In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Kuru-Pañcālas are mentioned as dwelling together in the * Middle Country ’ with the Vaśas and the Uśīnaras. In the Kausītaki Upanisad also the Uśīnaras are associated with the Kuril-Pañcālas and Vaśas, but in the Gopatha Brāhmana the Uśīnaras and Vaśas are regarded as northerners. In the Rigveda the people is alluded to in one passage by reference to their queen, Uśīnarānī. Zimmer thinks that the Uśīnaras earlier lived farther to the north-west, but for this there is no clear evidence. His theory is based merely on the fact that the Anukramanī (Index) of the Rigveda ascribes one hymn to śibi Auśīnara, and that the śibis were known to Alexander’s followers as Xiβoc, living between the Indus and the Akesines (Chenab). But this is in no way conclusive, as the Sibis, at any rate in Epic times, occupied the land to the north of Kuruksetra, and there is no reason whatever to show that in the Vedic period the Uśīnaras were farther west than the ‘ Middle Country.’
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