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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
cakram3.3.190NeuterSingularrahaḥ, antikam
daivajñaḥ2.8.13MasculineSingularmauhūrttaḥ, sāṃvatsaraḥ, ‍kārtāntika, jyautiṣikaḥ, daivajñaḥ, gaṇakaḥ, mauhūrttika
joṣam3.3.259MasculineSingularantikam, madhyaḥ
midhyādṛṣṭiḥFeminineSingularnāstikaheterodox or kerssry
nepathyam2.6.100MasculineSingularākalpaḥ, veṣaḥ, pratikarma, prasādhanam
padātiḥ2.8.68MasculineSingularpādātika, pa‍dājiḥ, padgaḥ, padikaḥ, pa‍ttiḥ, padagaḥ
padyarāgaḥ2.9.93MasculineSingularmauktikam
patākī2.8.73MasculineSingular‍vaijayantika
prakīryaḥ2.2.48MasculineSingulartikarajaḥ, tika, kalimārakaḥ
śāktīkaḥ2.8.70MasculineSingularśaktihetika
śaṃbhuḥMasculineSingularkapardī, kapālabhṛt, virūpākṣaḥ, sarvajñaḥ, haraḥ, tryambakaḥ, andhakaripuḥ, vyomakeśaḥ, sthāṇuḥ, ahirbudhnyaḥ, paśupatiḥ, mahānaṭaḥ, maheśvaraḥ, īśānaḥ, bhūteśaḥ, giriśaḥ, kṛttivāsāḥ, ugraḥ, śitikaṇṭhaḥ, mahādevaḥ, kṛśānuretāḥ, nīlalohitaḥ, bhargaḥ, gaṅgādharaḥ, vṛṣadhvajaḥ, bhīmaḥ, umāpatiḥ, īśaḥ, gajāriḥ, śūlī, śarvaḥ, candraśekharaḥ, girīśaḥ, mṛtyuñjayaḥ, prathamādhipaḥ, śrīkaṇṭhaḥ, vāmadevaḥ, trilocanaḥ, dhūrjaṭiḥ, smaraharaḥ, tripurāntakaḥ, kratudhvaṃsī, bhavaḥ, rudraḥ, aṣṭamūrtiḥ, śivaḥ, īśvaraḥ, śaṅkaraḥ, khaṇḍaparaśuḥ, mṛḍaḥ, pinākī(51)shiva, god
kārtikaMasculineSingularbāhulaḥ, ūrjaḥ, kārtikikaḥkaartikah
hāstikam2.8.36NeuterSingulargajatā
kauntika2.8.72MasculineSingular
antikam3.1.67MasculineSingularnediṣṭam
bhūtikam3.3.8NeuterSingularmahendraḥ, guggulu, ulūkaḥ, vyālagrāhī
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941 results for tika
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tikam. Name of a man gaRa 1. naḍādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikakitavam. plural the descendants of tika- and kitava-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikakitavādim. Name of a gaṇa- of ( ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhautikamfn. not relating to or produced by the gross elements, not material commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācitikamf(ī-)n. holding or being equal to an ācita- (or cart-load) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācitikamf(ī-)n. (also in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with numerals exempli gratia, 'for example' dvy-ācitika-) 54. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācyutikamf(ī-)n. relating to acyuta-, (gaRa kāśyādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhaḥsvastikan. the nadir. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adharasvastikan. the nadir. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādhibhautikamf(ī-)n. (fr. adhibhūta-), belonging or relating to created beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādhibhautikamf(ī-)n. elementary, derived or produced from the primitive elements, material. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhikasāptatikamfn. (containing or costing) more than seventy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhimuktikam. Name of mahā-kāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyardhapratikamfn. amounting to one and a half kārṣāpaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityavratikamfn. performing the above rite on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agastyagṛhaspatikamfn. having agastya- for a householder, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agatikamf(ā-)n. without resort or resources View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agatikamf(ā-)n. not to be walked on (as an evil path) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agatikagatif. the resort of one who has no resort, a last resource View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aikabhautikamfn. (fr. eka-bhūta-), consisting of one element View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aikāntikamf(ī-)n. (fr. ekānta-), absolute, necessary, complete, exclusive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aikaśatikamfn. (fr. eka-śata-), possessing 101 on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aindraluptikamfn. (fr. indra-lupta-), afflicted with morbid baldness of the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aiṣṭikapaurtikamfn. connected with sacrifices and with doing good works (not included under the head of sacrifices) , (antarvedikaṃ bahirveḍikaṃ ca- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākhyātikamf(ī-)n. () verbal commentator or commentary on and on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akhyātikaramfn. causing infamy, disgraceful. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akīrtikaramfn. causing disgrace, disparaging, insulting. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākṣadyūtikamfn. (fr. akṣa-dyūta- sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order 2. akṣ/a-) effected by gambling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmaraṇāntikamfn. having death as the limit, continuing till death, lasting for life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amauktikamfn. having no pearls, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaikāntikamfn. unsteady, variable, having many objects or purposes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaikāntikan. (in vaiśeṣika- philosophy) the fallacy of undistributed middle. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaikāntikaf. variableness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaikāntikatvan. unsteadiness, uncertainty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ananyagatikamfn. having only one (or no other) resort or resource left. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāstikamfn. atheistic, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anātyantikamfn. not perpetual, not final, intermittent, recurrent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānṛtikamfn. addicted to lying, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anṛtikamfn. untruthful, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikaetc. See antika-, p.45. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikamfn. (with genitive case or ablative) near, proximate (Comparative degree nedīyas-,superl. nediṣṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikan. vicinity, proximity, near exempli gratia, 'for example' antikastha-, remaining near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikan. near, close by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikan. within the presence of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikamfn. (fr. anta-), only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' reaching to the end of, reaching to (exempli gratia, 'for example' nāsāntika-,reaching to the nose) , lasting till, until. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikagatif. going near. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikamind. (with genitive case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') until, near to, into the presence of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikaf. nearness, vicinity, contiguity.
