prn. rel. (n. -d) who, that, which, what: nearly always followed by the ordinary correlative tad (± etad or idam) or less frequently idam (m. ayam), adas (m. asau), îdris, tâdrisa, etâvat (tathâ sts. corresponding to the n. yad); occasionally either the rel. or the corr. is dropped. Ya is sts. inaccurately employed in the sense of if any (one). Uses of the relative calling for special mention are the following: 1. Ya is often added (without the copula) to emphasize a subject (e.g. âtma parityâgena yad âsritânam rakshanam, tan nîtividâm na sammatam, protection of dependents at the sacrifice of one's own life is not approved by moralists).Sts. it is thus used without emphasis by the side of a simple subject (e. g. andhah sthaviras ka yah, a blind man and one who is old); rarely a nm. rel. of this kind=an ac. (e.g. sarvân rasân apo heta pasavo ye ka mânushâh, he should avoid selling all sorts of condiments, cattle, and human beings). The n. sg. yad of this emphatic rel. is frequently employed without regard to gender or number, when it may be translated by as for, as regards (e.g. asidhâ râvratam idam manye yad arinâ saha samvâ sah, as for dwelling with an enemy, that I consider as hard as the sword-blade vow); before a noun this yad=that is to say (Br.). Immediately following oratio recta ending with iti yad=at the thought that (cp. cj. yad). 2. Two relatives often occur in the same sentence, when the second may be translated by any (e.g. yad rokate yasmai, bhavet tat tasya sundaram, what pleases any one, that to him is beautiful). 3. The meaning of the rel. when repeated (sts. separated by hi) is generalised, ya ya being=whoever, whichever, whatever (followed by the doubled or single corr. tad). 4. Ya is often combined with other prns.: (a) w. tvam, sa, esha, ayam, asau; (b) w. aham (tvam, etc.): yo &zip; ham, I who=since I, or (after a question) that I; (c) w. tad, any soever: yad vâ tad vâ, any, any kind of; anything; (d) w. tvad=or any other (Br., rare); (e) w. intr. ka + ka (V., C., common), + kid (C., very common), + kid api (C., not common), + kana (E., rare), + vâ (C., rare), or + api (C., late, not yet in Manu), immediately following or sts. sepa rated (m. yah kás ka, kas kid, kas kid api, kas kana, ko vâ, or ko &zip; pi, n. yad kim ka, kim kid, kim kid api, kim kana, kim vâ or kim api), whoever, whatever, any soever, any one, no matter who.
rel. ad. & cj. as, like (followed by correlative táthâ; sts. tathâ tathâ, tadvat, evam, V. evá; in V. the pcls. kid, ha, ha vai, iva½a&ndot;ga, iva ha are added, in C. sts. iva redundantly; at the end of a pâda yathâ is sometimes unaccented in this sense like iva); as, for instance; elliptically: as it is or was (rare); properly, correctly (=yathâvat); in order that, (so) that (with subj. or opt. in V.; opt., pr., ft., impf., pf., aor. in C.; sts. with ellipse of syât or bhavet); that (with verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, doubting, hear ing, etc. introducing oratio recta ± iti); as soon as (rare); as if (w. pot., rare): yathâ tathâ, as -therefore; as surely as -so truly (also tena satyena, the logical order of the clauses being sts. inverted); yáthâ yathâ táthâ tathâ (V. also eva&halfacute;eva), according or in proportion as -so, the more -the more; yathâ yathâ½eva, that (w. pot.; corr. tad); yathâ tathâ, in whatever way; in some way or other, anyhow (with na, in no way, not in reality); by commentators used to express that a word is employed adverbially (in such manner that it is, sc.bhavati); yathâ katham- kid, in any way, somehow or other; tad yathâ, that is as follows=namely, for instance; tad yathâ½api nâma, just as if (w. pot.).
pp. √ yug: -samyoga, m. connexion with the connected (e. g. of a trace with a horse, whereby the locomotion of the vehicle is produced); -samavâya, m. inher ence in what is connected (one of the six kinds of perception in Nyâya; e. g. perception of the colour of a vessel); -samaveta-sama vâya, m. inherence in that which inheres in what is connected (e. g. perception of the possession of colour in general in a vessel of a particular colour).
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