् ) विषयार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1.92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6.
vīpsācomplete application to all the different parts; comprehensive inclusion of every part or unit: desire to occupy completely: confer, compare व्याप्तिविशेषविषया प्रयोक्तुरिच्छा वीप्सिा नानावा| चिनामधिकरणानां क्रियागुणाभ्यां युगपत्प्रयोक्तुर्व्याप्तुर्व्याप्तुमिच्छा नानाभूतार्थवाचिनां शब्दानां यान्यधिकरणानि वाच्यानि तेषां क्रियागुणाभ्यां युगपत्प्रयोक्तुमिच्छा वीप्सा; exempli gratia, for example ग्रामो ग्रामो रमणीयः । Kāś on P.VIII.1.4. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.VIII.1.1 and 4.
vṛttisūtraa rule forming the basis of a vrtti, i. e. a rule on which glosses are written, as contrasted with वार्तिकसूत्र or वार्तिक a pithy Sutralike statement composed as an addition or a modification of the original Sutra; confer, compare केचित्तावदाहुर्यद् वृत्तिसूत्रे इति | संख्ययाव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्यां: संख्येये ( P. II. 2.25 ) इति | M, Bh. on P. II. 2. 24,
veṭa term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51.
vaikṛtaliterally subjected to modifications; which have undergone a change; the term, as contrasted with प्राकृत, refers to letters which are noticed in the Samhitpatha and not in the Padapatha. The change of अस् into ओ, or of the consonant त् into द् before soft letters, as also the insertion of त् between त् and स् et cetera, and others are given as instances. confer, compare वैकृताः ये पदपाठे अदृष्टाः | यथा प्रथमास्तृतीयभूता:, अन्त:पाता: इत्येवमादयः
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
veṣāyika(1)pertaining to the word विषय in the sutra विषयो देशे P. IV.2. 52; the term refers to the taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the sense of ’country' or ’district' (विषय) in P. IV. 2.52-54 as contrasted with नैवासिक affixes prescribed in the sense of 'inhabited district' by P. IV. 2.69-80 (2) one of the three senses of the locative case, viz. the sense 'substratum' of the locative case, which is not physical but which is a topical one, forming an object or aim of an , action as specified by the word 'about'; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं व्यापकमौपश्लेषिकं वैषयिकमिति |
vyabhicāralit, deviation or discrepancy: irregularity re: the application of a rule; confer, compareसंज्ञाव्यभिचारार्थश्चकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. III.3.19; confer, comparealso.बहुलग्रहृणं व्यभिचारार्थम् । प्रवाहिका, विचर्चिका । न च भवति । शिरॊर्ति:; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.3.108.
vyabhicārindeviating, being irregular in application, not applying necessarily: cf अभ्रशब्दस्यांपूर्वनिपातस्य लक्षणस्य व्यभिचारित्वात्.
vyavasthāliterally definite arrangement; restriction regarding the application of a rule, especially when it seems to overlap, as done by the Varttikakara, and later on by the Paribhashas laid down by grammarians regarding the rules of Panini: confer, compare स्वाभिधेयापेक्षावधिनियमो व्यवस्था S. K. on P. I.1.34; confer, compare also लक्ष्यानुसाराह्यवस्था Par. Sek. Pari. 99, 108.
vyāvṛtipushing aside; removal; the word is frequently used in connection with the setting aside or removal of the application of such rules, as also of the contingency of such rules as are not desired in the formation of a correct word, by means of applying another rule necessary for the correct formation; cf तद्वि इदं तिष्यपुनर्वसु इत्यत्र तद्वथावृत्त्यर्थम् Par. Sek. on Pari. 34; as also तद्धि असवर्णग्रहणं ईषतुरित्यादौ इयङादिव्यावृत्त्यर्थम् Par.Sek. on Pari.55: cf also the usual statement ब्यावृत्तिः क्रियते ।
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śabdasiddhi(1)formation of a complete word fit for use by adding proper suffixes to the crude base and . making the necessary modifications confer, compare नैव व्याकरणादृते शब्दसिद्धिः | ( 2 ) name of a commentary by महादेव on the Katantra sutravrtti by Durgasimha.
śabdāntaraa different wording, as it results from modifications such as agama, or adesa, or lopa; confer, compare शब्दान्तरस्य प्राप्नुवन् विधिरनित्य: Par. Sek. Pari. 43,
śabddhārthapratipattiशब्दार्थप्रत्यय knowledge of the meaning of a word from that word when heard, the word being either denotative ( वाचक ) or ind cative ( द्योतक ).