ānugatikamfn. (fr. anu-gata-), relating to or proceeding from, following View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anugatikam. a follower, an imitator. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānuśātikamfn. (fr. anu-śatika- ), belonging to a person or thing accompanied with or bought for a hundred. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuśatikamfn. accompanied with or bought for a hundred. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anutpattikadharmakṣāntif. acquiescence in the state which is still future, preparation for a future state View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anutpattikadharmakṣāntif. (with Buddhists) resignation to consequences which have not yet arisen, (confer, compare ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuttaropapātikam. plural a class of gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuttaropapātikadaśāf. plural title of the ninth aṅga- of the jaina-s treating of those gods. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyoktikaṇṭhābharaṇan. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyonyavyatikaram. reciprocal action, relation or influence. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasvastikan. the western point in the horizon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparisamāptikamfn. not ending, endless commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpatikamfn. accidental, unforeseen, coming from fate commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpatikam. a hawk, a falcon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpātikamfn. rushing upon, being at hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpātikam. Name of a kind of demigod. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratikaramfn. trusted, confidential View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratikareṇaind. without recompense (see a-prat/ā-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apratikarmanmfn. of unparalleled deeds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aprītikaramfn. unkind, adverse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aprītikaramfn. disagreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āptavibhaktikamfn. complete as to case-terminations, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aratikamfn. without rati- (the wife of kāma-)
arītikan. idem or 'f. (in rhetoric) deficiency of style, a defect in the choice of expressions.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asamāvṛttikam. idem or ' m. idem or 'm. a religious student who has not yet completed the period of his residence with his teacher and who therefore has not yet returned home ' (varia lectio)' (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asāṃpratikaf. improper behaviour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśāntikaramfn. causing mischief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśītikamfn. measuring eighty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśītikamfn. an octogenarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikamf(ī-)n. (fr. asti-,"there is or exists"), one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikamf(ī-)n. believing, pious, faithful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikam. equals āstīka- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikalyamind. very early, too early. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikalyāṇamf(ī-)n. "past or beyond beauty", not beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikandakam. the plant hastikanda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikarṣaṇa(for -karśana-?) n. excessive exertion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikaśamfn. beyond the whip, unmanageable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikathamfn. exaggerated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikathāf. an exaggerated tale View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikathaf. See also sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikathamfn. transgressing tradition or law deviating from the rules of caste (See also sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ati-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikaṭhoramfn. very hard, too hard. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātyantikamf(ī-)n. (fr. aty-anta-), continual, uninterrupted, infinite, endless etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātyantikamf(ī-)n. entire, universal (as the world's destruction etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyantikamfn. too close View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyantikan. too great nearness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupagrastikam. (fr. upagrasta-), the sun or moon in eclipse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupahastikamfn. (fr. upa-hasta- gaRa vetanādi- [not in ]), living by presents (? pratigraheṇa jīvati- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupapātikamfn. (fr. upa-pātaka- irregular), one who has committed a secondary crime View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupapātikan. (fr. upa-pāta-) Name of the first jaina- upāṅga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupapattikamfn. (fr. upa-patti-), present, ready at hand, fit for the purpose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupavītikan. (fr. upa-vīta-), investiture with the sacred thread View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupodghātikamfn. (fr. upodghāta-), occasioned, occasional commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aurdhvabhaktikamfn. (fr. ūrdhva-bhakta-), used or applied after a meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpātikamf(ī-)n. astounding, portentous, prodigious, calamitous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpātikam. Name of the third act of the mahānāṭaka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpattikamf(ī-)n. (fr. ut-patti-), relating to origin, inborn, original, natural etc.; [email protected] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpattikamf(ī-)n. inherent, eternal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
