karman कर्मन्

Definition: object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; cf. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; cf. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम्; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kāt. II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hem. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity (क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna etc. It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; cf. अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित above. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन्, etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned above; cf. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed (अभिहित) by a verbal termination (तिङ्), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix (तद्धित), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. e.g. कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः etc. It is called अभिहित in such cases;cf. P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित above.The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति etc. It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति etc. It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; e.g. घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; cf. निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī on I.4.49: cf. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Nyāsa on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन्) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय e.g. (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित e.g. बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; cf. Padamañjarī on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; cf. कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and com. thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; cf. उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nir. I. 3.4, where Durgācārya explains karman as 'sense' (अर्थ).


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