śabdārthavyākaraṇaexplanation of the sense of a word as arising from the word by stating the base, the affixes and the modifications to the base and the affixes.
śānānkrt affix (आन) substituted for the Atmampada affixes instead of शानच्, prescribed after the roots पू and यज्; the application of शानन् for शानच् is for the acute accent on the initial vowel of the root;exempli gratia, for example पवमानः with the acute accent on the initial vowel as contrasted with विद्यमान; with the acute accent on the last vowel; confer, compare P. III. 2.128.
śāstrahāniharm or injustice to a science; id est, that is non-application of a rule although it could apply,there being no prohibition for it; confer, compare शास्त्रहानिश्च । समुदायैकाचः शास्त्रं हीयते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.I Vart. 12.
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śauṇḍādia class of words headed by the word शौण्ड which are compounded with a noun in the locative case to form a locative tatpurusa compound; e. g. अक्षशौण्डः, अक्षधूर्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.40.
ślua term used in the sense of elision or lopa in the case of the affix शप् when it is elided after the roots headed by हु, i. e. roots of the third conjugation as also after any root wherever it is so seen in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. III. 4. 76. This श्लु is looked upon as a substitute zero, or nil for the general vikarana शप् in the case of these roots; confer, compare जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः P. II. 4. 75. The specific feature of this elision of the vikarana शप् by means of the term श्लु, is that it causes reduplication of the roots to which it is added; confer, compare लुकि प्रकृते श्लुविधानं द्विर्वचनार्थम् Kas, on. P. II. 4. 75 and P. III. 1. 10.
śluvadbhāvatreatment as before the elision named श्लु, i. e. reduplication of the preceding root. This श्लुवद्भाव is prescribed in the case of the roots भी, ह्री, भृ and हु; confer, compare भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च P. III. 1. 39.
śluvikaraṇaroots characterized by the addition or application of the conjugational sign which is elided by the use of the term श्लु for elision; roots of the third conjugation; confer, compare य एते लुग्विकरणा: श्लुविकरणाश्च M.Bh.on P.III. 1.67 Vart. 2, as also on P. III 1. 91.
śluvidhithe specific operation caused by श्लु viz. the reduplication for the preceding root; confer, compare तत्र लुकि श्लुविधिप्रतिषेध:, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 62 Vart. 6.
saṃkhyātānudeśaapplication respectively of terms stated in the उद्देश्य and विधेय portions in their numerical order when the stated terms; are equal in number: cf यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P. 1.3.10: confer, compare also पञ्चागमास्त्रय अागमिनः वैषम्यात् संख्यातानुदेशो न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 2.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃnihita(1)present by implication; taken as granted; confer, compare अपि च ऋकारग्रहणे लृकारग्रहणं संनिहितं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9. Vart. 5; (2) nearby, at hand; confer, compare इह सर्वेषु साधनेषु संनिहितेषु कदाचित् पचतीत्येतद् भवति, कदाचिन्न भवति ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1. Vart. 2; I. 4.23 Vart. 15.
saṃbuddhi(1)a term used in Panini's grammar for the case-affix of the vocative singular; confer, compare एकवचनं संबुद्धिः P. II. 3, 49; the vocative is, however, not looked upon as a separate case, but the designation संबोधन is given to the nominative case, having the sense of संबोधनः (2) the word is also used in the general sense of संबोधन i. e. addressing or calling: confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्धौः किमिदं पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धेर्ग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्वि: (II. 3.49) आहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्वि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33.