auttarabhaktikamfn. (fr. bhakta-with uttara-), employed or taken after a meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaivartikamfn. never returning (for a new birth), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaivartikatva(n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvantikamfn. belonging to or coming from avanti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvantikam. Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avratikamfn. equals avrata-vat- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avṛttikamfn. not having to live upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avṛttikamfn. not yielding livelihood (as a country). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvyaktika(fr. a-vyakta-) mfn. not perceivable, immaterial commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayauktikamfn. incongruous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahuhastikamf(ā-)n. rich in elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhusvatikam. or n. "arm-cross", the arms crossed ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahuvaistika mfn. weighing many Vistas, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baiḍālavratika( ) mfn. acting like a cat, hypocritical, a religious impostor (equals bhaṇḍa-tapasvin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bakavratika m. a hypocrite (especially a false devotee) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāstikan. a multitude of goats View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrajātikamfn. "of noble birth"and"descended from the elephant called bhadra-" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgavittikam. patronymic fr. prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktikaonly in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktikaSee uttara--, eka--, and paurva-bhaktika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāktikamfn. = bhākta-1, regularly fed by another, a dependent, retainer (also nitya-bh- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktikalpatarum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktikaramf(ī-)n. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṣyavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭṭavārttikan. Name of work
bhautikamf(ī-)n. equals prec. mfn. etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhautikan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhautikam. (fr. bhūti-,ashes?) Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhautikam. a sort of monk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhautikan. anything elemental or material View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhautikan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhautikan. plural the qualities of the elements (5 with Buddhists) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhikṣusūtrabhāṣyavārttikan. Name of a commentator or commentary on prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhittikamf(ā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals bhitti-, breaking, splitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhittikamf(ā-)n. a wall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhojarājavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāntikaramf(ī-)n. causing error or confusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛśanāstikamfn. very sceptical or impious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛtikarmakaram. a hired labourer or servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtabhautikamfn. consisting of the elements or of anything formed from them View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtikam. or n. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtika( mn.Ptychotis Ajowan; n.Andropogon Schoenanthus, Gentiana Chirata etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtikan. camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtikalaśam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtikarmann. any auspicious rite or ceremony (performed at a birth, marriage etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
biḍālavratikamfn. "acting like a cat", false, hypocritical (see baiḍāla-vr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bījavivṛtikalpalatāvatāram. bījavivṛti
brahmaprakṛtikamfn. emanating from or originating in brahma- ( brahmaprakṛtikatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmaprakṛtikatvan. brahmaprakṛtika
brahmasūtrabhāṣyavārttikan. Name of Comm. on Comm. on the brahma-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmasūtralaghuvārttikan. Name of Comm. on the brahma-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmasūtravṛttivārttikan.Name of Comm. on Comm. on the brahma-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadāraṇyakabhāṣyavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadāraṇyakāpaniṣadvārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadāraṇyakavārttikasāramn. (?) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatikam. (fr. ti-datta-) familiar diminutives on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatikaraṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatiśāntikarmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitikam. plural (fr. 2. caitya-? see caitya-saila-) Name of a Buddhist school. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caittikamfn. belonging to thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrasvastikanandyāvartam. "having the wheel the svastika- and the nandy-āvarta- emblems", Name of buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṇḍāntikan. for c/aṇḍātaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāndravratikamfn. acting in the manner (vrata-) of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāturbhautikamfn. consisting of 4 elements (catur-bhūta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatikamfn. consisting of 24 , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cirasthitikamfn. long existing (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound', evaṃ--,"existing so long") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūḍitikamfn. See ḍika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivadattikamf(ī-)n. relating to deva-datta- gaRa kāśy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāntikamf(ī-)n. idem or ' mf(ī-)n. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. (fr. danta-) made of ivory ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darbhapūtikafor tīka- () and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darbhapūtikan. sg. d- and p- gaRa gavāśvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dārṣṭāntikamf(ī-)n. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. (fr. dṛṣṭānta-) explained by an example or simile ' on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dārṣṭāntikamf(ī-)n. one who uses an example or simile as a proof. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattikam. forms of names terminating in -datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dehambharavārttikamfn. idem or 'mfn. intent (only) upon nourishing the body or prolonging life ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dehambharavārttikamfn. voracious, gluttonous (see udaram-bh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhaurtikamf(ī-)n. belonging to a cheat, knavish, fraudulent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhaurtikan. fraud, dishonesty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhītikam. Name of a patriarchal saint.
dīptikamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals d/īpti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptikam. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptikaramf(ā-or ī-)n. irradiating, illuminating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drāviḍabhūtikam. Curcuma Zedoaria. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhabhaktikamfn. idem or 'mfn. "firm in devotion", faithful ( dṛḍhabhaktitā -- f. )' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhaśaktikamfn. of great power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhaśaktikamfn. strong-willed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛṣṭavyatikaramfn. who has experienced misfortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣpratītikaramfn. suggesting an offensive meaning, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvipratikamf(ī-)n. bought etc. with 2 kārṣāpaṇa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvisāptatikamf(ī-)n. worth 72 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvivaistikamf(ī-)n. equals -vista- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvyācitikamf(ī-)n. containing 2 waggon-loads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutikaramf(ī-)n. producing splendour, illuminating, bright, handsome View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyutikaram. the polar star or (in mythology) the divine sage dhruva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekabhaktikamfn. eating only one meal (a day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekacitikamfn. idem or 'mfn. having one layer (of wood or bricks etc.) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāntikamfn. devoted to one aim or object or person or theory. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekapatikamfn. having the same husband commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekasaptatikamfn. consisting of 71. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
evaṃsaṃsthitikamfn. of such a nature or kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajamauktikan. equals -muktā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṇitikam. (fr. gaṇita-), an arithmetician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gātāgatikamf(ī-)n. (fr. gatāgata-), caused by going and coming gaRa akṣadyūtādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatānugatikamfn. following what precedes, following custom or the conduct of others, imitative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gātānugatikamf(ī-)n. (fr. gatānugata-), caused by following or imitating what precedes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatikan. going, motion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatikan. course View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatikan. condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatikan. refuge, asylum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauśatikamf(ī-)n. possessing 100 oxen or cows (go-śata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghārtikam. (fr. ghṛt/a-) pulse ground and fried with clarified butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahaṇāntikamfn. idem or 'ind. until (the veda-) has been thoroughly apprehended or learned, ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmāntikan. the neighbourhood of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guptikam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimantikamfn. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimantikamfn. equals hematam adhīte veda vā- gaRa vasantādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimavatikam. plural the inhabitants of the himālaya- mountains View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktikalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harṣacaritavārttikan. Name of Comm. on the above work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastasvastikam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) crossing the hand, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikan. a multitude of elephants (or m."an elephant") (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikam. a toy-elephant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikam. a turn-spit (varia lectio for hastaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstikamfn. consisting of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstikam. an elephants-rider, elephants-driver etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstikan. a multitude of elephants (Bombay edition hastika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstikan. a multitude of female elephants Va1rtt. 11 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikaccham. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣam. a kind of venomous insect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣyam. a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣyam. a tiger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikandaa kind of bulbous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarañja m. Galedupa Piscidia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarañjakam. Galedupa Piscidia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarkoṭakam. a kind of big Momordica Mixa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. "elephant-eared", Name of various plants (according to to "the castor-oil tree [also the red kind];Butea Frondosa;Arum Macrorrhizum") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. of one of śiva-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. a particular class of semi-divine beings (forming one of the gaṇa-devatā-s q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇadalam. a sort of Butea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇakam. a sort of Butea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇapalāśam. Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇikan. a particular sedent posture (with yogin-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṣū gaRa kāśy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāstikarṣūkamf(ā-or ī-)n. (fr. hasti-karṣū-) gaRa kāśy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals heti- (see śakti--, svadhiti-h-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikam. Name of a people (see ījika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikaraṇan. the word iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikaraṇiya([ ]) mfn. proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikaraṇiyan. duty, obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikaraṇiyatāf. any proper or necessary measure, obligation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikartavya mfn. proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikartavyan. duty, obligation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikartavyatāf. any proper or necessary measure, obligation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikartavyatāmūḍhamfn. embarrassed, dumb-foundered, wholly at a loss what to do View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikartavyatāmūḍhamfn. embarrassed, dumb-foundered, wholly at a loss what to do View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikathamfn. unworthy of trust, not fit to be credited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikathamfn. wicked, lost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikathāf. unmeaning or nonsensical discourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itikathaf. (for atikatha- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagatīpatikanyakāf. "king's daughter", a princess (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janāntikamind. "personal proximity" (as a stage-direction) whispering aside to another etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāṅghāprahatika mfn. (fr. jaṅghā-prahata-or hṛta-) produced by a blow with the leg gaRa akṣadyūtādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāṅghāprahritikamfn. (fr. jaṅghā-prahata-or hṛta-) produced by a blow with the leg gaRa akṣadyūtādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jānuprahṛtikamfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jartikam. plural Name of a people (bāhīka-) (varia lectio jārt-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jārtika varia lectio for jart-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāyāmpatikan. sg. idem or 'm. dual number (gaRa rājadantādi-) wife and husband ' , 585 and 592 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāyāmpatikan. see yam-patī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantikam. equals jīvāntaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñaptikaSee pti-. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñātikarmann. the act or duty of a kinsman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jotikam. Name of a family, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotikam. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaimutikamfn. relating to or based on the"how much more?"or"how much less? (kim uta-) ", only in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaimutikanyāyam. the rule of"how much more?"or"how much less?"arguing a fortiori commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntikam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntikaramfn. causing beauty, beautifying, illuminating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaphāntikam. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaphavātikamfn. (fr. kaphavāta-), one in whom phlegm and wind prevail. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmāntikamfn. completing an act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmāntikam. a labourer, artisan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmāntikalokam. labourers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇāntikacaramfn. going close to the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārtāntikam. an astrologer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikam. (fr. kṛttikā- q.v;with or without māsa-), Name of a month corresponding to part of October and November (the twelfth month of the year, when the full moon is near the Pleiades) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikam. Name of skanda- (See kārttikeya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikam. of a varṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikam. of a medical author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikamn. Name of the first year in Jupiter's period of revolution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikakuṇḍam. Name of a physician commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikamāhātmyan. Name of a section of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikamahimanm. "the greatness of kārttika-", Name of a treatise on the festivals of that month. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikapūrṇimāf. Name (also title or epithet) of a festival, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikaśālim. rice ripening in the month kārttika- (forming the principal harvest in India) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikasiddhāntam. Name of a scholiast on the mugdha-bodha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāsaktikamfn. wearing a turban (or = baddha-parikara kañcukin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
katikamfn. (for 2.See below) how many? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
katikamfn. bought for how much? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
katika(for 1.See above) n. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaunṛtikamf(ī-)n. wicked, perverse, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauntikam. (fr. kunta-), a spearman, soldier armed with a spear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kausṛtikam. (fr. ku-sṛti-), a juggler, conjurer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keśāntikamfn. extending to the end of the hair as far as the forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keśāntikamfn. relating to the ceremony of final tonsure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalavātikamf(ī-)n. applied for diseases of a simple rheumatic kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikam. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikam. Name of a mountain on Va1rtt. 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikan. Name of a forest situated near that mountain on Va1rtt. 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāraśatikamfn. containing or sown with a hundred khāri- measures on Va1rtt. 6. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khyātikaramfn. causing renown, glorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtikaramf(ī-)n. conferring fame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kḷptikan. equals prakraya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krāntikakṣāf. the sun's course, ecliptic. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krauśaśatikamfn. (fr. krośaśata-), one who goes 100 krośa-s or leagues Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krauśaśatikamfn. one who deserves to be approached from a distance of 100 leagues (a teacher) Va1rtt. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇamṛttikamfn. having a dark soil or blue mould (as a country) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtikaram. "practising magic or enchantment", Name of rāvaṇa- (see kṛtyā-rāvaṇa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krūraprakṛtikamfn. of a cruel character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitikampam. an earthquake , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitikampanam. Name of an attendant in skanda-'s retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitikampanam. of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣitikaṇam. a particle of earth, dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuntalasvātikarṇam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuntikam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghumīmāṃsāvārttikaṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghuvārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣasvastikavratakalpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣasvastikavratodyāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣavartikathāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laukāyatikam. (fr. lokāata-) a follower of cārvāka-, a materialist, atheist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokāyatikam. idem or '(l) m. a materialist ' and etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokāyatikam. (perhaps) a man experienced in the ways of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokāyatikapakṣanirāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyāntikam. Name of an arhat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhāratikam. (prob.) one who knows the mahā-bhārata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhāṣyavārttikan. Name of commentaries on the mahā-bhāṣya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādyutikaram. Name of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāgaṇapatikalpepañcatriṃśatpīṭhikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvārttikan. "great vārttika- or critical commentary", Name of kātyāyana-'s vārttika-s on the sūtra-s of pāṇini- (see māhāv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhāvārttikamf(ī-)n. (fr. mahā-v-) familiar with (kātyāyana-'s) vārttika-s vArttika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratikamfn. related to the mahā-vrata- sāman- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratikamfn. observing the rule of the pāśupata-s, a pāśupata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratikamfn. (varia lectio,and perhaps more correctly māhāv-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhāvratikamfn. adhering to it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhāvratikam. a pāśupata- (varia lectio for mahā-vratika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratikaveṣamfn. dressed as a pāśupata-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitrākṣajyotikam. Name of a particular class of evil beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānavartika mānavalaka- See māna-varjaka- under 1. māna-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maraṇāntikamfn. ending in death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārttikamf(ī-)n. (fr. mṛttikā-) made of clay or loam, earthen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārttikam. n. an earthenware pot or dish (m.also"the lid of a pitcher") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārttikan. a clod or lump of earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marubhūtikam. Name of a son of yaugaṃdharāyaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mastikan. equals mastaka-, the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māthitikamfn. dealing in buttermilk (-mathita-) Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matikarmann. a matter of the intellect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauhūrtikamfn. lasting for a moment, momentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauhūrtikamfn. relating to a particular time or hour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauhūrtikamfn. skilled in astrology View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauhūrtikam. an astrologer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauhūrtikam. plural Name of a class of celestial beings (children of muhūrtā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikamfn. (fr. mukti-) striving after final emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikam. (only in ) n. (fr. muktā-; compound f(ā-).) a pearl (properly"a collection of properly") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikadāmann. a string of properly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikadāmann. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikagumphikāf. a female stringer of properly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikamālāf. a pearl necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikamālāf. a species of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikamāraṇan. Name of a subject treated of in the dhātu-ratna--mālā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of pearls, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikaprasavāf. a pearl muscle (see muktā-prasū-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikaratnan. a pearl gem, pearl ( mauktikaratnatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikaratnatāf. mauktikaratna
mauktikasaram. a string of properly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikaśuktif. a pearl oyster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauktikataṇḍulam. a kind of white yāvanāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīmāṃsāślokavārttikan. Name of a metrical paraphrase of śabara-'s mīmāṃsā-bhāṣya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīmāṃsātantravārttikan. Name of kumārila-'s commentator or commentary on śabarasvāmin-'s mīmāṃsā-bhāṣya- (See below) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīmāṃsāvārttikan. equals sātantra-vārttika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
