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√timtimaaārdrībhāve416
  
"tim" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√तिम्timbecoming wet / ārdī-bhāva152/1, 754/1C1,4
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tim (= stim-) cl.4 P. myati-, to become quiet ; to become wet (also tīmy-fr. tīm-) : Intensive tetimyate- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timam. equals mi-, a kind of whale View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timīf. a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timim. a kind of whale or fabulous fish of an enormous size etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timim. a fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timim. the sign Pisces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timim. the figure of a fish produced by drawing two lines (one intersecting the other at right angles) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timim. the ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timim. Name of a son of dūrva- (father of bṛhad-ratha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timif. Name of a daughter of dakṣa- (wife of kaśyapa- and mother of the sea-monsters), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timidhvajam. " timi- bannered", Name of the asura- sambara- () or of one of his sons () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timighātinm. "fish-killer", a fisherman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timijamfn. coming from the timi- (sort of pearl), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timikośam. " timi--receptacle", the ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timilāf. Name of a musical instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timimālinm. "Timim2gilas-garlanded", the ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṃgilam. ( Va1rtt. 7)"id." , a large fabulous fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṃgilam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṃgilagilam. ( Va1rtt.7 ) " timiṃgīla- -swallower", a large fabulous fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṃgilāśanam. plural "eating timiṃgīla-s", Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṃgiram. " timi--swallower", Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiramf(ā-)n. (fr. tamar-[Old German demar] equals t/amas-) dark, gloomy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiramf(ā-)n. equals -nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiram. a sort of aquatic plant (see -vana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiran. darkness (also plural) etc. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-). ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiran. darkness of the eyes, partial blindness (a class of morbid affections of the coats[ paṭala-]of the eye) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiran. iron-rust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiran. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirāf. another town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiran. see vi--, sa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timīram. Name of a tree (see mira-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiracchidm. "darkness-splitter", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirākulamfn. affected with partial blindness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirākulatāf. See ra--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiramayamfn. consisting of darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiramayam. rāhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiranāśanam. "darkness-destroyer", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiranayanamfn. suffering from partial blindness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiranudm. "darkness-dispeller", sun, moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirāpagatam. Name of a samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirāpahamfn. dispelling darkness (fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirapaṭalan. the veil of darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirapratiṣedham. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirārim. equals ra-ripu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiraripum. "darkness-enemy", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirāriripum. "enemy of the sun", an owl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiratāf. darkness of the eyes, partial blindness (varia lectio kula--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiraugham. deep darkness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiravanan. a multitude of timira- plants gaRa kṣubhnādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirayaNom. P. yati-, to obscure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirāyaNom. A1. yate-, to appear dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirgham. Name of a nāga- priest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirim. a kind of fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirinm. the cochineal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirodghāṭam. "removal of darkness", Name of a śaiva- treatise in verse. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiśam. Name of a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiśam. ([B]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiśam. see tiniśa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṣam. Name of a plant (Beninkasa cerifera ;water-melon ) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṣam. see rāja-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiṣam. dīrgha-timiṣā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiśatrum. a particular marine monster, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timitamfn. (equals stim-) quiet, steady, fixed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timitamfn. wet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timitimiṃgilam. a large fabulous fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timmayam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhaktimatmfn. undevoted to, unbelieving. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipattimatmfn. possessed of, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhutimayamfn. consisting of oblations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākṛtimatmfn. (equals ākāra-vat- q.v) having a shape, embodied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyapratimantraṇan. conjuring of unlucky omens, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amūrtimatm. equals amurta-rajas- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anatimāninmfn. not too self-conceited, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' immediately following (exempli gratia, 'for example' daśāntima-,"the eleventh") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimamfn. very near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimamfn. final, ultimate, last. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimāṅkam. the last unit, nine. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimitra(/anti--) mfn. having friends near one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apacitimat(/apaciti--) mfn. honoured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratimamf(ā-)n. unequalled, incomparable, without a match. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratimallamfn. unrivalled, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratimānamfn. incomparable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratimanyūyamānamfn. being unable to show resentment or to retaliate anger for anger
apratimeyamfn. idem or 'mfn. incomparable ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āprītimāyava(mfn. belonging to the above place ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āprītimāyum. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārtimatmfn. having or suffering pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārtimatm. a mantra- or spell (against snakes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asajjātimiśram. Name of a person (in the dhūrtasaṃgraha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃkrāntimāsam. idem or 'm. an intercalary month ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśitimanm. satiety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astimatmfn. possessed of property, opulent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astrakṣatimatmfn. wounded by arrows, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āsutimatmfn. (gaRa madhv-ādi- ) mixed with liquors (?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimadhyandinan. high noon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimaithunan. excess of sexual intercourse. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimālamfn. excelling a necklace (in beauty), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimām(accusative of aty-aham- q.v), surpassing me View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiman -manyate- (1. plural -manāmah/e'ti-), to disdain, despise etc. ; to value less than one's self ; to pride one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimānam. great haughtiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimaṅgalyamfn. very auspicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimaṅgalyam. Aegle or Crataeva Marmelos. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimāninmfn. very haughty. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimānitāf. great haughtiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimānitamfn. honoured highly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimānitamfn. see atimān/a- sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimanorathakramam. excess of desire, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding v, 35. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimānuṣamfn. superhuman, divine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimanuṣyabuddhimfn. having a superhuman intellect. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimāraor ati-bhāra- m. Name of a prince. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimarśam. close contact. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimarśamind. ( mṛś-), so as to encroach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimartyamfn. superhuman. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimārutamfn. very windy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimārutam. a hurricane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimaryādamfn. exceeding the proper limit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimaryādamind. beyond bounds. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimatif. (/ati--) haughtiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimatimfn. exceedingly wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimātramfn. exceeding the proper measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimātramind. beyond measure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimātraśasind. beyond measure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimāyamfn. emancipated from māyā- or Illusion, finally liberated. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimāyamfn. past illusion, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimemiṣa(/ati--) mfn. (1. miṣ-), opening the eyes too much, staring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimirmira(/ati--) mfn. twinkling exceedingly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimitamfn. over measured, beyond measure, exceeding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimitamfn. not moistened. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimodāf. extraordinary fragrance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimodāf. the tree Jasminum Arboreum. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimokṣam. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimokṣam. See ati-muc-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimokṣam. final liberation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimokṣinmfn. escaping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimṛtyumfn. overcoming death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuc Passive voice -mucyate-, to avoid, escape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimucya ind.p. having dismissed or, given up. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktamfn. entirely liberated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktamfn. quite free from sensual or worldly desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktamfn. seedless, barren View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktam. the tree Dalbergia Oujeinensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktam. Gaertnera Racemosa, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimukta m. "surpassing pearls in whiteness", Name of certain shrubs. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktakam. = the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktakam. mountain ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktakam. the tree harimantha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktakam. "surpassing pearls in whiteness", Name of certain shrubs. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimukti(/ati-.) f. final liberation (from death) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktif. final liberation. See ati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimuktif. (also) a particular class of oblations, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atimūrtif. "highest shape", Name of a ceremony. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atisaktimatmfn. excessively attached. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantimihiram. Name (also title or epithet) of varāha-mihira-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avyatimoham. the not confounding by error View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayaḥpratimāf. iron image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyatimatmfn. long, extended View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyatimatmfn. stately, dignified View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyatimatmfn. self-restrained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālārkapratimāf. the image or reflection of the orient sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagavadbhaktimāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimahatmfn. truly devoted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimahodayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimañjarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimārgam. "the way of devotion"(regarded as a means of salvation and opp. to karma--and jñāna-m-; see above ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimārganirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimārgopadeśadīkṣāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimatmfn. equals -bhāj- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimatmfn. accompanied by devotion or loyalty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimīmāṃsasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimuktāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṇitimayamf(ī-)n. consisting in eloquence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavāntaraprāptimatmfn. one who has obtained another existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhinnajātimatmfn. idem or 'mfn. plural of different rank commentator or commentary ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhītimatmfn. timid, shy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāntimatmfn. roaming or wandering about View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāntimatmfn. turning round, rolling (as a wheel) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāntimatmfn. mistaking any one or anything for (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāntimatmfn. a particular figure of rhetoric (describing an error) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhuktimatīf. Name of a river (varia lectio mukti-m-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūpratimādānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtimalinamfn. soiled with ashes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtimatmfn. possessing welfare, fortunate, happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtimitram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bījasaṃhṛtimatmfn. containing the germ and catastrophe (of a play) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatimatmfn. accompanied by bṛhaspati-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatimatan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatimiśram. Name of a Scholiast or Commentator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatimamfn. for ti-tama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatimānan. a sum of 24 (paid in gold), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatimatan. "views of the 24 chief legislators", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citimatmfn. having the faculty of thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivatapratimāf. the image of a deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇāmūrtimantram. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍanītimatmfn. familiar with judicature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantimadam. the juice flowing from a rutting elephant's temples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daratimiran. the darkness of fear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devapatimantrinm. " indra-'s counsellor", Name of bṛhas-pati-, the planet Jupiter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devapratimāf. () image of a deity, idol. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devatāpratimāf. "god-image", an idol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimālinm. a particular magic. formula spoken over weapons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatmfn. steadfast, calm, resolute ( dhṛtimattā -- f.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatmfn. satisfied, content View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatm. Name of a form of agni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatm. of a son of manu- raivata- and savarṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatm. of one of the saptarṣi-s in the 13th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatm. of a son of kīrti-mat- (son of aṅgiras-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatm. of a son of yavīnara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatm. of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatn. Name of a varṣa- in kuśa-dvīpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimatīf. Name of a river (varia lectio ta-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimattāf. dhṛtimat
dhṛtimayamf(ī-)n. consisting of constancy or contentment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtimuṣmfn. "fortitude-stealing", disheartening, agitating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyānastimitalocanamfn. having an eye rigid by meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīdhitimatmfn. having splendour, shining, brilliant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīdhitimatm. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīdhitimatm. Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīdhitimāthurīf. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptimatmfn. bright, splendid, brilliant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptimatm. Name of a son of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptimatīf. (in music) Name of a śruti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghatimiṣāf. Cucumis Utilissimus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drākpratimaṇḍalan. a second eccentric circle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dravyaśaktimatmfn. possessed of the power to produce matter, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dravyatvajātimānavicāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhabhaktimatmfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. "firm in devotion", faithful ( dṛḍhabhaktitā -- f. )' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvijātimukhyam. "first of the twice-born", a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatmfn. resplendent, bright View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatmfn. splendid, majestic, dignified etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. Name of a prince of the Madras and father-in-law of saha-deva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a prince of the śālva-s and father of ṛcīka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a son of madirāśva- and father of su-vīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a son of priya-vrata- and king of krauñca-dvīpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a son of prāṇa- (pāṇḍu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a ṛṣi- under the first manu- meru-sāvarṇa- () or under manu- dākṣasāvarṇi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a son of manu- svāyam-bhuva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatm. of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutimatimfn. of brilliant understanding, clear-minded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekaśrutimūlatvan. the state of being based on the same Vedic passage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimālinm. "garlanded with rays", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatmfn. shining, brilliant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. a particular hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. (gabhas-tala- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. n. Name of one of the nine divisions of bhāratavarṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastimahātarkam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatimatmfn. possessed of motion, moving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatimatmfn. having issues or sores View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatimatmfn. connected with a preposition or some other adverbial prefix Va1rtt. 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghanatimiran. the darkness of clouds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghanatimiran. great darkness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇaprakāśadīdhitimāthurīf. Name of a Comm. on śa-vivṛti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harihetimamfn. adorned with a rainbow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimadam. the exudation from an elephant's temples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimakaram. a sea-monster shaped like an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. Name of airāvata- (indra-'s elephants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. of śaṅkha- (the 8th of the chief nāga-s or serpents of pātāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. a heap of ashes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. a shower of dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. frost, cold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimatmfn. provided with elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimātramfn. as great as an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimāyāf. Name of a charm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimeham. a kind of diabetes ( hastimehin hin- mfn.= "suffering from it") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimehinmfn. hastimeha
hastimṛḍitāf. saṃjñāyām- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimukham. "elephant-faced", Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimukham. of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapratimāf. a golden statue or image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetimantram. Name of a mantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetimatmfn. armed with missiles, possessed of weapons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetimatmfn. illuminated by the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
icchāśaktimatmfn. having the power of wishing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itaretaropakṛtimatmfn. helping each other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itimātramfn. of such extent or quality. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timaham. birthday festival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timālāf. "caste-garland", Name of work on the castes (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timatmfn. of high birth or rank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timatmfn. belonging to a genus, what may be subordinated to a generic idea ( jātimattva -tva- n.abstr.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timātran. mere birth, position in life obtained by mere birth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timātran. caste only (but not the performance of especial duties) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timātran. species, genus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timātrajīvinmfn. (a Brahman) who lives only by his caste (without sacerdotal acts) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timātropajīvinmfn. idem or 'mfn. (a Brahman) who lives only by his caste (without sacerdotal acts) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timattvan. jātimat
jñānaśaktimatmfn. possessing intellectual faculty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñātimatmfn. having near relations, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñātimukhamfn. having the appearance of a relative
timatmfn. impetuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyutimatmfn. varia lectio for dy-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaivartimustakan. equals rtī-m- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntimatmfn. lovely, splendid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntimatīf. Name of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntimatīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntimattāf. loveliness, beauty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khamūrtimatmfn. having a divine or celestial person or form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khyātimatmfn. renowned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimālinīf. "garlanded with fame", Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimatmfn. praised, famous etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimatm. Name of one of the viśve- devā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimatm. of a son of uttāna-pāda- and sūnṛtā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimatm. of a son of vasu-deva- and devakī-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimatm. of a son of aṅgiras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimatīf. Name of dākṣāyaṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtimayamf(ī-)n. consisting of fame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krāntimaṇḍalan. "the circle of the sun's course", ecliptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krāntimaurvīf. equals -jīvā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kriyāśaktimatmfn. possessing the power of action
kṛtimatm. Name of a prince (son of yavī-nara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāntimatmfn. patient, enduring, indulgent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatimatmfn. wounded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitimaṇḍalan. the globe, earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitivṛttimatmfn. "of a behaviour similar to that of the earth", patient like the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohapratimāf. an iron image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohapratimāf. an anvil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohitimanm. redness, red colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāratnapratimaṇḍitam. Name of a kalpa- or cycle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsmṛtimayamf(ā- mc.) n. containing great traditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhātimikamfn. (fr. mahātman-) belonging to an exalted person, majestic, glorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasiṃhakīrtimuktāvalif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manusmṛtimāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārtaṇḍapratimāf. an image or statue of the sun-god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārutimañjarīf. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matimānuṣa(?) m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matimatmfn. clever, intelligent, wise etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matimatm. Name of a son of janam-ejaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matimukuram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghatimiran. "cloud-darkness", darkness resulting from a clouded sky, cloudy or rainy weather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtimanm. mortality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhapratimukhaspeech and reply (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktimaṇḍapam. Name of a temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktimārgam. the path to liberation or final emancipation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktimatīf. Name of a river (varia lectio bhukti--and śukti-m-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktimuktam. frankincense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlavyasanavṛttimatmfn. one who gain his living by an hereditary debasing occupation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūrtimatmfn. having a material form (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = formed of) , corporeal, incarnate, personified View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūrtimātrāf. a particle of matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūrtimayamf(ī-). possessing a particular form (with genitive case = possessing the form of) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nānāveṣākṛtimatmfn. of different garb and shape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstimūrtimfn. incorporeal, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timahatmfn. not too large View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timahatmfn. not too long (time) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timāninmfn. not too proud or arrogant ( nātimānitā ni-- f. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timānitāf. nātimānin
timātramind. not too much View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timudāvatmfn. not very pleasant ( nātimudāvattā -- f. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timudāvattāf. nātimudāvat
navatirupatimāhātmya(?) n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayasāhasonnatimatmfn. requiring a high degree of prudence and resolution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥśabdastimitamfn. equals -niścala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikṛtimat() mfn. dishonest, low, base, wicked. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvṛtimatmfn. quite satisfied, happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistimiramf(ā-)n. equals -tamaska- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timañjarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timatmfn. of moral or prudent behaviour, eminent for political wisdom (Comparative degree -mat-tara-)
timatmfn. describing political wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timayūkham. Name of chapter of the bhagavadbhāskara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timukulan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīvāraprasṛtimpaca mfn. cooking only a handful of wild rice, extremely frugal in eating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padātimātram. only a foot-soldier View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcaviṃśatimamf(ī-)n. the 25th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṇḍitimanm. wisdom, learning, scholarship gaRa dṛḍhādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅktimālāf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāpatimiramfn. sin-bedarkened, blinded by sin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimitimatmfn. limited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patimatīf. having a husband, married View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patimatīf. having a lord or master in (instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' tvayā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautimāṣamfn. (fr. -māṣya-) gaRa kaṇvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautimāṣyam. (gaRa gargādi-) patronymic or metron. of a teacher (also ṣī-putra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautimāṣyāf. Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautimāṣyāyaṇam. (p/auti--) patronymic fr. prec.