saṃbhavaiit. possibility. The word is used in the general sense of the possibility of the application of a rule or of the occurrence of a rule; confer, compare विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान् .Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI, 4.49 Vart.: Pari. Sek. Pari. 100; confer, compare also असति संभवे बाधनं भवति | अास्ति च संभवो यदुभयं स्यात् | Siradeva Pari. 35.
sakṛdgatior सकृद्गतिन्याय the maxim or convention of the non-application of a grammatical rule of Operaton any longer when, on conflict with another, it has been once set aside. The maxim is सकृद्वतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्बाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1. 56, I.4. 2, VI.3.42 et cetera, and others cf also Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
sakṛdgatior सकृद्गतिन्याय the maxim or convention of the non-application of a grammatical rule of Operaton any longer when, on conflict with another, it has been once set aside. The maxim is सकृद्वतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्बाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1. 56, I.4. 2, VI.3.42 et cetera, and others cf also Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
satsaptamīthe locative case prescribed by the rule यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II.3.37 as scen in गोषु दुह्यमानासु गतः; confer, compare लुकि इति नैषा परसप्तमी । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी । लुकि सति इति . M, Bh. on P.I.2.49 Vart. 2. On account of the frequent occurrence of the word सति in a large number of examples of this locative absolute, the term सतिसप्तमी is used by modern grammarians for the better word सत्सप्तमी in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare M.Bh. on P,VI.4.23 as also on P.VIII. 3.61...
sanvadbhāvabehaviour like that of the affix सन् in point of its specific features, viz. causing reduplication in the case of the previous the rule सन्यङोः VI.1.9, as also the substitution of इ for अ in the reduplicated syllable ( अभ्यास ), by P. VII. 4.79. This सन्वद्भाव is prescribed in the case of a root ending in इ ( णिच् ) before the aorist sign ( विकरण ) चङ्. confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेनग्लोपे VII. 4.93.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
saptamī(1)the seventh case; the locative case; a term used for the locative case by ancient grammarians and Panini; confer, compare न सप्तम्यामन्त्रितयोः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III 139; confer, compare ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे P. I. 1. 19. or सप्तम्यास्त्रल् P. V. 3. 10; cf also द्वितीयादयः शब्दाः पूर्वाचार्यः सुपां त्रिकेषु स्मर्यन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3.2: ( 2 ) the seventh of the moods and tenses; the optative mood; confer, compare Kat. III. 1, 20; Hemacandra III. 3. 7.
samāveśaplacing together at one place, simultaneous application,generally with a view that the two or more things so placed, should always go together although in a few instances they may not go together: confer, compare तदधीते तद्वेद । नैतयोरावश्यकः समावेशः । भवतेि हि कश्चित्सं पाठं पठति न च वेत्ति | कश्चिच्च वेत्ति न च सं पाठं पठति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.59;confer, compare also व्याकरणेपि कर्तव्यं हर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययकृत्कृत्यसंज्ञानां समावेशो भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4.1.
sarvatraliterally at all places, on all occasions; the word is used in connection with an essential application of a rule and not optionally in some cases; confer, compare सर्वत्र लोहितादिकतन्तेभ्यः। पूर्वेण नित्ये प्राप्ते विकल्पार्थं वचनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18: confer, compare also प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यवचनम् P. VIII.4.45 Vart. 1, सर्वत्र शाकल्यस्य VIII. 4.51. et cetera, and others
sarvanighātagrave accent ( अनुदात्त ) for the whole word, generally for a verbal form or a word in the vocative case, if preceded by another word which is not a verb. The term is used in contrast with शेषनिघात the grave accent for the remaining vowels of a word when a particular vowel is definitely fixed as an acute or an independent Svarita or circumflex; confer, compare P.VIII. 1.28 to 74.
