udup adhatva possession of short उ as the penultimate letter, e. g. इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य P.VII.3.41. aniṭkārikā (1) name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous. radhādi a class of eight roots headed by the root रध् which allow the addition of the augment इ ( इट् ) optionally to the ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्, placed , after them; रघिता रद्धा, त्रता , तर्त्पा तर्पिता exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others P.VII.2.35 and VII.2.45. confer, compare ramānāthaśarma a grammarian of the Katantra school who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a commentary named Manorama on the Katantradhatuvrtti and Sabdasadhyaprayoga. rīṅ substitute री for the vowel ऋ at the end of a base ( अङ्ग ) before the affix च्चि as also before य which does not belong to a krt or Sarvadhatuka affix; मात्रीभूतः, मात्रीयते; exempli gratia, for example रीङ् ऋतः P.VII.4.27. confer, compare vijayānand called also विद्यानन्द, a grammar scholar of the Katantra school who wrote (l) Katantradhatuvrtti (2) Katantrottara and (3) Kriyakalapa. veṭ a term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51. śā (1) conjugational sign(विकरण) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation ( तुदादिगण ) in all conjugational tenses and moods ( i, e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential ) before the personal-endings; तुदादिभ्यः शः, P. III.1.77; this sign श ( अ ) has got the initial consonant श्， as an indicatory one, and hence this अ is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण for the preceding vowel; ( 2 ) confer, compare affix श in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् and others; e. g. लोमश:, रोमशः taddhita affix. P.V.2. 100; (3) krt affix (अ ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे and दृश् when preceded by a prefix,to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् confer, compare not preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा and धा of the third conjugation in the sense of an agent'; et cetera, and others उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्प:, विन्दः दद:, दायः: exempli gratia, for example P.III.1.137-139. confer, compare śatṛ krt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case. confer, compare śap a vikarana affix ( conjugational sign ) applied to roots of the first conjugation and in general to all secondary roots i. e. roots formed from nouns and from other roots before personal-endings which are Sarvadhatuka and which possess the sense of agent, provided there is no other vikarana affix prescribed: e. g. भवति, एधते, कारयति, हारयति, बुभूपति, पुत्रीयति, पुत्रकाम्यति, कामयते, गेीपांयति, कण्ङ्कयति, पटयति, दिनन्ति (यामिन्य:) et cetera, and others कर्तरि शप् , P. III.1 .68. This affix शप् is dropped after roots of the second conjugation (अदादि } and those of the third conjugation ( जुहोत्यादि) and in Vedic Literature wherever observed; confer, compare P.II.4.72, 73, 75, 76. confer, compare śit possessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes ( P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55. confer, compare śnā a vikarana or conjugational sign of the ninth conjugation, to be added to roots headed by क्री before the Sarvadhatuka affixes; क्रीणाति; exempli gratia, for example क्र्यादिभ्य: श्ना. P.III.1.81. श्ना is added optionally with श्नुः ( नु ) to the roots स्तम्भ्, स्तुम्भ्, स्कम्भ् , स्कुम्भ् and स्कु. confer, compare स्तभ्नाति, स्तभ्नोति, स्कुभ्नाति, स्कुभ्नोति etc : exempli gratia, for example P.III.1.82. confer, compare śyan a vikarana or conjugational sign of the fourth conjugation added to roots headed by दिव्, before the Sarvadhatuka affixes; . दीव्यति, पुष्यति, exempli gratia, for example श्यन् is added optionally with शप् (अ) to the roots भ्राश्, भ्रम् , क्लम् and others, as also to यस्. et cetera, and others seṭka सेट् together with the augment 'iț' prescribed in general for being prefixed to an Ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्. The word is also used in the sense of a root which allows the augment इट् ( इ ) to be prefixed to valadi Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after it, in contrast with such roots which do not allow it and hence which are termed अनिट्.