pautimāṣyāyaṇīf.
timanm. a yellow colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potimatsakam. Name of a prince (varia lectio pautimatsyaka-and yotimatsaka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradīptimatmfn. bright, radiant, luminous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣatimiran. evening darkness, the dusk of early night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpatimātramfn. having the measure of prajāpati-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpatimukha(j/ā-p-) mfn. having prajā-pati- as head or chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajātimat(pr/a--) mfn. containing words relating to generation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtimaṇḍalan. the aggregate of the prakṛti-s or of a king's subjects, the whole kingdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtimañjarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtimatmfn. having the original or natural form or shape, natural, usual, common View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtimatmfn. in a natural or usual frame of mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtimayamf(ī-)n. being in the natural state or condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāptimatmfn. met with, found View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāptimatmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') one who has attained to or reached View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasṛtimpacaf. See nīvāra-pr- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāA1. -mimīte- (Ved. infinitive mood prati-mai-), to imitate, copy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimām. a creator, maker, framer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāf. an image, likeness, symbol etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāf. a picture, statue, figure, idol () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāf. reflection (in compound after a word meaning"moon" see below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāf. measure, extent (see below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāf. Name of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāf. the part of an elephant's head between the tusks (also ma- m.) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' like, similar, resembling, equal to etc.;having the measure of, as long or wide etc. as exempli gratia, 'for example' tri-nalva-pr-,3 nalva-s long ; pratimatā ma-- f. pratimatva ma-tva- n.reflection, image, shadow ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimācandram. "reflection-moon", image of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimādānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimādravyādivacanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāgatamfn. present in an idol (as a deity) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimahānasan. every kitchen commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimahāvyāhṛtiind. at each mahā-vyāhṛti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimahiṣam. a hostile buffalo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimālāf. an exercise analogous to capping verses, reciting verse for verses as a trial of memory or skill (one of the 64 kalā-s ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimālakṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimallam. an opponent in wrestling or boxing, an antagonist or rival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimallatāf. rivalry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāṃsan. new or restored flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimanA1. -manute-, to render back in return or in reply, contrast with (also with 2 accusative) : Causal -mānayati-, to honour, esteem, approve, consider, regard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānan. a counterpart, well-matched opponent, adversary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānan. a model, pattern View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānan. an image, picture, idol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānan. comparison, likeness, similarity, resemblance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānan. a weight (see pratī-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānan. equals -bhāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānabhāgam. the part of an elephant's head between the tusks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānakalpamfn. like, similar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānanāf. homage, reverence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimānayitavyamfn. to be regarded or considered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimañca m. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimañcakam. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimaṇḍalan. a secondary disk (of the sun etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimaṇḍalan. an eccentric orbit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimandiramind. in every house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimaṇḍitamfn. ( maṇḍ-) decorated, adorned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimaṅgalavāram. plural (prob.) every Tuesday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimaṇṭhaka(prob.) m. idem or 'm. (in music) a kind of measure ' (see maṇṭhaka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimantrP. -mantrayati-, to call out or reply to ; to consecrate with sacred texts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimantramind. with or at every formula or verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimantraṇan. an answer, reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimantraṇamagic, conjuring, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimantrayitavyamfn. to be answered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimantritamfn. consecrated with sacred texts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimanvantaran. every manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimanvantaramind. in each Manv-antara. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimanvantareind. in each Manv-antara. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimanyūyaNom. A1. yate- See /a-pratimanyūyamāna-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāparicārakam. an attendant upon an idol (equals devala-) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāpratiṣṭhāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāpratiṣṭhāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāpūjāf. worship of images View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimārgam. the way back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimārgakam. the city of hari-ścandra- (said to hover in the air) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimārgeind. on the way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimārodanādiprāyaścittavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimarśam. ( mṛś-) a kind of powder used as a sternutatory (wrong reading -marṣa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāsa(in the beginning of a compound) ind. every month, monthly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāsamind. every month, monthly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāsamprokṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāśaśāṅkam. equals -candra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāsyam. plural Name of a people (varia lectio for -matsya- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimatāf. pratimā
pratimātavyamfn. comparable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimātṛind. mother by mother, every mother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimātrāf. plural every measure (of time) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimatsyam. plural Name of a people (varia lectio -māsya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimatvan. pratimā
pratimāviśeṣam. a sort of image, a kind of figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimāyāf. counter-spell, counter-charm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimendum. equals mācandra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimeyamfn. comparable (See a-pratim-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimihP. -mehati-, to make water in the direction of (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimitf. ( mi-) a prop, stay, support View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimitamfn. imitated, reflected, mirrored View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimitif. reflected image, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimitra wrong reading for praty-amitra- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimīvP. -mīvati-, to push or press back ; to close by pressing, shut View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimocanan. liberation, release from (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimocitamfn. released, saved, delivered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimokam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') putting or hanging round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimokṣam. ( mokṣ-) liberation, deliverance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimokṣam. (with ) emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimokṣam. the formulary for releasing monks by penances View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātimokṣam. equals prati-m- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimokṣaṇan. remission (of taxes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimokṣasūtran. Name of sūtra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimucP. A1. -muñcati-, te-, to put (clothes, a garland etc.) on (dative case genitive case locative case), to fix or fasten on, append etc. ; (A1.,later also P.) to put on one's self, dress one's self, assume (a shape or form) etc. ; to attach or fasten to (locative case) ; to inflict on (locative case) ; to set at liberty, release, let go, send away ; to give up, resign ; to return, restore, pay back (as a debt) ; to fling, hurl : Passive voice -mucyate-, to be freed or released from (ablative) etc.: Causal -mocayati-, to set free, rescue, save View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimudA1. -modate- (rarely P.) ti-, to rejoice at, welcome with joy, be glad to see (with accusative,rarely genitive case) etc. etc.: Causal -modayate-, to gladden, cheer : Desiderative of Causal -mumodayiṣati-, to wish to make cheerful
pratimudrāf. a counter-seal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimudrāf. the impression of a seal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuhCaus. -mohayati-, to bewilder, confound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuhūrta(in the beginning of a compound) ind. every moment, constantly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuhūrtamind. every moment, constantly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuhusind. again and again, repeatedly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhan. the reflected image of the face View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhan. (in dramatic language) a secondary plot or incident which hastens or retards the catastrophe, the Epitasis (also khasaṃdhi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhan. an answer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhamf(ā-or ī-)n. standing before the face, facing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhamf(ā-or ī-)n. being near, present View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhamf(ā-or ī-)n. (in the beginning of a compound or pratimukham am- ind.) towards, in front, before View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhamind. pratimukha
pratimukhāṅgan. (in dramatic language) progressive narration of events View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukharīf. a particular mode of drumming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukhī(f.) wrong reading for -mukharī- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuktamfn. put on, applied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuktamfn. fastened, tied, bound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuktamfn. released, liberated, freed from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuktamfn. given up, relinquished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuktamfn. flung, hurled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimukula(in the beginning of a compound), in or upon every bud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimūrtif. a corresponding form, image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimūṣikāf. a species of rat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimuṭCaus. -moṭayati-, to put an end to, kill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratipattimatmfn. possessing appropriate knowledge, knowing what is to be done, active, prompt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratipattimatmfn. celebrated, high in rank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratītimatmfn. known, understood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyantimamfn. equals -antika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravṛttimārgam. active or worldly life, occupancy about the business and pleasures of the world or with the rites and works of religion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravṛttimatmfn. devoted to anything, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravṛttinivṛttimatmfn. connected with activity and inactivity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścittimatmfn. one who makes atonement or performs penance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimanasmfn. joyous-minded, pleased in mind, content View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimanasmfn. kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimatmfn. having pleasurable sensations, pleased, gratified, glad, satisfied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimatmfn. having love or affection for (locative case genitive case or accusative), affectionate, favourable, loving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimatmfn. kind (as words) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimatīf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītimayamf(ī-)n. made up of joy, arisen from joy (as tears) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punaruktimatmfn. tautological View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puraścaraṇapaddhatimālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇāhutimantram. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇaśaktimatmfn. possessing that Energy (kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpitapalāśapratimamfn. resembling a Butea Frondosa in flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timāṃsan. dead or decayed flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timāṣam. Name of a man, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timayūrikāf. Ocimum Villosum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timedam. Vachellia Farnesiana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timṛttikam. or n. "having fetid soil", Name of a hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timuktam. or n. voiding excrement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājanītimayūkham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājapraśastimahākāvyan. Name (also title or epithet) of a poem, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājatimiṣam. Cucumis Sativus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktimanm. redness, red colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktimatmfn. charming, lovely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmakīrtimukundamālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimadāf. an apsaras- (see rate-m-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimandiran. a pleasure-house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimandiran. pudendum muliebre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimañjarīf. Name of an erotic work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimañjarīguṇaleśasūcakāṣṭakan. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimanmathan. (prob.) Name of a nāṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimanmathapūjāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimatmfn. having enjoyment or pleasure, cheerful, glad, delighting in (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimatmfn. enamoured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimatmfn. accompanied by rati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimitram. a kind of coitus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratimitram. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍaśītimukhan. (orf(ā-). scilicet gati-) the sun's entrance into the four signs (Pisces, Gemini, Virgo, and Sagittarius) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍviṃśatima(varia lectio) mfn. the 26th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadyuktimuktāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailapratimāf. a stone image, idol made of stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimatmfn. possessed of ability, powerful, mighty, able to (infinitive mood or locative case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimatmfn. possessing a competence, one who has gained a fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimatmfn. possessed of or united with his sakti- or energy (as a god) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimatmfn. armed with a spear or lance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimatm. Name of a mountain (prob. wrong reading for śukti-mat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saktimatmfn. attached or devoted to, fond of (in ati-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimatīf. Name of a woman, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimattvan. power, might View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimayamf(ī-)n. consisting of or produced from a śakti- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktimokṣam. "loss of strength"and"hurling a spear" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmadharmārthanītimatmfn. friendly and just and useful and wise (as speech) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samādhiyogarddhitapovidyāviraktimatmfn. possessing or accompanied with meditation and self-abstraction and supernatural power and mortification and knowledge and indifference View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgatimālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhṛtimatmfn. containing the end of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samitimardanamfn. crushing or harassing in battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammatimanm. sammati
saṃnatimatmfn. humble, modest towards (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnatimatm. Name of a son of su-mati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampratimuktamfn. ( muc-) firmly or completely bound, fastened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampratipattimatmfn. having presence of mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samprītimatmfn. satisfied, pleased, delighted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatimatmfn. possessing offspring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvatsarapratimā(r/a-) f. the image of a year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvṛtimatmfn. able to dissimulate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śanipratimāndanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntimantram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntimatmfn. tranquil, calm, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntimayūkham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptamūrtimayamf(ī-)n. having 7 forms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatimamfn. the 70th (with bhāga- m."a 70th part") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptaviṃśatimamfn. the 27th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaratkāntimayamf(ī-)n. lovely like autumn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvataḥsrutimatmfn. having ears everywhere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataghnīpāśaśaktimatmfn. having a śata-ghnī- and a noose and a spear (but śata-ghnī-may also be, separate). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satimiramf(ā-)n. covered with darkness, obscured, overcast (as the sky) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīrṣaktimatmfn. suffering from head-ache View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitimāṃsan. "white-flesh", fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītimanm. coldness gaRa ḍriḍhādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitimanm. whiteness