miśraprakṛtikamfn. of a mixed nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mokṣavārttikamfn. reflecting upon final emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgendrasvātikarṇam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktikalaśam. Name of one of the ancestors of bilhaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktikalaśam. (with bhaṭṭa-) Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muṣṭikasvastikam. a particular position of the hands in dancing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nagavṛttikam. (and f(-).) a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naikṛtika( ) mfn. dishonest, fallacious, low, vile. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikamf(ī-)n. produced by any or by some particular cause, occasional, special, accidental (opp. to nitya-) etc. ( naimittikatva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikam. equals prec. m. gaRa ukthādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikan. an effect (See nimitta-n-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikan. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikakarmann. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikakriyāf. an occasional or periodical ceremony or rite (as observed on the birth of a child etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikaprakaraṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikaprayoga m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikaprayogaratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikaśrāddhan. special funeral rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittikatvan. naimittika
naipātikamfn. only mentioned incidentally or by the way
naiṣkaśatika mfn. containing or worth 100 (1000) niṣkas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiṣkṛtika wrong reading for nai-kṛ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatradohadaśāntikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmacaraṇavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmākhyātikamfn. relating to nouns and verbs , vArttika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmatikamf(ī-)n. (fr. 2. namata-) dressed in woollen cloth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naravarmanṛpatikathāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārāyaṇavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārtikamf(ī-)n. fr. narta- gaRa chedādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāsāntika(nt-) mfn. (a stick) reaching to the nose (see keśānt-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikamf(ī-)n. atheistical, infidel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikam. an atheist or unbeliever (opp. to āstika- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikaetc. See under 2. n/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikamatan. an atheistical opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikaf. () disbelief, atheism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikatvan. () disbelief, atheism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāstikavṛttimfn. leading the life of an atheist or receiving sustenance from an atheist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nātānatikamfn. fr. nata- + anata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikalyāṇamfn. not very beautiful or noble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikalyāṇa li-kovida- etc. See 2. n/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimittanaimittikan. dual number cause and effect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirītikamf(ā-)n. auspicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupadhipālitaprakṛtikamfn. (prob.) one whose subjects are protected from danger or harm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niryuktikamfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niryuktikatvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣprītikamfn. not connected with joy or delight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikalpatarum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamalākara m. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikathāf. any work on moral or political science View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityabhaktikamfn. regularly fed by another, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityanaimittikan. (with or scilicet karman-) any regularly recurring occasional act or ceremony or any rite constantly performed to accomplish some object (as śrāddha-s at fixed lunar periods) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyatavibhaktikamfn. limited as to case, standing always in the same case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛpatikanyakāf. a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyamālāvārttikasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyatrisūtrīvārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyavārttikatātparyapariśuddhif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pacatikalpamind. (?) Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādāntikamind. near to or towards (the feet of) any one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padātikam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a footman, foot-soldier, peon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādātikam. equals pādāt- (see padāti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmasvastikan. a svastika- mark consisting of lotus-flowers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paiṇḍapātikamf(ī-)n. (fr. piṇḍapāta-) living on alms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paittikamf(ī-)n. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. (fr. pitta-) relating to the bilious humour, bilious ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paittikamf(ī-)n. of a bilious temperament View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pākṣapātikamf(ī-)n. (fr. pakṣa-pāta-) partial, factious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcabhautika wrong reading for pāñcabh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcabhautikamf(ī-)n. (-bhūta-) composed of or containing the 5 elements etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcabhautikan. (with ādāna-) the assumption of the 5 elements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcacitika pañcacitīka (p/a-) mfn. piled up in 5 tiers or layers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcagatikamf(ī-)n. consisting of 5 forms of existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcākhyānavarttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcalauhitikan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcalohitikan. Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcamūrtikamfn. having a fivefold form (applied to a particular offering to brahman-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcaśatikamfn. 500 (feet etc.), high View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcaviṃśatikamfn. (a fine) consisting of or amounting to 25 (paṇa-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcaviṃśatikan. the number 25 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcīkaraṇavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍumṛttikamfn. having a whitish or chalky soil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅktikandam. a particular bulbous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅktikaṇṭakam. a white-flowering Achyranthes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅktikaṭam. a species of grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paruṣoktikamfn. using it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārvatikan. a multitude of mountains, mountain-range View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāryantikamf(ī-)n. (-anta-) final, concluding, last View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāryantikaetc. See under pāry-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāryāptikamfn. one who has said pary-āptam- id est ,"enough" , Va1rtt. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātañjalabhāṣyavarttikan. pātañjalabhāṣya