sarvaprasaṅgaa presentation of all the substitutes for all the original ones indiscriminately; an application in all cases irrespective of any special consideration: confer, compare स्थानिन एकत्वनिर्देशादनेकादेशनिर्देशाच्च सर्वप्रसङ्ग: M.Bh.on P. I. 1. 50 Vart. l and 12; cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.60, I.3.2, 3,10 etc
sarvopādhivyabhicārārthaa term used by the authors of the Kasika in connection with the application of a rule irrespective of all limitations and not of any one limitation: confer, compare अन्येभ्योपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थ: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III. 2.75;cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.32, III.2.10l, VII. 1.38.
sasvaraliterally connected with a vowel; the term is used in connection with a consonant as connected with a vowel for purposes of syllabication, the vowel being either the previous one or the succeeding one.
sābhyāsatogether with the reduplicative syllable: confer, compare उभौ साभ्यासस्य P. VIII. 4. 21.
sāmānyātideśaextended application of a thing to others in general; confer, compare सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेश: । तेन अनद्यतनभूतरूपे विशेषे विहितयोर्लङ्लिटोर्न 'भूतवच्च' (3.3.932) इत्यनेनातिदेशः । Pari. Sek. Pari. J01.
sāmānyāpekṣarefering only to a general thing indicated, and not to any specific instances. The word is used in connection with a Jnapana or indication drawn from the wording of a rule, which is taken to apply in general to kindred things and rarely to specific things; confer, compare इदं च सामान्यापेक्षं ज्ञापकं भावतिङोपि पूर्वमुत्पत्तेः । Pari. sek. on Pari. 50.
sāvakāśapossessed of scope for its application as contrasted with निरवकाश; a term used in connection with a rule which has got its application to some cases without conflict with any other rule: confer, compare द्वयोर्हि सावकाशयोः समवस्थितयौर्विप्रतिषेधो भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6.
su(l)case affix ( सु ) of the nominative singular and ( सु ) of the locative plural; confer, compare P. IV. 1.2: (2) Unadi affix सु ( क्सु ) applied to the roots इष्: e.g, इक्षु: confer, compare इषः क्सुः Unadi 437. सुक् augment सुक् added according to some grammarians to any word optionally with असुक्, which is prescribed in the case of the words अश्व, वृष, क्षीर and लवण before the affix क्यच् ( य ) in the sense of desire. e. g. दधिस्यति, मधुस्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1 51 Varttika.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
sthānedvirvacanapakṣaone of the two alternative views regarding reduplication according to which two wordings or units of the same form replace the original single wording, confer, compare स्थानेद्विर्वचनपक्षे स्थानिवद्भावात्प्रकृति व्यपदेशः: Siradeva Pari. 68.The other kind of reduplication is called द्वि:प्रयोगाद्विर्वचनपक्ष which looks upon reduplication as the mere placing of an exactly similar unit or wording after the original first unit. This alternative view is accepted in the Kasika: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.1.
svaravidhia rule prescribing an accent or a modification of accent.
svaritetmarked with a mute circumflex vowel; the term is used in connection with roots in the Dhatupatha which are said to have been so marked for the purpose of indicating that they are to take personal endings of both the padas; confer, compare स्वरितञित: कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P. I.3.72.
halādibeginning with a consonant; confer, compare हलादयो विभक्तय:, M.Bh. on P. II. 4.32 Vart. 2; धातुर्य एकाज् हलादि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. l . 22. Vart. 2. et cetera, and others हलादिशेष a term frequently used by commentators for the omission of all consonants except the initial one in the reduplicative syllable as prescribed by the rule of Panini इलादिः शेष: VII. 4. 60. The word 'इलादिःशेषः' as one word, is also found used in the same sense
halsvaraprāptia possibility of the application of an accent to the consonant by the literal interpretation of rules prescribing an accent for the first or the last letter of a word, to prevent which a ruling is laid down that a consonant is not to be accented; confer, compare हल्स्वरप्राप्तौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 80.
Vedabase Search