sitimāraka(prob.) wrong reading for sita-sāraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivabhaktimāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivabhaktimuktābharaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivaśaktimayamf(ī-)n. produced by śiva- and his energy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimahārṇavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimañjarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimañjūṣāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimatmfn. having recollection or full consciousness etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimatmfn. having a good memory etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimatmfn. remembering a former life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimatmfn. prudent, discreet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimatmfn. versed in tradition or law View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimatmfn. anything which causes recollection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimayamf(ī-)n. based upon smṛti- or tradition, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimīmāṃsāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimuktāphalan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtimuktāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphātimatmfn. thriving, fat (superl. -m/attama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphūrtimatmfn. throbbing, thrilling (with joy or excitement), tremulous, agitated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphūrtimatmfn. tender-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphūrtimatm. a follower or worshipper of śiva- (equals pāśupata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimahatmfn. mighty in sacred knowledge (varia lectio śruta-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimaṇḍalan. "ear-circle", the outer ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimaṇḍalan. the whole circle of the quarter-tones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimārgam. equals -patha- (gaṃ gata-or ga-praviṣṭa-,"having come or entered by way of the ears","heard"; mārga- in the beginning of a compound or geṇa-,"by way of the ears","by hearing") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimatmfn. having ears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimatmfn. possessed of knowledge, learned (often varia lectio for the more correct śruta-vat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimatmfn. having the veda- as source or authority, supported by a Vedic text ( śrutimattva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimatānumānan. Name of a vedānta- work (by try-ambaka- śāstrin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimattvan. śrutimat
śrutimayamf(ī-)n. based on or conformable to sacred tradition or the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimayūram. Name of work on ornithology. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimīmāṃsāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimitaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimṛgyamfn. to be sought by hearing or by the veda- (not by sight) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimukhamfn. having the veda- or sacred tradition for a month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimukharamukhamfn. one whose mouth is talkative or eloquent with learning
śrutimuktāphalan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimūlan. the root of the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimūlan. the text of the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutimūlakamfn. founded on or springing from the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutisūktimālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthitimatmfn. possessing firmness or stability, firm, stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthitimatmfn. lasting, enduring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthitimatmfn. keeping within limits (as the ocean) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthitimatmfn. keeping within the limits of morality, virtuous, honest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stim or stīm- (see tim-) cl.4 P. stimyati- or stīmyati-, to be or become wet or moist ; to become fixed or immovable (See next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimbhim. equals stibhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. wet, moist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. fixed, motionless (see stambhita-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. still, calm, tranquil, soft, gentle ( stimitam am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. pleased View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitan. moisture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitan. stillness, motionless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitajavamfn. advancing slowly or softly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamind. stimita
stimitanayanamfn. having the eyes intently fixed (see stabdhadṛṣṭi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitapravāham. flowing gently along View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitasamādhiśucimfn. pure through intense meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitasthitamfn. standing still or motionless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitatāf. () steadiness, fixedness, stillness, absence of motion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitatvan. () steadiness, fixedness, stillness, absence of motion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitavāyum. still air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitayaNom. P. yati-, to make motionless or still
stimitāyatākṣamfn. keeping (his) large eyes intently fixed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stutimaṅgalan. plural praises and benedictions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stutimantram. a song or hymn of praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stutimatmfn. possessing or knowing hymns of praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stutisūktimālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmamatimatmfn. acute-minded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūktimālikāf. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktimaṇim. "oyster-gem" idem or 'n. "oyster-seed", a pearl ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūktimañjarīprakāśam. Name of a vedānta- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktimatm. Name of one of the seven principal mountains or mountainous ranges in India (see kula-giri-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktimatīf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktimatīf. of the capital of the cedi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūktimuktāf. plural pearls of wise sayings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūktimuktāvali f. Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūktimuktāvalīf. Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumatimerugaṇim. Name of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supratimam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suratimiśram. Name of the author of the alaṃkāra-mālā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryādipratimāpratiṣṭhāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśaphagatimukhamfn. having beautiful hoofs (and) gait (and) mouths View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timārutam. the throes of child-birth (supposed to be caused by a particular vital air) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timās m. the month of delivery, the last month of gestation or pregnancy (equals vaijanana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timāsam. the month of delivery, the last month of gestation or pregnancy (equals vaijanana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timatīf. bringing forth children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svakīrtimayamf(ī-)n. consisting of one's own fame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapatibhrāntimatīf. (a woman) mistaking anything for her husband, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatmfn. being or faring well, happy, fortunate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatmfn. conferring happiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatmfn. containing the word svasti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatīf. Name of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimukhamfn. having the word svasti- in the mouth, wishing joy or fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimukham. a Brahman or a bard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimukham. a letter (beginning with svasti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svātimukham. a particular samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svātimukham. Name of a kiṃ-nara- king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svātimukhāf. Name of a serpent-maiden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetimanm. whiteness, white colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tejastimiran. dual number light and darkness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryaggatimatinn. an animal, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryakpratimukhāgatamfn. come from the side or in front of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛptimatmfn. satisfied, finding satisfaction in (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnatimatmfn. elevated, projected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnatimatmfn. high, sublime, of rank, respectable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upakṛtimatmfn. one who does a favour, helping, assisting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāntimamfn. the last but one, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapattimatmfn. demonstrated, proved. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūtimatīf. (scilicet ṛc-) Name of a ṛc- () which contains the word ūti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūtimatīf. the verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpattimatmfn. produced, born View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vācaspatimiśram. Name of various authors (especially of a philosopher and celebrated lawyer) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidhahiṃsāghatimiramārtaṇḍodayam. Name of work (containing an apology for animal sacrifices as enjoined in the śruti- and smṛti-, and composed A.D. 1854). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairapratimocanan. deliverance from enmity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairocanaraśmipratimaṇḍitam. Name of a world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇasaṃkarajātimālāf. Name of work on mixed castes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimalan. "bladder-excretion", urine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimūlan. "bladder-root", aperture of the bladder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntasiddhāntasūktimañjarīprakāśam. vedāntasiddhānta
vedāntimahādevam. Name of a lexicographer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhraṣṭatimiramfn. freed from darkness (as the sky) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhūtimādhavam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhūtimāhātmyan. Name of a chapter of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhūtimatmfn. mighty, powerful, superhuman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhūtimatmfn. smeared with ashes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṛtimatmfn. liable to change View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṛtimatmfn. indisposed, ill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṣepaśaktimatmfn. vikṣepaśakti
vilātimanm. (fr. prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimānapratimamfn. resembling a celestial car View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimatimanm. (gaRa dṛḍhādi-) difference of opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimatimanm. vimati
viṃśatimamfn. equals viṃśati-tama-, twentieth (with bhāga- m.1/20) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimuktimahimanm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viraktimatmfn. indifferent to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viraktimatmfn. connected with freedom from worldly attachment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇubhaktimāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇupratimāsamprokṣaṇavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśrāntimatmfn. possessing rest, feeling at ease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvamūrtimatmfn. having or taking all forms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitimiramfn. equals -tamas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viyātimanm. shamelessness, impudence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛtimārgam. a fenced road View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttimatmfn. following the practice of (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttimatmfn. one who is engaged in a particular matter or has a particular way of thinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttimatmfn. having a means of subsistence (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = "living on or by") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttimatmfn. exercising a particular function, active (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' having anything as its function)
vṛttimūlan. provision for maintenance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāghāghātimam. or n. (with jaina-s) spontaneous death by abstinence from food after a mortal injury, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptimatmfn. spreading, extending. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptimatmfn. possessing pervasion, universally diffused or pervading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptimatmfn. pervaded, attended by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptimattvan. the capacity of extending or pervading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatimarśam. ( mṛś-) a particular kind of vihāra- (mutual transposition of the several pāda-s or half verses or whole verses of the first and second vālakhilya- hymns which are repeated in sets, two always taken together) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatimarśatimarśamind. so as to encroach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatimarśatimarśamind. so as to skip or take alternately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatimiśramfn. mixed or confounded with one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatimūḍhamfn. ( muh-) excessively perplexed or embarrassed, utterly distracted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatimūḍhatimohaSee /a-vyatimoha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyutpattimatmfn. learned, cultured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatimaithunan. the unchaste life of ascetics View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvatimamfn. (varia lectio for yāvatitha-), , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yotimatsakam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimālikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimallikā(?) f. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimatmfn. joined or united or tied to (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimatmfn. possessing fitness, ingenious, clever, inventive (with infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimatmfn. furnished with arguments, based on arguments, proved ( yuktimattva -tva-, n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimatmfn. suitable, fit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktimattvan. yuktimat
yuktimuktāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
Results for tim80 results
     
tim तिम् I. 1 P. (तेमति, तिमित) To make wet or damp, moisten. -II. 4 P. (तिम्यति) 1 To become wet. -2 To become quiet or tranquil, be calm.
timī तिमी f. (= तिमिः q. v.); L. D. B.
timiḥ तिमिः 1 The ocean. -2 A kind of whale or fish of an enormous size; (अस्ति मत्स्यस्तिमिर्नाम शतयोजनमायतः ।); अमी शिरोभिस्तिमयः सरन्ध्रैरूर्ध्वं वितन्वन्ति जलप्रवाहान् R.13.1. -3 A fish in general; गरीयसे$पकाराय तिमीनां बडिशं यथा Śiva. B.26.45. -4 The figure of a fish produced by drawing two lines, one intersecting the other at right angles. -5 The sign of Pisces (मत्स्य, मीन). -Comp. -कोषः the ocean. -घातिन् m. a fisherman; Ks.6.185. -जम् a kind of pearl. -ध्वजः N. of a demon (Śambara) killed by Indra with the assistance of Daśaratha. (It was in the fight with this demon that Kaikeyī saved the life of Daśaratha while in a swooning fit and got from him two boons which she afterwards used to send Rāma into exile); दानवेन्द्रं हतं दृष्ट्वा तिमिध्वजसुतं रणे Rām.2.44.11. -मालिन् the ocean.
timilā तिमिला N. of a musical instrument.
timiṅgilaḥ तिमिङ्गिलः A kind of fish which swallows a timi; सो$यं तुङ्गतिमिङ्गिलाङ्गकवलीकारक्रियाकोविदः Bv.1.55. ˚अशनः, ˚गिलः very large fish which swallows even a timiṅgila; तिमिङ्गिलगिलो$प्यस्ति तद्गिलो$प्यस्ति राघवः cf. Bv.1.55.
timira तिमिर n. [तिम्-किरच्] Dark; विन्यस्यन्तीं दृशौ तिमिरे पथि Gīt.5; बभूवुस्तिमिरा दिशः Mb. -रः, -रम् 1 Darkness; तन्नैशं तिमिरमपाकरोति चन्द्रः Ś.6.3; Ku.4.II; Śi.4.57. -3 Blindness; तेजोमयं तिमिरदोषहतं हि चक्षुः Rāj. T.4.314. -3 Iron-rust. -Comp. -अरिः, -नुद्, m., -रिपुः the sun; तिमिरारिस्तमो हन्ति प्रातः स्ववधभीरवः Udb.
timiramayaḥ तिमिरमयः 1 An epithet of Rāhu. -2 An eclipse in general.
timirāyate तिमिरायते Den. Ā. To be or appear dark.
timirayati तिमिरयति Den. P. To obscure, eclipse, darken.
timirin तिमिरिन् m. The cochineal insect.
timita तिमित a. [तिम्-कर्तरि-क्त] 1 Moist, wet, damp. -2 Motionless, steady. -2 Calm, tranquil.
timita तिमित See under तिम्.
atimaṅgalya अतिमङ्गल्य a. Very auspicious. -ल्यः N. of a tree (बिल्ववृक्ष).
atimatiḥ अतिमतिः f. -मानः 1 Haughtiness, too great pride; अतिमानश्च बालश्च दुर्विनीतश्च Rām.6.87.27. अतिमाने च कौरवाः Chāṇ.5. -2 extent तरुणगणिकागणजेगीयमानयातिमानया Dk.1.
atimāna अतिमान a. [मानमतिक्रान्तः] Immeasurable, very great or wide (as fame); ˚नया कीर्त्या Dk.1.
atimartya अतिमर्त्य मानुष a. Superhuman. कृतवान्किल वीर्याणि सह रामेण केशवः । अतिमर्त्यानि... Bhāg 1.1.2.
atimaryāda अतिमर्याद a. Exceeding due limits.
atimarśaḥ अतिमर्शः Close contact.
atimāṃsa अतिमांस a. [अतिशयितं मांसं यत्र] Fleshy, plump, fat, as जङ्घा, अधरोष्ठ &c.
atimātra अतिमात्र a. [अतिक्रान्तो मात्राम्, अतिशयिता मात्रा प्रमाणं यस्य वा] Exceeding the proper measure, inordinate, excessive; ˚भास्वरत्वम् M.1.13; (in comp.) very much, beyond measure; ˚सुदुःसहानि Ś.4.3. quite insupportable; ˚लोहिततलौ 1.29; मुनिव्रतैस्त्वामतिमात्रकर्शिता Ku.5.48. -त्रम्, -मात्रशः ind. Beyond measure, inordinately, excessively.
atimāya अतिमाय a. [मायामतिक्रान्तः] Finally liberated, emancipated from the Māyā or illusion of the world. अद्भुताकृतिमिमामतिमायस्त्वं बिभर्षि करुणामय मायाम् Ki.18.3.
atimāruta अतिमारुत a. Very windy. -तः, -वातः A strong hurricane, storm, violent gust of wind.
atimita अतिमित a. 1 Over-measured, excessive. -2 [अ-तिमित] Not wet.
atimitram अतिमित्रम् A great friend, epithet of a very friendly constellation.
atimukta अतिमुक्त a.. 1 Entirely free from worldly desires, finally emancipated. -2 Barren, seedless. -3 Surpassing, (a necklace of) pearls; अतिमुक्तमद्ग्रथितकेसरावली Māl. 5.8. -क्तः -क्तकः 1 A kind of creeper (माधवी, Mar. कुसरी or कस्तुरमोगरा) represented as twisting itself round the mango tree and as the beloved of that tree; cf. क इदानीं सहकारमन्तरेणातिमुक्तलतां पल्लवितां सहते Ś.3; परि- गृहाण गते सहकारतां त्वमतिमुक्तलताचरितं मयि M.4.13. -2 N. of a tree, Dalbergia Oujeinensis (तिनिश). -3 (˚क्तकः) Mountain ebony; N. of a tree called हरिमन्थ (तिन्दुक वृक्ष, तालवृक्ष also).
atimuktiḥ अतिमुक्तिः f. -मोक्षः Final liberation (from death). तद्येयं वाक् सो$यमग्निः स होता स मुक्तिः सातिमुक्तिः । Bṛi. Up.3.1. 3. तद्यदिदं मनः सो$सौ चन्द्रः स ब्रह्मा स मुक्तिः सातिमुक्तिरित्यतिमोक्षा अथ संपदः । Bṛi. Up.3.1.6.
atimṛtyu अतिमृत्यु a. Overcoming death. -त्युः Final liberation from death (मोक्ष); तमेव विदित्वा$तिमृत्युमेति नान्यः पन्था विद्यते Up.
atimodā अतिमोदा 1 Very great fragrance. -2 N. of a plant नवमल्लिका, Jasminum Heterophyllum or Arboreum. (Mar. मोगरी)
antima अन्तिम a. [अन्ते भवः, अन्त डिमच्] 1 Immediately following. -2 Last, final, ultimate; अजातमृतमूर्खाणां वरमाद्यौ न चान्तिमः H.1. -Comp. -अङ्कः the last digit, the number nine. -अङ्गुलिः the little finger (कनिष्ठिका).
apratima अप्रतिम मान a. 1 Without an equal or parallel, incomparable, matchless, unrivalled; त्वं ह त्यदप्रति मानमोजो Rv.8.96.17. रामस्य पश्याप्रतिमानमोजः Mv.1.62; ˚रूपत्वम्; ˚वीर्य, ˚बुद्धि &c. -2 Improper; तस्मात्त्वया समारब्धं कर्म ह्यप्रतिमं परैः Rām.6.12.35.
apratimānuṣa अप्रतिमानुष a. Extra-ordinary; Mb.
amūrtimat अमूर्तिमत् a.Formless &c. m. N. of Viṣṇu.
āyatimat आयतिमत् a. 1 Long, extended. -2 Dignified, majestic, stately. -3 Self-restrained.
ārtimat आर्तिमत् a. Suffering from pain, afflicted.
unnatimat उन्नतिमत् a. 1 Elevated, projecting, plump (as breasts); सा पीनोन्नतिमत्पयोधरयुगं धत्ते Amaru 34; Śi.9.72. -2 High, sublime.
upaśāntim उपशान्तिम् a. 1 Appeased, pacified. -2 Calm, tranquil. m. A tame elephant.
upāntima उपान्तिम a. Proximate, near.
kāntimat कान्तिमत् a. Lovely, beautiful, splendid; कला च सा कान्तिमती कलावतः Ku.4.5,5.71; Me.3. -m. The moon. -2 N. of Cupid.
gabhastimat गभस्तिमत् m. The sun; घनव्यपायेन गभस्तिमानिव R.3.37. -n. One of the seven divisions of Pātāla.
gatimat गतिमत् a. 1 In motion, moving; गिरिरिव गतिमानपक्ष- लोपात् V.3.3. -2 Having running sores, fistulous. -3 Possessing means (such as wealth, books &c.); अगाधाश्चाप्रतिष्ठाश्च गतिमन्तश्च नारद Mb.12.286.7. com. -4 Learned.
timat जातिमत् a. Nobly born, of high rank.
tṛptimat तृप्तिमत् a. satisfied, finding satisfaction in; तृप्तिमान्भवति Ch. Up.7.1.2.
dīdhitimat दीधितिमत् a. Brilliant. -m. The sun; प्रातर्दीधितिमानिव आविरभूत्) Ku.2.2;7.7.
dīptimat दीप्तिमत् a. Splendid, brilliant, shining. -ती (in music) N. of a Śruti.
dhṛtimat धृतिमत् a. 1 Firm, steady, steadfast, resolute. -2 Satisfied, happy, glad, content; रामेण मैथिलसुतां दशकण्ठकृच्छ्रात्प्रत्युद्धृतां धृतिमतीं भरतो ववन्दे R.13.77.
timat नीतिमत् a. 1 Skilled in politics. -2 Wise, prudent, sagacious. -3 Moral.
paṇḍitiman पण्डितिमन् m. Learning, scholarship, wisdom.
patimatī पतिमती वती A woman having a husband; उदीर्ष्वातः पतिवती ह्येषा Rv.1 85.21.
prakṛtimat प्रकृतिमत् a. 1 Natural, usual, common. -2 Having a सात्त्विक frame of mind; ततः प्रकृतिमान् वैद्यः पितुरेषां पुरोहितः Rām.2.77.21 (com. प्रकृतिमान् सत्त्वप्रकृतिः).
pratipattimat प्रतिपत्तिमत् a. 1 Intelligent, -2 Active, prompt. -3 Celebrated, famous. -4 Noble, dignified.
pratimantraṇam प्रतिमन्त्रणम् An answer, reply.
pratimarśaḥ प्रतिमर्शः A powder used as a sternutatory.
pratimā प्रतिमा 3, 4 Ā. To compare, liken.
pratimā प्रतिमा m. Ved. A creator, maker. -मा 1 An image, a likeness, statue, figure, an idol; पुरः परार्ध्यप्रतिमागृहायाः R.16.39. -2 Resemblance, similitude; oft. in comp. in the sense of 'like, similar, or equal to'; देवप्रतिम, अप्रतिम &c.; गुरोः कुशानुप्रतिमात् R.2.49; पतत्पतङ्गप्रतिमस्तपोनिधिः Śi.1.12. -3 A reflection, reflected image; मुखमिन्दु- रुज्ज्वलकपोलमतः प्रतिमाच्छलेन सुदृशामविशत् Śi.9.48,73; R.7. 64;12.1. -4 A measure, extent. -5 The part of an elephant's head between the tusks. -6 A symbol. -Comp. -गत a. present in an idol. -गृहम्, -गेहम् A statue-house; Pratimā 3; R.16.39. -चन्द्रः the reflected moon, reflection of the moon; उवास प्रतिमाचन्द्रः प्रसन्नाना- मपामिव R.1.65; so प्रतिमेन्दुः, प्रतिमाशशाङ्क. -परिचारकः an attendant upon an idol.
pratimānam प्रतिमानम् 1 A model, pattern; सो$र्जुनेन हतः कर्णः प्रतिमानं धनुष्मताम् Mb.8.9.18. -2 An image, idol. -3 Likeness, similitude, similarity; हेरम्बकण्ठरसितप्रतिमानमेति Māl.9.3. -4 A weight; रत्नसारफल्गुकुप्यानामर्घप्रतिवर्णक- प्रतिमानमानोन्मानावमानभाण्डम् Kau. Ā.2.7.25. -5 The part of an elephant's head between the tusks and below the वाहित्थ; Mb.8.28.38; also 6.46.29; पृथुप्रतिमानभाग &c. Śi.5.36, Mātaṅga L.5.7;6.8. -6 A reflection. -7 A picture. -8 Ved. An adversary.
pratimita प्रतिमित p. p. 1 Imitated, copied. -2 Compared. -3 Reflected.
pratimārgakaḥ प्रतिमार्गकः The city of Hariścandra i. e. the magical illusion of a city in the sky; हरिश्चन्द्रपुरं शोभमुद्रकः प्रतिमार्गकः Trikāṇḍaśeṣa.
pratimuc प्रतिमुच् 6 P. 1 To free, liberate, release, set free; गृहीतप्रतिमुक्तस्य R.4.43; अमुं तुरङ्गं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि 3.46. -2 To put on, wear, accoutre or arm oneself with; प्रतिमुञ्च शुभ्रं यज्ञोपवीतम्. -3 To quit, leave, abandon. -4 To throw, cast, or discharge at. -5 To pay off (a debt.). -6 To return, restore. -7 To fasten, bind; तमेकदा मणिं कण्ठे प्रति- मुच्य महाप्रभम् Bhāg.1.56.13. -8 To assume a form. -Caus. 1 To liberate, release. -2 To rescue, save, deliver.
pratimukta प्रतिमुक्त p. p. 1 Put on, worn, applied. -2 Tied, bound, fastened; Bhāg.3.18.1. -3 Armed, accoutred. -4 Liberated, released. -5 Restored, returned. -6 Flung, hurled. -7 Thrown, cast.
pratimuhuḥ प्रतिमुहुः = (emphatic for मुहुः) Often and often; प्रतिमुहुर्द्राङ्गितप्रेयसी N.2.161. प्रतिमोक्षः pratimōkṣḥ प्रतिमोक्षणम् pratimōkṣaṇam प्रतिमोक्षः प्रतिमोक्षणम् Liberation, deliverance; प्रति- मोक्षणम् remission (of taxes).
pratimocanam प्रतिमोचनम् 1 Loosening. -2 Requital, retaliation, retribution; वैरप्रतिमोचनाय R.14.41. -3 Liberation, release.
prītimat प्रीतिमत् a. 1 Full of love or affection, loving, fond, affectionate. -2 Pleased, satisfied. -3 Content, glad. -4 Favourable.
bhaktimata भक्तिमत a. 1 Devout, having pious faith. -2 Loyally devoted or attached, faithful, loyal. -3 Religious, pious.
bhrāntimat भ्रान्तिमत् a. 1 Revolving, turning round; भ्रान्तिमद्वारि- यन्त्रम् M.2.18. -2 Erring, mistaking, being under a delusion. -m. A figure of speech in which one thing is represented as being mistaken for another an account of the close resemblance between the two; भान्तिमानन्य- संवित्तत्तुल्यदर्शने K. P.1; e. g. कपाले मार्जारः पय इति करान् लेढि शशिनः &c.; see V.3.2; Māl.1.2 also.
matimat मतिमत् a. Clever, intelligent; मतिमतां च विलोक्य दरिद्रताम् Bh.1.91.
mūrtimat मूर्तिमत् a. 1 Material, corporeal. -2 Embodied, incarnate, personified; शकुन्तला मूर्तिमती च सत्क्रिया Ś.5. 15; तव मूर्तिमानिव महोत्सवः करः U.1.18; R.12.64; Māl.9.9. -3 Hard, solid. -m. The body.
mṛtiman मृतिमन् m. Mortality.
yuktimat युक्तिमत् a. 1 Clever, ingenious, fertile in using expedients, inventive. -2 Based on argument, logical. -3 Joined, united.
raktiman रक्तिमन् m. Redness.
lohitiman लोहितिमन् m. Redness.
śaktimat शक्तिमत् a. 1 Strong, able, powerful, mighty. -2 Possessing a competence. -3 Armed with a weapon.
śvetiman श्वेतिमन् Whiteness; white colour.
sitiman सितिमन् m. Whiteness.
stim स्तिम् स्तीम् 4 P. (स्तिम्यति, स्तीम्यति) 1 To become wet or moist. -2 To become fixed or immoveable, be rigid.
stimita स्तिमित a. [स्तिम्-कर्तरि क्तः] 1 Wet, moist; स्तिमितोन्नत- संचारा जनसंतापहारिणः । जायन्ते विरला लोके जलदा इव सज्जनाः ॥ Pt. 1.29 (here स्तिमित has two senses :-- steady and moist). -2 (a) Still, unruffled, calm; क्षुभितमुत्कलिकातरलं मनः पय- इव स्तिमितस्य महोदधेः Māl.3.1. (b) Fixed, rigid, unmoved, motionless, steady; वाचस्पतिः सन्नपि सो$ष्टमूर्तौ त्वाशास्य- चिन्तास्तिमितो बभूव Ku.7.87;2.59; स्तिमितविकसितानाम् Māl. 1.27; R.2.22;3.17;13.48,79; U.6.25. -3 Closed, shut; इति विज्ञापितो राज्ञा ध्यानस्तिमितलोचनः R.1.73. -4 Benumbed, paralysed. -5 Soft, tender. -6 Gratified, satisfied. -तम् 1 Moisture. -2 Fixity, steadiness. -Comp. -नयन a. having the eyes intently fixed. -प्रवाह a. flowing gently along. -वायुः still air. -समाधिः steady comtemplation.
stimitatvam स्तिमितत्वम् Steadiness, stillness.
sthitimat स्थितिमत् a. 1 Possessed of firmness, steady, firm; N.5.22. -2 Permanent; स्थितेरभेत्ता स्थितिमन्तमन्वयम् R. 3.27. -3 Virtuous, upright. -4 Keeping within limits (as the ocean).
sphūrtimat स्फूर्तिमत् a. 1 Throbbing, tremulous, agitated. -2 Tender-hearted. -m. A follower or worshipper of Śiva (पाशुपत).
smṛtimat स्मृतिमत् a. 1 Having full consciousness. -2 Remembering a former life. -3 Prudent, discreet. -4 Versed in law. -5 Anything which causes recollection.
svastimat स्वस्तिमत् a. Doing well, happy, safe; भूतानुकम्पा तव चेदियं गौरेका भवेत् स्वस्तिमती त्वदन्ते R.2.48. स्वस्रीयः svasrīyḥ स्वस्रेयः svasrēyḥ स्वस्रीयः स्वस्रेयः A sister's son; Ms.3.148. स्वस्रीया svasrīyā स्वस्रेयी svasrēyī स्वस्रीया स्वस्रेयी A sister's daughter.
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ṛtayuj ṛta-yúj, a. yoked in due time, iv. 51, 5; vii. 71, 3.
ṛtu ṛtú, m. season, vii. 103, 9 [fixed time: from ṛ go].
cit cit perceive, I. cétati, -te; pf. cikéta, i. 35, 7; sb. cíketat, i. 35, 6; cs. citáya stimulate, iv. 51, 3; cetáya cause to think, vii. 86, 7. á̄- observe: pf. ciketa, vii. 61, 1.
jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake].
paśu paś-ú, m. beast, x. 90, 8; victim, x. 90, 15 [Av. pasu-, Lat. pecu-s, Go. faihu].
prasavītr pra-savītṛ́, m. rouser, vii. 63, 2 [sū stimulate].
savitr Sav-i-tṛ́, m. a solar god, i. 35, 1-6. 8-10; vii. 63, 3; x. 34, 8. 13 [Stimulator from sù stimulate].