empty stomach, abhaktaauṣadha medication intake on empty stomach.




location, habitat, abode.


food; annadveṣa aversion to food; annalepa external application of rice preparation; annamada food-mania; annaprāśana first feeding to infant.


one of tantrayuktis, statement of reason; specification; adducement of reason; a step in syllogism.


one of tantrayuktis; presumption; inference from circumstances; disjunctive hypothetical syllogism; logical implication.


type of eye salves; application of eye drops.


one of tantrayuktis, extended application; substitution; substantiating by future event


overriding dislocation of the joint.


secondary diseases, diseases or complications arising during the course of primary diseases.


invocation; appeal.


dislocation of joint with downward displacement.


1. removing proud flesh by escharotic applications; 2. oppressing; 3. fatigue.


external liquefication (of mercury).


diversification; point of no return; explosion.


lancing absess by medicinal applications.


(elementary) substance; medicinal substance or medicine; dravyaguṇa pharmacology, the science of identification, properties, actions and therapeutic uses of medicinal substances.


internal liquefication (of mercury); internal digestion; liquefication of conusmed substance within mercury.


tenesmus, a feeling of incomplete defecation.


jaw, chin; hanumokṣaṇa, hanusthambha, hanugraha lock jaw (temporo-mandibular dislocation)


one of tantrayuktis; implication; extension of reasoning.


modification, cleaning raw food material, one of āhāravidhiviśeṣayatana (āhāra.vidhi.viśeṣa.yatana) or culinary science.


duration of an action, rise and falls of humors in the body: accumulation (sancaya), aggravation (prakopa), flow (prasara), translocation (sthānasamsraya), manifestation (vyaktībhāva), becoming chronic and incurable (bheda).


intoxication, rapture, lust.


1. Plant emetic nut, dried fruit of Xeromphis spinosa syn. Randia dumetorum; 2. Gardenia floribunda. 3. inebriating, intoxicating; 4. bees-wax.


alcoholic disorders; alcoholic intoxication.


1. honey-sugar; 2. intoxicating drink; 3. sacred basil; 4. clustered hiptage, Hiptage benghalensis, H. parviflora.


mead, a kind of intoxicating drink, alcoholic beverage made from grapes.


a medicated oil used as external application to reduce vāta symptoms. a joint and muscle toner.


medication applied through nose, sternutatory.


chronic alcoholism and intoxication, drink-giddiness.


Plant leaves of heart-leaved moonseed guḍūci, neem nimba, vasaka vāsā, febrifuge plant kanṭakāri, wild snake gourd paṭola (kantakari, guduci, sunthi, kiratatikta, puṣkaramūla is another set).


mercury, pāradaśodhana purification of mercury; pāradamāraṇa killing of mercury.


alcoholism; highest degree of intoxication.


personification; being entirely the soul of the universe.


bolus perspiration, bolus heat application.


making powder without application of heat.


kind of powder used as sternulatory; application of medicated oil in the nostrils.


one of the three rectal folds that allow defecation /furthering.


application of fluid remedies or fomentations.


six kinds of applications : rūkṣaṇa, snehana, svedana, sthambhana, langhana and bṛhaṇa.


better modification.


joint, articulation; fornices of the eye; sandhimukta dislocation of the joint or bone.


rectal stricture and difficulty in defecation.


purification, purity of mind.


application of mercury.


application of medicated paste on forehead.


lubrication, anointing, unction, oleation internally and externally.


1. purification, removal of harmful metabolic substances from the body; cleansing measures; 2. purification of metalic substances, ores by boiling, triturating in various herbal juices, and grinding.


relocation (of doṣa).


suffocation, respiratory distress.


1. causing to perspire, diphoretic, sudation or fomenting; 2. steaming, sudation therapy; 3. one of eighteen purification processes of mercury.


dislocation of joint with oblique displacement.


1. a kind of honey; 2. Plant seeds of Vigna catiang; 3. Plant Assyrian plum, Cordia myxa.


supervening disease, calamity, complication.


application, engage.


fracture-dislocation of joint/bone.


one fo the sixteen rites; starting educating the child.


commencing education, one of the sixteen rites.


subluxation; a kind of joint dislocation; partial dislocation.


dislocation of joint with lateral displacement.


ellipsis, omission of a word or phrase necessary for a complete syntactical construction but not necessary for understanding; fabrication, fiction.


complication; disorder; failure.

Parse Time: 1.703s Search Word: cati Input Encoding: Devanagari IAST: cati