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timi m. large sea fish; whale; fish: -ghâtin, m. fisherman.
timiṃgila m. fabulous sea monster (swallowing even the timi).
timira a. dark, murky; n. darkness; clouded eyesight (a class of diseases of the eye): â, f. N. of a town; -tâ, f. dimness of the eyesight; -dosha, m. cataract (of the eye); -patala, n. veil of darkness: pl.cataract (of the eye); -maya, a. consisting altogether of darkness.
timirākula a. filled with darkness, affected with cataract; -½ari, m. (foe of darkness), sun: -ripu, m. owl.
timiraugha m. dense darkness.
timiraya den. P. darken.
atimukhara a. extremely talkative; -mûdha, pp. very foolish, very stupid.
atimāruta m. violent wind.
atimānuṣa a. superhuman.
atimānin a. proud; having a delicate sense of honour.
atimāna m. self-conceit, pride.
atimātra a. excessive: °ree;--&-m, ad. excessively, beyond measure, very.
atimahat a. very large; too long.
atimalina a. very dirty; verylow.
atimada m. violent excitement; -madhyamdina, n. exactly noon.
atimatimat a. extremely clever.
atimañjula a. extremely lovely.
antima a. last, final.
apratimukta pp. not given leave; -yatna-pûrva, a. not artificially produced.
apratima a. incomparable: -½ogas, a. of incomparable might; -malla, a. unri valled; -mâná, a., -meya, fp. incomparable.
jñānecchākriyāśaktimat a. having the faculty of knowledge, will, and action.
dīptimat a. radiant, brilliant.
dhṛtimat a. steadfast, firm, reso lute; contented, satisfied; -maya, a. (î) con sisting of strong will; -mush, a. robbing of steadfastness.
nāstimūrti f. bodiless; -vâda, m. atheism, unbelief.
pratimokṣaṇa n. remission (of taxes); -mokana, n. riddance, deliver ance from (--°ree;).
pratimā f. [counter-measure], likeness, image, figure; picture; idol; symbol (°ree;-with a word meaning moon=reflected moon, reflexion of the moon); measure; --°ree; a. (a) resembling, like; -mâtri, ad. according to the several mothers; -mâtrâ, f. pl. all the morae; -m&asharp;na, n. counter-measure; well matched opponent; pattern; comparison, resemblance, equality; weight (measure); -mânanâ, f.homage; -mânayitavya, fp. to be regarded or considered; -mâyâ, f. counter charm; -mârga, m. way back; -mâ-visesha, m. kind of image or figure; -mâsa, °ree;-or -m, ad. every month.
pratimaṅgalavāra m. pl. every Tuesday; -mandala, n. counter or second disc; -mantrana, n. response; -man tram, ad. with or at every verse; -mandi ram, ad. in every house; -manvantara, n. every Manu period: -m or e, in every --; -malla, m. counter-wrestler, opposing war rior; rival.
bṛhaspatimat a. accompa nied by Brihaspati; -vat, a. id.
matimat a. intelligent, wise, sensi ble; -vardhana, m. N. of a commentator; -víd, a. knowing one's devotion or mind; -viparyaya, m. erroneous opinion, illusion; -vibhrama, m. mental confusion; infatua tion; -sâlin, a. possessed of understanding, sensible, wise; -hîna, pp. destitute of under standing, witless, stupid.
mṛtiman m. mortality.
raktiman m. redness.
lohitiman m. redness.
sitiman m. whiteness.
stim only pp. stimita, sluggish; un ruffled, calm; steady, motionless, fixed (often of the eye or gaze); wet, moist (rare): -m, ad.; n. stillness, motionlessness: -tâ, f., -tva, n. id.
hemapratimā f. likeness of gold: -prabha, m. N. of a fairy; N. of a king of the parrots: â, f. N. of a fairy; -maya, a. (î) golden; -mriga, m. golden deer; -ratna maya, a. (î) consisting of gold and gems; -ratna-vat, a. containing or consisting of gold and gems; -latâ, f. golden creeper; N. of a princess; -vat, a. adorned with gold; -sri&ndot;ga, n. golden horn; -sûtra, n. gold (thread=) necklace; -½a&ndot;ka, a.adorned with gold; -½a&ndot;ga, a. having members or parts consisting of gold; m. ep. of Meru; -½akala, m. gold moun tain, ep. of Meru; -½anda, n. golden mundane egg; -½adri, m. gold mountain, ep. of Meru; N. of an author; -½âbha, a. looking like gold; -½ambuga, n. golden lotus; -½ambhoga, n. id.; -½alamkâra, m. golden ornament.
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timirgha daureśruta (‘Descendant of Dúreśruta ’) is men­tioned as Agnīdh (‘ fire-kindling ’) priest at the snake sacrifice described in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
pautimāṣīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Pūtimāṣa,’ is the metronymic of a teacher in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Kāṇva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
pautimāṣya ‘Descendant of Pūtimāsa,’ is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Gaupavana, in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Kāṇva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
pautimāṣyāyaṇa Descendant of Pautimāṣya', is the patronymic of a teacher, who, with Kauṇḍinyāyana, taught Raibhya in the first two Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Mādhyaṃdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
pratimit Is found in the description of a house in the Atharvaveda. The sense must be ‘ support ’ of some sort, probably beams leaning up at an angle against the Upamits.
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"tim" has 268 results.
     
timaṇṇāa southern grammarian who wrote a short treatise on the pratyaharas like अण्, इण् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
aglopaelision of the vowel a, i,u , r or l ( अ, इ, उ, ऋ or लृ ) which prevents Sanvadbhāva confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेSनग्लोपे P. VII.4.93, as also नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् VII.4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.
ajādigaṇaclass of words headed by अज to which the feminine.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
atatkālanot taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expression is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, except when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances: confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atṛnkrt affix अत् applied to the root जॄ in the sense of past time. cf जीर्यतरेतृन् P. III.2.104.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anadyatanaperiod of time not pertaining to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e gह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.
anabhyāsaa wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already reduplicated; confer, compare लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.
anīyarkṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. passive voice. participle. of a root; confer, compare तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. exempli gratia, for example see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
anusaṃhāraindependent mention, a second time, of a thing already mentioned,for another purpose; confer, compare 'अलोन्त्यस्य' इति स्थाने विज्ञातस्यानुसंहारः P.I.1.53 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
apialso in addition to; अपि is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; confer, compare अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; confer, compare अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् ) Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.3.64.
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
arkathe strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time of the utterance of the surd consonants; cf Vāj. Śikṣā. 280.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ardhamātrikataking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a consonant, as it requires for its utterance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16, T. Pr.I.37, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.59.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avivakṣita(1)not taken technically into consideration, not meant: confer, compare अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read without that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
āna(1)kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substituted for the lakāra लट् and applied to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt (affix). affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle confer, compare लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
āpatyapatronymic affix such as अण् and others. The term अापत्य, which is the same as the usual term अपत्य in तस्यापत्यम् P.IV.I, is found sometimes used in the Vārttikas and in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare आयत्याज्जीवद्वंश्यात्स्वार्थे द्वितीयो युवसंज्ञ: P.IV.1.163 Vārt 6.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
uṅa technical term for उपधा, the penultimate letter in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa; confer, compare इदुदुङः Jain. V. 4.28.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
udupadhatvapossession of short उ as the penultimate letter, e. g. इदुदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य P.VII.3.41.
upagītaa fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; confer, compare प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
upadhāpenultimate letter, as defined in the rule अलोन्त्यात्पूर्वं उपघा P. I. 1.65, exempli gratia, for example see ह्रस्वोपध, दीर्घोपध, लघूपध, अकारोपध et cetera, and others; literally उपधीयते निधीयते सा that which is placed near the last letter.
upadhālopina word or a noun which has got the penultimate letter omitted; confer, compare अन उपधालेपिनोन्यतरस्याम् P. IV. 1. 28.
upavarṣaan ancient grammarian and Mīmāmsaka believed to have been the brother of Varṣa and the preceptor of Pāṇini. He is referred to, many times as an ancient writer of some Vṛttigranthas.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upāntaliterally near the last; penultimate. The word is generally found used in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
o(1)diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ applied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; confer, compare ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāladuṣṭaa word not sanctioned by rules of grammar. The word probably refers to the corruption taking place in connection with the use of a word on account of lapse of time: confer, compare कालदुष्टा अपशब्दाः Durgh. Vr. on II.2.6.
kālanidarśakasignifying time; confer, compare कालनिदर्शकाः प्रत्यया एते लुट् लिट् लट् इत्यादयः.
kālabhedadifference in the time of utterance; confer, compare किमुच्यते विवारभेदादिति । न पुनः कालभेदादपि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1.
kālavyavāyainterval of time: confer, compare अान्यभाव्यं तु कालशब्दव्यवायात् । कालव्यवायात् । दण्ड अग्रम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śiva sūtra 1.
kālasāmānyatime in general; unspecified time; confer, compare वर्तमाने लडुक्तः कालसामान्ये न प्राप्नोति Kāś. on P.III.3.142.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktavatukṛt affix तवत् which also is called निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; exempli gratia, for example भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The feminine. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; confer, compare P.IV.1.6.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kanipkṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preceded by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any preceding word; exempli gratia, for exampleप्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, preceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, exempli gratia, for example पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, exempli gratia, for example राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; confer, compare Pāṇini III.2.94-96.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
guṇabhāvina vowel, liable to take the guna substitute e. g. इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and the penultimate अ; confer, compare यत्र क्ङित्यनन्तरो गुणभाव्यस्ति तत्रैव स्यात् । चितम् । स्तुतम् । इह तु न स्याद्भिन्नः भिन्नवानिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5.
gotraliterally family. The word is used by Panini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; confer, compare अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम् P. IV. 1.162. The word गोत्रापत्य is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual अण् , is यञ् ; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
ghinuṇkrt affix इन् causing the substitution of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् et cetera, and others, as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् et cetera, and others and कस्, लष् लप्, et cetera, and others. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III.2.141-145.
ghoṣavata consonant characterized by the property घोष, at the time of its utterance; confer, compare तृतीयचतुर्थाः संवृतकण्ठाः नादानुप्रदाना घोषवन्तः M.Bh. on P,I.1.9.
ṅvanipkrt affix वन् in the sense of an agent referring to an activity of past time, added to the roots सु and यज्; e. g. सुत्वा, सुत्वानौ;यज्वा यज्वानौ CF. P.III 2.103.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
caya short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibilant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । confer, compare चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांदरिति वाच्यम् confer, compare S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.
carcāguṇarepetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ et cetera, and others where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a compound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
jaṭāa kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; confer, compare जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpanaa conclusion or inference, drawn from a word or words in a Sūtra, with a view to assign a purpose to that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. The word is sometimes used in the sense of ज्ञापक, and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reason or हेतु for the desired conclusion to be drawn. The words किमेतस्य ज्ञापने प्रयोजनम् occur very frequently in the Mahābhāșya: cf, M.Bh. on P. Ι. I. 11, 14,19, 55, 68, Ι. 2.41 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
ñia mute syllable prefixed to a root in the Dhatuptha of Panini' signifying the addition of the affix त (क्त) to the root, in the sense of the present time; exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, धृष्ट: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.187.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
(1)third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (confer, compare P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे ) VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix markwith the mute letter ड्.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
ṇyuṭkrt affix अन in the sense of ' skilled agent ' applied (1) to the root गै to singular. exempli gratia, for example गायनः, गायनी, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III 1.147, also गाथकः, गाथिका by P. III. 1.146: (2) to the root हा (III. P. and III.A. also) if ' rice ' or ' time ' be the sense conveyed: e. g. हायना व्रीहयः, हायनः संवत्सरः .confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.148.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatkālarequiring the same time for utterance as for example one matra for short vowels, two for long ones and three for protracted ones, although those vowels are nasalised or pure, or acute, grave or circumflex. See the word तपर.
tatkālaprāptikaoccurring or presenting itself at the same time or simultaneously.
tattvabodhinīname of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Siddhnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commentaries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taparakaraṇaaddition of the mute letter त् after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त्; confer, compare P. I. 1.70. See त्.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tānaone uniform accent or tone एकश्रुति, as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns; confer, compare तानलक्षणमेकं स्वरमाहुर्यज्ञकर्मणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.130; confer, compare also P.I. 2.34.
tāra(1)elevated, high; a place for the production of words; confer, compare T.Pr. XVII. 11; (2) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; confer, compare तारं तु विद्यात्सवने तृतीये, शिरोगतं तत्र सदा प्रयोज्यम् commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 12.
tīvrataraextreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
tulyādhikaraṇahaving got the same substratum; denoting ultimately the same object; expressed in the same case the same as samanadhikarana in the grammar of Panini, confer, compare Kat. II.5.5.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
tnataddhita affix. affix त्न added to the words चिर, परुंत् and परारि showing time, as also to the word प्रग in Vedic Literature: e. g. चिरत्नम्, परुत्नम् , परारित्नम्, प्रत्नम् ( where ग is elided ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 23.
traikālyaall the three times, past, present and future; confer, compare त्रयः काला: समाहृताः त्रिकालम्, त्रिकालमेव त्रैकाल्यम् । स्वार्थे ष्यञ् Uvvatabhasya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. I5.
tresvarya(1)use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of the recital of the Veda; त्रयः स्वरा एव त्रैस्वर्यम्; confer, compare चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनां स्वार्थॆ उपसंख्यानम् । त्रैलोक्यम् , त्रैस्यर्यम् Kas, on P. V. 1. 124. confer, compare also यद्येवं त्रैस्वर्ये न प्रकल्पते तत्र को दोषः। त्रैस्वर्येणाधीमहॆ इत्येतन्नोपपद्यते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31.
deśya(1)taddhita affix. affix in the sense of almost similar; see देशीयर् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (2) (words) current in popular use or language, although not sanctioned by rules of grammar; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते M.Bh. on P. V. 3.55: confer, compare देश्या देष्टव्याः साधुत्वेन प्रतिपाद्या:, Kaiyata on V. 3.55; probably Kaiyata had a difficulty in explaining the word देश्य in the old way meaning ' current in use', as many words called bad words, introduced from other languages were current at his time which he was reluctant to term देश्य.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
droṇikāa kind of the position of the tongue at the time of pronouncing the letter ष्.
dvi:spṛṣṭaa word used many times synonymously with दु:स्पृष्ट; the letters ळ्, ळ् ह्, and upadhmaniya(xप्) are termed द्विःस्पृष्ट or दुःस्पृष्ट.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dviruccāraṇaphonemic utterance a second time; see द्वित्व.
dvisandhia kind of विवृत्ति or interval of time in the pronunciation of two consecutive vowels, which as a result of two euphonic changes has a vowel preceded by a vowel and followed also by a vowel: e. g. अभूदुभा उ अंशवे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
dvisvarapossessed of two vowels,dissyllabic; confer, compare न पदे द्विस्वरे नित्यम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVI. 17. द्विस्स्पृष्ट a term used for an upadhmaniya letter or a phonetic element resulting from a visarga followed by the letter प्, or फ़्. See उपध्मांनीय.The word is also used sometimes for the pronunciation ळ् of ड्, and ळ्ह् of ढ्. See दुःस्पृष्ट.
dhātaddhita affix.affix (l) applied to a numeral in the sense of a kind ( प्रकार ) or a division of time, exempli gratia, for exampleएकधा, द्विधा, त्रिधा et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.V.3.42, 43; (2) applied to बहु to show divisions of a short time;exempli gratia, for example बहुधा दिवसस्य भुङ्क्क्ते and बहुधा मासस्य भुङ्क्ते;confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.4.20.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
naraperson; personal ending; the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons प्रथम, मध्यम, and उत्तम which are promiscuously seen sometimes in the Vedic Literature confer, compare सुतिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति ... Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.85.
nalopaelision of न्, which in Panini's grammar is sometimes taken as valid for certain grammatical operations,and otherwise for other operations; confer, compare नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति P.VIII.2.2.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirūḍhopadhaa word, the penultimate vowel in which is picked up and taken back, as for instance the penultimate अ of हन् in the word अंहस् confer, compare अंहतिश्च अंहश्च अंहुश्च हन्तेर्निरूढोपधाद्विपरीतात् Nirukta of Yāska.IV. 25.
nirdeśamention, actual statement; the word is often used in the Mahabhasya in sentences like स तथा निर्देशः कर्तव्यः, निर्देशं कुरुते et cetera, and others; confer, compare also V.Pr. I. 36;confer, compare also the maxim तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य P. I.1.66 and Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 134; confer, compare also अवश्यं कयाचिद्विभक्त्या केनचिद्वचनेन निर्देशः कर्तव्यः M.Bh. on P. I. 2. 39 Vart. 1. Sometimes the mention or exhibition made by a word shows the particular type of word; confer, compare Durghata Vrtti on P. I. 2. 6 and VII. 4. 73 as also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 11 and V. 2. 20.
nivātasometimes used for निघात or the grave accent.
nukaugment न् (l) affixed to the words अन्तर्वत् and पतिवत् before the feminine affix ङीप् e. g. अन्तर्वत्नी, पतिवत्नी, confer, compare P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to the root ली before the causal affix णिच् , e. g. विलीनयति, confer, compare P. VII. 3.39; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate अ as also of the roots जप्, जभ् , दह् , दश्, भञ्ज्, पश्, चर्, and फल् in the intensive; e. g. जङ्गम्यते, तन्तन्यते, यंयमीति, जङ्गमीति, जञ्जप्यते, दन्दह्यते, दन्दशीति. चञ्चूर्यते, पम्फु लीति confer, compare P. VII 4.85, 86, 87.
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padavirāmapause between two words measuring two mātrās, or equal to the time required for the utterance of a long vowel; e. g. in इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा, the pause between इषे and त्वा is measured by two mātrās; confer, compare पदविरामो द्विमात्रः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII.13.Some Prātiśākhya texts declare that the pause between two words is of one mātra as at avagraha; confer, compare R Pr. II.1 and Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 35-38.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paramāṇua time-unit equal to one-half of the unit called अणु, which forms one-half of the unit called मात्रा which is required for the purpose of the utterance of a consonant; confer, compare परमाणु अर्धाणुमात्रा V. Pr.I.61. परमाणु, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramanu; confer, compare वर्णान्तरं परमाणु R.T.34.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
parivartanareversion in the order of words as found in the recital of the Veda at the time of the recital of जटा, घन and other artificial types of recitations.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pādapūraṇacompletion of the fourth part or Pāda of a stanza or verse; confer, compare सोचि लोपे चेत् पादपूरणम् P. VI.1.134, also प्रसमुपोदः पादपूरणे VIII. 1.6. As many times some particles, not with any specific or required sense, were used for the completion of a Pāda, such particles were called पाद्पूरण ; confer, compare सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr.XII.7; also निपातस्त्वर्थासंभवे पादपूरणो भवति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.50 Uvvața.
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
punargrahaṇarecital of a word again in the Krama and other Pāțhas for a special purpose, although such a recital after three times is generally discouraged; confer, compare एवमर्थविशेषात् पुनरुक्तस्य ग्रहणं भवति ... Uv Bhāşya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 177.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvāntaend of the previous. The word is used in connection with a vowel which is substituted for two vowels (एकादेश.). Such a substitute is looked upon as the ending vowel of the preceding word or the initial vowel of the succeeding word; it cannot be looked upon as both at one and the same time; confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च P. VI. 1. 85 and उभयत अाश्रयेण नान्तादिवत् Sira. Pari. 60; confer, compare also किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्तः अहोस्वित् परादिः अाहोस्विदभक्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 47 Vart. 3.
paurastyavaiyākaraṇaa grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika.
paurvāparya(1)a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8.
pratipattigauravadifficulty in understanding; requiring a longer time in understanding the sense: confer, compare एवं हि प्रतिपत्तिगौरवंं स्यात् Sira. Pari. 50. See प्रतिपत्तिगरीयस्त्व.
pratisaṃskaraṇaediting with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
praiṣādithe senses प्रैष 'order to do', अतिसर्ग 'permission to do' and प्राप्तकालता 'fitness of time', as possessed by the potential passive participles; cf विधीयन्ते प्रैषादिषु लोडादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
baor बकार the letter ब्, the vowel अ as also the word कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.17.21, The letter ब् is sometimes used for व् especially when it stands at the beginning of a word, for which scholars use the expression वबयेारभेद:
bahiraṅgaa rule or operation which is बहिरङ्ग (literally external); the word बहिरङ्ग is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation, the cause ( निमित्त )of which occurs later in place or time than the cause of the other which is called अन्तरङ्ग. For the various kinds of बहिरङ्गत्व see the word अन्तरङ्ग where the kinds of अन्तरङ्गत्व are given.
bahvacmultisyllabled, a word which contains three, or more than three vowels; the word occurs many times in the sutras of Panini. confer, compare P. II. 4.66, IV. 2.73, IV. 2.109, IV. 3.67; V. 3.78, VI. 2.83, VI. 3.118.
bāhya(प्रयत्न)external effort; the term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न. The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; confer, compare बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषोSघोषोSल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति S.K.on P. I.1.9.
binduanusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; confer, compare अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvavikārakinds of verbal activity which are described to be six in number viz. production, existence, transformation, growth, decay and destruction. These six modes of existence first mentioned by Vāŗșyayani and quoted by Yāska are explained philosophically by Bhartŗhari as a mere appearance of the Śabdabrahman or Sattā when one of its own powers, the time factor ( कालशक्ति ) is superimposed upon it, and as a result of that superimposition, it (id est, that is the Śabdabrahman) appears as a process; confer, compare षड् भावाविकारा भवन्ति इति वार्ष्यायणि: | जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यति इति । Nir.I.2; confer, compare also Vākyapadiya III.30.
bhāvinwhich is to come into being; of future time: confer, compare भावि कृत्यमासीत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 4. 1: confer, compare भाविन: सुट आदेशो विधीयते M.Bh. on P. VII. 1. 33; cf also एवं तर्हि भाविनीयं संज्ञा विज्ञास्यते M.Bh on P. I. 1.45.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
bhraṣṭāvasaraliterally a person or a thing of which the proper occasion has passed; the word is used in connection with the application of a rule even though the proper time of its application is gone, on the analogy of a man who is paid his Dakṣiṇā although the proper time has gone ( भ्रष्टावसरन्यायेन दक्षिणा दीयते); confer, compare न च पुनर्लुक्शास्त्रं प्रवर्तते भ्रष्टावसरत्वात् Kāś. on P. VII.2.101.
bhrūmadhyaliterallycentre of the brows, or eyebrows which is described as the place of air ( which produces utterance or speech) at the time of the evening soma-pressing or sacrifice: confer, compare प्रात:सवनमाध्यन्दिनसवनतृतीयसवनक्रमेण उर:कण्ठभ्रूमध्यानि त्रीणि स्थानानि वायोर्भर्वान्त Vāj. Prāt. I. 30; confer, compare also भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
madhyapatitaliterally fallen in the middle; the word is used generally in the sense of an augment which is inserted in the middle of a word. Sometimes an affix too, like अकच् or a conjugational sign like श्रम्, is placed in the middle of a word. Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with it is taken as the original word for grammatical operations; exempli gratia, for example उच्चकै:, नीचकै: et cetera, and others cf तन्मध्यपतितस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 89.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
mātrā(1)measure, quantity ; cf भवति हि तत्र या च यावती च अर्थमात्रा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.45 and II.1.1 ; (2) mora, prosodial unit of one instant id est, that is the length of time required to pronounce a short vowel: confer, compare भूयसी मात्रा इवर्णोवर्णयोः, अल्पीयसी अवर्णस्य, M.Bh. on I.1.48 Vart. 4: confer, compare मात्रा ह्रस्वस्ता वदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धः,तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)I.16: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.34, T.Pr.I.37, V.Pr.I.59, R.T.28 also cf अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Sek. Pari. 132. The instant is taken to be equal to the throbbing of the eye, or a flash of lightning, or a note of a wood-cock.
mādhurīrvṛtia gloss not composed by, but simply explained by an inhabitant of Mathuraa or Madhuraa Such a gloss is referred to in the Mahaabhaasya on P.IV.3.101 Vaart.3, which possibly might be referring to an existing gloss on the SUtras of Paanini, which was being explained at Mathura, at the time of Patanjali. The term मधुरा was used for मथुरा in ancient times and the word माथुरी वृत्ति is also used for माधुरी वृति.
mit(1)characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; confer, compare मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ et cetera, and others, as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yaḍlugantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: confer, compare यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots.
yavādia class of words headed by the word यव, the taddhita affix मत् after which does not get the consonant मृ changed into व् although the affix मत् be added to a word ending in म् or अ, or having म् or अ as the penultimate letter; e. g. यवमान् , ऊर्मिमान् , भूमिमान् et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.2.9. This यवादिगण is looked upon as आकृतिगण
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
yogāpekṣaconcerning only that particular rule to which it refers. The word is many times used in connection with a deduction ( ज्ञापक ) which is not to be applied in general, but which is restricted to the functions of that rule from which the deduction is drawn; confer, compare योगोपक्षं ज्ञापकम् M.Bh. on P. I.1.23 Vart.10, P.III.1.95 Vart.2.,P.IV. 1.87 Vart. 2, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 and V.1.1.
ranu[RENOU,LOUIS]a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention.
ramaugment र inserted after the vowel अ of the root भ्रस्ज्, when the letterर् which is already present in भ्ररुज् (before अ) and the penultimate स् are dropped; the result is that the word भर्ज्, in short, becomes substituted in the place of भ्रस्ज्: confer, compare भ्रस्जो रोपधयो रमन्यतरस्याम्P.VI. 4.47, and भ्रस्जो रोपधयोर्लोप अागमो रम् विधीयते as Bharadvajiya Varttika thereon
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rikan augment added optionally with रुक् and रीक् to the reduplicative syllable of the frequentative root from a primitive root which ends in ऋ or has a penultimate ऋ; e. g. चरिकर्ति, नरिनर्ति भरिभ्रत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare रुग्रिकौ च लुकि, P.VII. 4.9l and ऋतश्च VII.4.92.
rit(1)characterized by the mute consonant र् signifying the acute accent for the penultimate vowel;confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI. I. 217; ( 2 ) the same as रिफित or रेफि, a visarga which is changeable into र् when euphonically combined; confer, compare विसर्जनीयो रिफितः V.Pr.I.160; confer, compare also भाव्युपधं च रिद्विसर्जनीयान्तानि रेफेण ; V.Pr. VII.9. The terms रिफित, रेफि and रित् are given in the Padapatha to a पद or word which ends in a Visarga which has originated from र् in the Samhitapatha; e. g. the Visarga in कः, प्रात: et cetera, and others; confer, compare R.Pr.I.30 to 32.
rīkaugment री added optionally with रुक् and रिक् to the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास ) of the frequentative base of roots having ऋ as their penultimate vowel; exempli gratia, for example वरीवृश्च्यते वरीवृश्चीति, नरीनर्ति, चरीकर्ति; cf रीगृदुपधस्य च P.VII. 4.90.
laṭgeneral personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि et cetera, and others are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9.
lāvasthāthe original condition of ल् or the personal endings before the affixes तिप्, तस् and others are substituted for them in accordance with the time or mood, as also the person and the number in view;confer, compare लावस्थायामेव स्यादयः, सार्वधातुके श्यनादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 1. 33.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
luṭgeneral name for affixes of the first future which are added to roots when the future time is not the present day, but the next and the succeeding ones; confer, compare अनद्यतने लुट् P. III. 3.15. The affixes ति, त: et cetera, and others replace the affix लुट् in accordance with the number and person in view; confer, compare तिप्तस्झिसिप् .... P. III. 4 78.
lṛṭa general term for the general affix ल् of the second future which is applied in the sense of future time in general, without any specific conditions, the affixes ति, त:, अन्ति being substituted for the ल् and the sign (vikaraņa) स्य being added to the root; confer, compare P.III.3.13 and III. 3. 133. The terminations अत् and अान are substituted for the affix लृट् to form future participles; exempli gratia, for example भविष्यत्, एधिष्यमाण, confer, compare लृट; सद्वा P.III.3.14.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇaphonemic unit: a letter The term was in use in ancient times and found used generally in the masculine gender, but occasionally in the neuter gender too; .e. g. उपदिष्टा इमे वर्णाः M.Bh. Ahnika 1. also मा कदाचिदवर्णे भूत् M.Bh. on Siva Sutras 3, 4.
vākyapradīpaa term sometimes seen (wrongly) applied to the Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari. It may have been the name of the commentary on the vakyaprakasa.
vākyaikadeśapart of a sentence which sometimes, on the strength of the context, conveys the whole meaning confer, compare दृश्यन्ते हिं वाक्येषु वाक्येकदेशान् प्रयुञ्जाना: पदेषु च पदैकदेशान् | प्रविश पिण्डीम् | प्रविश तर्पणम् पदेषु पदकैदेशान् देवदत्तो दत्तः | सत्यभामा भामेति M.Bh. on P.I.1.45 Vart. 3.
vāsarūpanyāyathe dictum of applying optionally any two or more krt affixes to a root if they become applicable at one and the same time, only provided that those affixes are not in the topic of स्त्रियाम् (P.III.3.94 et cetera, and others) and are not the same in appearance such as ण, अ, क etc , which are the same viz. अ; confer, compare वासरूपेSस्त्रियाम् P.III.1.94; confer, compare also वासरूपन्यायेन ण्वुलपि भावेष्यति M.Bh. on P.III.2.146 Vart.1;confer, comparealso M.Bh. on P.III.2.150 Vart. 1, The word वासरूप and वासरूपविधि are also used in the same sense: confer, compare ताच्छीलिका वासरूपेण न भवन्तीति M.Bh. on P.III. 2.150 Vart. 2, as also ताच्छीलिकेषु वासरूपविधिर्नास्ति Par. Sek. Pari. 67.
vikrama(1)name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; confer, compare स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रम: T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel: confer, compare प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य T.Pr.XIX.2: (8) repetition of a word or पद as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्रणतो निमिषतः ; confer, compare R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general: cf also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् R.Pr. XIII.11.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vickrt affix वि (which also becomes nil or zero) applied to a root in the sense of an agent, as observed in Vedic and classical use, as also to the root यज् with उप and roots ending in अा generally in Vedic Literature but sometimes in popu1ar language; confer, compare विजुपे छन्दसि । आतो मनिन्कनिबवनिपश्च। अन्येभ्योपि दृश्यन्ते | कीलालपाः, शुभ्ंयाः et cetera, and others Kas on P. III. 2.73, 74, 75.
viparīta(1)in the opposite or reverse way: confer, compare विपरीताच्चेति वक्तव्यम् । पारावारीणः M.Bh. on P.IV.2.93 Vart. 2; (2) change of ऋ into इ, seen sometimes in Vedic Literature when that ऋ is preceded or followed by a palatal letter; exempli gratia, for example श्रृङगे into शिङ्गे (Ṛk. Saṁh. V-2.9) बिभृयात् into बिभियात् (Ṛk.Saṁh. x.x.9) विचृत into विचित्त Ṛg. Veda II.27.16; confer, compare अनन्तरे तद्विपरीतमाहुस्तालव्ये श्रृङगे बिभृयाद्विचृत्ताः R.Pr.XIV.17.
vibhaktibalīyastvathe relative superior strength possessed by the कारकविभक्ति which takes place in supersession of the उपपदविभक्ति when both become applicable at one and the same time; exempli gratia, for example मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not मुनित्रयाय नमस्कृत्य: confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94.
vimokṣaliberation of the last letter (especially a class consonant) of a word from phonetic modifications by coalescence with the initial letter of the following word, or liberation of modification of a consonant or vowel standing at the end of a verse or sometimes even in the middle of a verse: exempli gratia, for example तत् नो मित्रः,सम् यौमि, संमधुमतीर्मधुमतीभिः पृच्यन्ताम् शुक्रं दुदुह्रे अह्नय; confer, compare V. Pr.I.90,91.
virāgaomission of a consonant, sometimes when it is preceded and also followed by another consonant, as if it were squeezed between the two; this is no doubt looked upon as a fault; exempli gratia, for example the omission of the consonant द् in उपमा षट् द्रा द्वा uttered as उपमा षट् वा द्वा; confer, compareअन्योन्येन व्यञ्जनानां विरागः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.explains विराग as लोप्.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vilambitaa kind of tone where the interval between the utterance of two letters as also the time required for the utterance of a letter is comparatively longer than in the other two kinds, viz. द्रुत and मध्य; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णाः त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायाम्,ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलम्बितायाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.70: confer, compare also द्रुतविलम्बितयोश्चानुपदेशात् P. I.1.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
vilopathe same as लोप which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term विलोप was possibly in use before Pāṇini's time; cf उदात्तपूर्वै नियतस्वरोदये परो विलोपोsनियतो यदावरः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 26: confer, compare also विलोपो विनाशः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.28,
vivṛtatarapossessed of the internal effort viz. विवृत which is specially strengthenedition The diphthongs have got at the time of their production the internal effort विवृत specially strengthened; confer, compare यदत्रवेर्णं, विवृततरं तदन्यस्मादवर्णात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras. 3,4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 10.
visargaaspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vun(1)kṛt affix अक added to the roots प्रु, सृ, and लू in the sense of 'a skilled agent' and to any root in the sense of 'an agent who is blessed'; exempli gratia, for example प्रवकः, सरकः, लवकः, जीवकः ( meaning जीवतात् ) नन्दकः, ( meaning नन्दतात् ); confer, compare P. III. 1. 149, 150; (2) taddhita affix. affix अक added to(a) the words क्रम and others in the sense of 'a student of'; e.g, क्रमक:, पदकः शिक्षकः मीमांसकः; confer, compare P.IV.2.61; (b) the words पूर्वाह्न, अपराह्ण et cetera, and others as also the words पथिन् and अमावास्या in the sense of 'produced in': exempli gratia, for example पूर्वाह्नक,पन्थक, अमावास्यकः confer, compare P. IV.3. 28, 29, 30; (c) the words कलापि, अश्वत्य, यव and बुस in the sense of 'debt paid at the time of', the words वासुदेव and अर्जुन in the sense of 'devoted to',and the dvandva compounds when the words so formed mean either 'enmity' or 'nuptial ties';exempli gratia, for example कलापकम् (ऋणम्),यवकम् (ऋणम्) वासुदेवकः, अर्जुनकः, काकोलूकिका, कुत्सकुशिकिका; confer, compareP.IV.3.48, 98,125: (d) the words गोषद, इषेत्व et cetera, and others in the sense of 'containing' or 'possessing', and the word पथिन् in the sense of 'expert' exempli gratia, for example इषेत्वकः, पथक:; confer, compareP.V.2.62, 63; and (e) the words पाद and शत preceded by a numeral, in the sense of वीप्सा, as also in the senses of दण्ड (fine) and व्यवसर्ग when those words are preceded by a numeral; exempli gratia, for example द्विपदिकां ( ददाति ), द्विशतिकां ( ददाति ), द्विपदिकां दाडितः confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.4.l and 2.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vaiyarthyaabsence of any purpose or utility; the word is used many times in the case of a rule, or a word or two of it, in whose case वैयर्थ्य or absence of utility is shown, and, with a view to prevent its being looked upon as a serious fault, something is deduced and the purpose is shown; cf सूत्रवैयर्थ्यप्रसङ्गात् and व्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति used in grammar treatises.
vaiyākaraṇaliterally a student of grammar; व्याकरणमधीते वैयाकरण: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV, 2.59. The word is used in the sense of 'a scholar of Grammar;'or, 'a person who has obtained proficiency in Grammar.' The word is used several times in this sense in the Mahabhasya. cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.3; I.4.2, II. 1.53, II.2.29, II.3.18, II.4.56, III.2.115 et cetera, and others The word is also used in the sense of 'pertaining to grammar' or 'found in grammar.'
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyaṅgya(1)suggested sense as contrasted with the denoted sense; (2) the supreme or ultimate suggested sense viz. Sphota which is the ultimate sense of every sentence.
vyutpattiderivation of a word from a root which formed a special feature of the Nairukta school of Vedic scholars in ancient times; the word निर्वचन is used in the same sense: confer, compare सति संभवे व्युत्पत्तिरन्यथा कर्तव्या रूढेरनियमात् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.93.
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śabdatattvaliterally the essence of a word; the ultimate sense conveyed by the word which is termed स्फोट by the Vaiyakaranas. Philosophically this Sabdatattva or Sphota is the philosophical Brahman of the Vedantins, which is named as Sabdabrahma or Nadabrahma by the Vaiykaranas,and which appears as the Phenomenal world of the basis of its own powers such as time factor and the like; confer, compare अनादिनिधनं ब्रह्म शब्दतत्वं यदक्षरम् ! विवर्ततेर्थभावेन प्रक्रिया जगतो यतः ॥ vakyapadiya, I.1: cf। also Vakyapadiya II.31.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śīrṣaṇyaprincipal; chief ; the word is used in connection with the utterance of Veda passages which are uttered loudly at the time of the third pressing ( तृतीयसवन ): confer, compare शिरसि तारम् T. Pr.XXIII.12; confer, compare शीर्षण्यः स्वरः M.Bh. on P. VI.l.61.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śubhrādia class of words headed by the word शुभ्र to which the taddhita affix एय ( ढक् ) is added in the sense of a descendant in spite of other affixes being prescribed by some other rules which sometimes are added optionally with this एय; exempli gratia, for example शौभ्रेय:, वैधवेय: रौहिणेयः. This class is looked upon as अाकृतिगण and hence if this affix एय is seen applied although not prescribed actually as in the word गाङ्गेय, the word is supposed to have been included in this class; confer, compare P. IV. I.123.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
śruti(1)literally hearing sound.confer, compare श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; confer, compare ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 61; (2) authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.
ṣitan affix or sometimes a word marked by the mute letter ष्, The mute letter ष् attached to roots signifies the addition of the krt affix अङ् ( अ ) in the sense of the verbal activity: e. g. क्षमा from the root क्षमूष् ( क्षम् ), जरा from ज्ट्टष्ठ ( ज्दृ ); confer, compare षिद्भिदादिम्भोSङ् P. III. 3.104: attached to affixes, ष् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीष् ), e. g. वराकी, शतपथिकी et cetera, and others confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41. A few roots headed by घट् (roots from घट् to त्वर्) are to be looked upon as षित् for the purpose of the addition of the krt. affix अ; e. g. घटा, व्यथा et cetera, and others confer, compare घटादयः षितः । Gana sutra in Dhatupatha
ṣyaṅtaddhita affix. affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, exempli gratia, for example कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. compound): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर et cetera, and others as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV.1.79, 80, 81.
saṃkṣiptasāraname of a complete grammar-work written by क्रमदीश्वर for facility of study. This grammar appears to have been written before the time of कैयटं or हेमचन्द्र, as can be seen from the popular stanza परेत्र पाणिनयिज्ञा: केचित् कालापकोविदा; ।| एके विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारका; ll
saṃghātārthacollective sense given by a combination of letters called पदार्थ. When the collective sense is given by a combination of words it is called पदार्थ, and when the idea is complete it is called वाक्यार्थ. Sometimes the meaning of a compound word is taken individually and not. collectively; such a meaning is called संघातविगृहीतार्थ confer, compare नामाख्यातग्रहणं संघातविगृहीतार्थं द्रष्टव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 3.72 Vart. 1.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃvāraone of the external efforts in the production of a sound when the gullet is a little bit contracted as at the time of the utterance of the third, fourth and the fifth of the class-consonants; confer, compare कण्ठबिलस्य संकोचः संवार: Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P. I. 1.9.
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
sattāexistence, supreme or universal existence the Jati par excellence which is advocated to be the final sense of all words and expressions in the language by Bhartrhari and other grammarians after him who discussed the interpretation of words. The grammarians believe that the ultimate sense of a word is सत्ता which appears manifold and limited in our everyday experience due to different limitations such as desa, kala and others. Seen from the static viewpoint, सत्ता appears as द्रब्य while, from the dynamic view point it appears as a क्रिया. This सत्ता is the soul of everything and it is the same as शव्दतत्त्व or ब्रह्मन् or अस्त्यर्थ; confer, compare Vakyapadiya II. 12. The static existence, further, is . called व्यक्ति or individual with reference to the object, and जाति with reference to the common form possessed by individuals.
sāṃnyāsikaliterally placed as a deposit, id est, that is without any special purpose for the time being: the word is used in connection with a word in a rule which apparently is superfluous; confer, compare तदेतन्नित्यग्रहणं सांन्यासिकं तिष्ठतु तावत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.81 ; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 2.107, VI. 1.8; VII. 2.86.
sāṃpratika(l)what is actually expressed .or found in the context; confer, compare सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिर्विज्ञायते M. Bh on P. VI. 1.177 Vart. 1: (2) original, found in the original context of Prakriti; confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 6; (3) of the present time: confer, compare Purus. Pari. 15.
sāmānādhikaraṇyastanding in apposition; the word is used many times in its literal sense ' having the same substratum.' For instance, in घटं करोति देवदत्तः, the personal ending ति and देवदत्त are said to be समानाधिकरण. The Samanadhikarana words are put in the same case although, the gender and number sometimes differ. See the word समानाधिकरण.
sārvakālikadenoting time, irrespective of its divisions such as the past, the present and the future; e. g. the krt affixes prescribed by rules before P. III 2.84; confer, compare अतः सार्वकालिका विधयो वेदितव्याः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2. 83.
sāhacaryapresence together, mention together, association; this साहचर्य is many times of use in cases of doubt regarding the meaning of a word or the choice of a word in a particular sense: confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1, 70, I 2. 27: confer, compare सहचरितो योर्थस्तस्य गतिर्भविष्यति साहचर्यात् ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 51 Vart. 3.
siddha(1)established; the term is used in the sense of नित्य or eternal in the Varttika सिद्धे शब्दार्थसंबन्धे where, as Patanjali has observed, the word सिद्ध meaning नित्य has been purposely put in to mark an auspicious beginning of the शब्दानुशासनशास्त्र which commences with that Varttika; confer, compare माङ्गलिक आचार्यो महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थे सिद्धशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्क्ते M.Bh.on Ahnika 1; (2) established, proved, formed; the word is many times used in this sense in the Mahabhasya, as also in the Varttikas especially when a reply is to be given to an objection; confer, compare P.I. 1.3 Vart. 17, I.1. 4. Vart. 6: I. I. 5, Vart.5,I.1.9 Vart. 2 et cetera, and others
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarabhaktia vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 32.35; confer, compare also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 35; confer, compare also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101.
svarabhinnadiffering in the matter of accent; words so differing are Practically looked upon as one and the same; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नानां यस्योत्तरस्वरविधिस्तस्येंकशेषो वक्यव्य: | अक्षश्च अक्षश्च अक्षौ । M. Bh on I. 2. 64 Vart. 24, For technical purposes, they are sometimes looked upon as different; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नस्य च प्राप्नुवन् विधिरनित्यः । Par. Sek. Pari. 49.
svābhāvyainherence; natural capacity; the word is used many times in connection with the power of denotation: confer, compare शब्दशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् | Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. III.1. 112 or अभिधानशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् Nyasa on P. IV. 4.60. स्वार a term used in the PratiSakhya works for स्वरित or the circumflex accent: स्वारः स्वरितः ( Com. on T.Pr. XVII.6: confer, compare also T.Pr.XX.20; XXIII.24. There are seven varieties of स्वार given in thc Pratisakhya works, viz. क्षैप्र, नित्य, प्रातिहत, अभिनिहत, प्रश्लिष्ट, पादवृत्त and तैरोव्यञ्जन, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XX.1-7.
hrasvashort, a term used in connection with the short vowels taking a unit of time measured by one matra for their utterance; confer, compare ऊकालोज्ङ्ररस्वदीर्घप्लुत: P. I. 2.27.
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timeḥ from TimiSB 6.6.24-26
timeḥ of TimiSB 9.22.43
timi whalesSB 8.7.18
timiḥ TimiSB 6.6.24-26
SB 9.22.42
timińgalaḥ and huge timińgila fishSB 10.56.28
timińgila whales that can swallow whalesSB 8.7.18
timińgila whose timińgila fishSB 10.71.17
timińgilaiḥ and by the timińgila, a variety of huge fish that eats whalesSB 12.9.16
timińgilaiḥ on the backs of big fish known as timińgilasSB 8.10.10-12
timińgilaiḥ resembling great timińgila fish, which can easily eat large sharksSB 10.1.4
timira of darknessCC Antya 3.181
timira-nikaram the mass of darknessSB 5.24.31
timira-nikaram the mass of darknessSB 5.24.31
timirayan causing complete darknessSB 3.15.10
vitimira-ābhāsāḥ having been cleared of all darkness whatsoeverSB 9.1.29
abhimatim identificationSB 4.29.76-77
abhivyaktim external appearanceSB 12.11.16
ādhāra-śaktim the all-accommodating potencyBs 5.47
adhi-patim kingSB 5.1.33
adhipatim about the masterSB 10.47.14
adhiyajña-patim the master of all sacrificesSB 4.14.32
pratimā-ādiṣu in the different Deity formsSB 11.27.15
aditim Aditi, mother of the demigodsSB 2.3.2-7
aditim ca as well as AditiSB 8.23.26-27
dīptimān tāmratapta-ādyāḥ Dīptimān, Tāmratapta and othersSB 10.61.18
agati-eka-gatim to the only shelter for the conditioned souls who do not know the goal of lifeCC Madhya 21.1
akīrtim infamyBG 2.34
ākṛtim complete pastimesSB 3.4.28
ākṛtim in the form ofSB 3.20.33
tādṛśa-ākṛtim in such dressSB 4.19.14
manuja-ākṛtim appearing as a human beingSB 5.19.8
ākṛtim this formSB 10.83.4
ākūtim material activitiesSB 2.2.29
ākūtim the daughter named ĀkūtiSB 3.12.57
ākūtim ĀkūtiSB 4.1.2
ananta-śaktim the reservoir of unlimited potenciesSB 8.17.27
ananya-gatim having no other goal or shelter (than Him)SB 10.16.23
anāvṛttim no returnBG 8.23
anāvṛttim to no returnBG 8.26
aṇḍa-kaṭāha-bhittim the strong coverings of the universeCC Antya 1.164
ańga-pratimā the form of the Supreme Lord (there are many forms, but Kṛṣṇa is the original form)SB 10.12.39
anusaṃsṛtim almost perpetual rotation and transmigration in different types of bodiesSB 6.1.51
anuvṛttim the privilege of followingSB 10.90.49
apacitim counteraction, atonementSB 6.1.7
apacitim counteractionSB 9.4.62
apacitim revengeSB 10.66.27-28
apacitim repayment of his debtSB 10.67.3
apacitim revengeSB 10.77.37
apacitim the atonementSB 10.78.37
apacitim their gratitudeSB 11.29.6
apacitim their gratitudeCC Adi 1.48
apacitim their gratitudeCC Madhya 22.48
apakīrtim ill fameSB 4.4.30
aprāptim the failure to obtainSB 10.57.27
apratima-prabhāva O immeasurable powerBG 11.43
apratima unrivaledSB 12.2.19-20
apunaḥ-āvṛttim to liberationBG 5.17
apunaḥ-āvṛttim to the realm of no returnSB 10.77.17-18
arātim the enemySB 3.18.17
arātim his enemiesSB 10.50.31
sva-artha-gatim the ultimate goal of life, or their own real interestSB 7.5.31
ārtim distressesSB 2.7.2
ārtim great distressSB 2.7.23
ārtim any difficultySB 4.23.20
ārtim the threefold miseriesSB 4.28.27
ārtim the griefSB 6.7.31
ārtim the distressed condition of being arrestedSB 8.22.23
ārtim sufferingsSB 9.21.12
asambhūtim demigodsIso 12
asat-gatim to take birth in a demoniac familySB 3.19.29
asat-matim the unclean mentality (accepting the body as the self)SB 8.24.47
asat-matim no attachmentSB 9.4.27
asmṛtim no remembranceSB 9.16.7
na ati-vyutpanna-matim unto King Rahūgaṇa, who was not actually experiencedSB 5.10.8
atikutuka-udvṛtya-stimita-ekādaśa-indriyaḥ whose eleven senses had all been jolted by great astonishment and then stunned by transcendental blissSB 10.13.56
atimartyāni superhumanSB 1.1.20
atimātram without limitSB 7.8.11
ātma-śaktim self-sufficient powerSB 2.5.5
ātma-gatim spiritual realizationSB 2.7.3
ātma-matim the concept of the selfSB 5.13.25
ātma-śaktim by whose personal energiesSB 12.12.67
prītim āvahan creating a situation of love and affectionSB 10.9.4
avasthitim all stagesSB 4.9.15
avasthitim the locationSB 10.83.23
avasthitim locationSB 10.83.24
avihatām gatim imperishable knowledgeSB 9.7.24
apunaḥ-āvṛttim to liberationBG 5.17
āvṛttim returnBG 8.23
apunaḥ-āvṛttim to the realm of no returnSB 10.77.17-18
āyatim ĀyatiSB 4.1.44
mat-bhaktim My devotional serviceBG 18.54
bhaktim devotional serviceBG 18.68
bhaktim service unto the LordSB 1.2.22
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 1.7.10
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 1.15.51
bhaktim devotionSB 1.16.13-15
bhaktim devotionSB 1.16.16
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 3.25.22
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 4.9.11
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 4.11.30
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 4.12.11
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 4.12.18
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 4.23.37
bhaktim love and faith in devotional serviceSB 6.17.31
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 7.7.53
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 7.9.50
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 9.5.25
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 10.14.4
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 10.23.26
bhaktim the pure devotionSB 10.23.39
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 10.33.39
bhaktim devotionSB 10.38.2
bhaktim devotionSB 10.41.51
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 11.11.23-24
sat-bhaktim unflinching devotional serviceSB 11.11.47
mat-bhaktim devotional service unto MeSB 11.18.44
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 11.20.11
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 11.26.29
bhaktim devotional service to the Supreme LordSB 11.26.30
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 11.29.28
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 11.31.28
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 12.3.15
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 12.10.6
bhaktim devotional serviceSB 12.10.34
bhaktim devotionSB 12.12.55
hari-bhaktim devotional service to the Supreme Personality of GodheadCC Adi 3.83
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 6.186
mat-bhaktim My devotional serviceCC Madhya 8.65
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 17.140
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 22.22
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 24.5
mat-bhaktim My devotional serviceCC Madhya 24.132
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 24.140
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 24.305
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 25.31
mat-bhaktim My devotional serviceCC Madhya 25.155
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Madhya 25.159
bhaktim devotional serviceCC Antya 5.48
bhaktim devotionBs 5.59
bhaktim loving devotionBs 5.60
bhaktim devotionBs 5.61
bhaktim devotional serviceNBS 1
śuddha-bhaktimān pure devoteesCC Madhya 24.96
bhaktimatā by the devoteeSB 4.13.4
dīptimān bhānuḥ Dīptimān and BhānuSB 10.90.33-34
bhartṛ-karma-niṣpattim the accomplishment of their master's workSB 5.9.14
bhava-kṣitim place of birthSB 4.3.11
aṇḍa-kaṭāha-bhittim the strong coverings of the universeCC Antya 1.164
bhū-patim ruler of the worldSB 4.13.11
bhū-patim the kingSB 11.16.17
saṃvatsara-bhuktim the passage of one year of enjoymentSB 5.22.8
māsa-bhuktim the passage of one monthSB 5.22.8
pakṣa-bhuktim the passage of a fortnightSB 5.22.8
bhūta-patim the master of the bhūtasSB 4.3.5-7
bhūta-patim to the Lord of all creaturesSB 10.16.32
brahma-gatim toward spiritual existenceSB 2.4.16
brahma-gatim perfection in spiritual lifeSB 7.7.21
brahma-vṛttim a brāhmaṇa's propertySB 10.64.39
brāhmaṇa-gatim the position of brāhmaṇasSB 9.21.18
bṛhaspatim BṛhaspatiBG 10.24
bṛhaspatim the sage BṛhaspatiSB 4.18.14
aditim ca as well as AditiSB 8.23.26-27
matim cakāra concentrated his mindSB 6.1.27
pratimā cale a Deity walksCC Madhya 5.95
camū-patim their commander in chiefSB 10.59.12
citim funeral pyreSB 4.28.50
vraja-cyutim a falldown from their vowSB 10.22.20
matim dadhe he made his decisionSB 10.80.12-13
daiva-gatim spiritual powerSB 7.10.63
dāsī-patim the husband of the prostituteSB 6.1.31
dayitā-gatim the arrangement for delivering SītāSB 9.10.12
deva-vītim DevavītiSB 5.2.23
deva-gatim to the world of the demigodsSB 10.64.27-28
devabhūtim DevabhūtiSB 12.1.18
devahūtim DevahūtiSB 4.1.10
dhṛtim steadinessBG 11.24
dhṛtim forbearanceSB 9.7.24
dhṛtim patience, forbearanceSB 9.14.14
dhṛtim his resolutionSB 11.23.41
mahā-dhṛtim great patienceCC Adi 4.260
dhṛtimān steadfastSB 11.23.38-39
dhṛtimanta fully saturatedCC Madhya 24.185
dhruva-gatim a path to the Dhruva planetSB 2.7.8
dīptimān DīptimānSB 8.13.15-16
dīptimān tāmratapta-ādyāḥ Dīptimān, Tāmratapta and othersSB 10.61.18
dīptimān bhānuḥ Dīptimān and BhānuSB 10.90.33-34
ditim to DitiSB 6.18.31
ditim DitiSB 6.18.56
ditim DitiSB 7.2.18-19
durgatim to degradationBG 6.40
durgatim miserable lifeSB 10.8.49
durmatim the fool, whose heart is crookedSB 10.44.32
durmatim evil-mindedSB 10.54.52
duṣkīrtim bad reputationSB 10.57.42
dvija-saṃskṛtim brahminical initiationSB 10.45.26
dyutim the sunshineBG 11.17
dyutim lusterCC Adi 4.52
dyutim lusterCC Adi 4.275
dyutimat DyutimānSB 8.13.19
eka-saptatim seventy-oneSB 3.11.24
eka-saptatim seventy-oneSB 3.22.36
eka-gatim the one goalSB 4.7.59
eka-viṃśatim twenty-oneSB 5.26.7
eka-santatim the only son in the familySB 6.14.52
agati-eka-gatim to the only shelter for the conditioned souls who do not know the goal of lifeCC Madhya 21.1
atikutuka-udvṛtya-stimita-ekādaśa-indriyaḥ whose eleven senses had all been jolted by great astonishment and then stunned by transcendental blissSB 10.13.56
gaja-patim the King of the elephantsSB 8.1.31
gaja-patim the king of the elephants (Kuvalayāpīḍa)SB 10.46.24
prakṛtim gataḥ came to his sensesSB 6.2.22
gatim progressBG 2.42-43
gatim destinationBG 6.37
gatim destinationBG 6.45
gatim destinationBG 7.18
gatim destinationBG 8.13
gatim destinationBG 8.21
svaḥ-gatim passage to heavenBG 9.20
gatim destinationBG 9.32
gatim destinationBG 13.29
gatim destinationBG 16.20
gatim destinationBG 16.22
gatim perfectional stageBG 16.23
vīra-gatim the destination deserved by the warriorsSB 1.7.13-14
gatim reactionsSB 1.8.4
gatim destinationSB 1.13.1
gatim departureSB 1.13.39
gatim directionSB 1.14.3
gatim disappearanceSB 1.15.33
gatim destinationSB 1.15.47-48
viṣṇu-gatim knowledge of ViṣṇuSB 1.18.23
gatim destinationSB 2.2.23
gatim speedSB 2.2.23
gatim destinationSB 2.2.31
brahma-gatim toward spiritual existenceSB 2.4.16
gatim movementsSB 2.6.37
ātma-gatim spiritual realizationSB 2.7.3
gatim liberationSB 2.7.3
dhruva-gatim a path to the Dhruva planetSB 2.7.8
gatim movementSB 2.10.25
gatim destinationSB 3.1.31
gatim destinationSB 3.2.23
gatim the endSB 3.4.3
gatim progressSB 3.6.1
gatim duration of lifeSB 3.11.16
gatim movementsSB 3.11.17
sva-gatim in His own abodeSB 3.13.49
nṛ-gatim the human form of lifeSB 3.15.24
gatim liberationSB 3.15.45
gatim resultSB 3.16.12
gatim the wombSB 3.16.26
gatim the whereaboutsSB 3.18.1
asat-gatim to take birth in a demoniac familySB 3.19.29
yoga-gatim yogic powerSB 3.23.35
gatim GatiSB 3.24.22-23
gatim abodeSB 3.25.36
gatim a conditionSB 3.31.18
gatim stateSB 3.31.24
jīva-gatim the true nature of the living entitySB 3.31.47
gatim the movementSB 3.32.38
gatim pathSB 3.33.12
eka-gatim the one goalSB 4.7.59
īśvara-gatim the process of the SupremeSB 4.8.29
gatim salvationSB 4.9.67
gatim waySB 4.10.3
gatim positionSB 4.12.41
gatim destinationSB 4.17.5
gatim advancement, destinationSB 4.23.38
gatim achievementSB 4.24.3
yoga-gatim the destination of mystic yoga practiceSB 4.24.4
gatim activitiesSB 4.24.59
gatim factual positionSB 4.28.61
gatim constitutional positionSB 4.29.80
gatim destinationSB 4.30.38
tat-gatim unto His abodeSB 4.31.24
gatim the ultimate goal of lifeSB 4.31.31
gatim the characteristics or actual behaviorSB 5.10.20
yogeśvara-gatim the path of Yogeśvara (Kṛṣṇa) in penetrating the coverings of the universeSB 5.20.42
gatim to a stateSB 6.7.16
gatim the destinationSB 6.11.21
gatim to the destinationSB 6.13.16
gatim real positionSB 6.15.26
gatim the progressSB 6.16.61-62
paramām gatim back home, back to GodheadSB 6.17.41
gatim the destinationSB 6.19.26-28
gatim path of liberationSB 7.1.30
sva-artha-gatim the ultimate goal of life, or their own real interestSB 7.5.31
brahma-gatim perfection in spiritual lifeSB 7.7.21
gatim perfectionSB 7.8.45
gatim transcendental activitiesSB 7.9.39
daiva-gatim spiritual powerSB 7.10.63
gatim the movementSB 7.13.5
gatim destinationSB 7.15.67
gatim destinationSB 8.3.19
pārṣada-gatim the position of the Lord's associateSB 8.4.13
gatim transferral to the spiritual worldSB 8.4.25
gatim destinationSB 8.5.31
gatim progressSB 8.7.26
gatim the progressSB 8.22.17
gatim destination