tikam. Delphinus Gangeticus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattikamfn. going on foot, pedestrian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattikarmann. the business or operations of infantry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paunaruktikamfn. equals punaruktam adhīte veda vā- gaRa ukthādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paurohitikam. metron. fr. puro-hitikā- gaRa śivādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paurtikamfn. relating to a charitable or meritorious work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paurvabhaktikamf(ī-)n. taken before eating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautikamfn. (fr. pūtika-,or -) gaRa saṃkalādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauttikan. (fr. puttikā-) a kind of honey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṇḍapātikam. a receiver of alms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prābhātikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -bhāta-) relating to morning, matutinal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prābhūtikamf(ī-)n. equals pra-bhūtam āha- Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpatikam. endearing form of prajāpati-datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajñaptikauśikam. Name of a teacher acquainted with the magical art called prajñapti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākṛtikamf(ī-)n. relating to pra-kṛti- or the original element, material, natural, common, vulgar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtikalyāṇamf(ī-)n. beautiful by nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramāṇavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāmāṇikavāttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāntikamf(ī-)n. destructive or dangerous to life, fatal, mortal, capital (as punishment) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāntikamf(ī-)n. life-long (Bombay edition; prāṇāntikam am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāntikamf(ī-)n. desperate, vehement (as love, desire etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāntikan. danger to life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāntikamind. prāṇāntika
prāśātikan. a leguminous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāsutikamf(ī-)n. (fr. sūti-) relating to childbirth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikamf(ī-)n. (fr. 1. prati-) worth a kārṣāpaṇa- or 16 paṇa-s of cowries Va1rtt. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikalamind. at every moment, constantly, perpetually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikalpam. counter-part (see apr-andSee also prati-kḷp-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikalpamind. in each cosmic period View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikalpyamfn. to be arranged or prepared (for pratikalpa-See) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikampCaus. -kampayati-, to shake, cause to tremble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikañcukam. (prob.) a critic, a critical work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaṇṭhamind. "throat by throat", singly, severally, one by one (so that each is reckoned), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikaṇṭhikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -kaṇṭham-) seizing by the throat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaṇṭhikayāind. idem or '(prob.) wrong reading for' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaṇṭhukayā(prob.) wrong reading for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikapālamind. in every cup View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaraetc. See prati-- 1. kṛ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaramf(ī-)n. acting against, counteracting(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaram. requital, compensation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaraṇīyamfn. to be counteracted or prevented, remediable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarkaśamf(ā-)n. equally hard, of the same hardness as (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarmaind. in every work, at each performance or celebration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarmann. requital, retaliation, corresponding action View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarmann. counteraction, cure, medical treatment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarmann. decoration, toilet, personal adornment etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarṣam. ( kṛṣ-) aggregation, combination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikarṣam. anticipating that which occurs afterwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikartavyamfn. to be requited or returned, to be repaid (literally and figuratively) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikartavyamfn. to be counteracted or resisted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikartavyamfn. to be treated or cured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikartṛm. a requiter, recompenser View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikartṛm. an opponent, adversary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaśamfn. (prob.) not obeying the whip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikaṣṭamfn. comparatively (id est beyond expectation) bad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratipattikarmann. a concluding rite or ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātītikamf(ī-)n. (fr. pratīti-) existing only in the mind, mental, subjective
pratyantikamfn. being or situated at the border View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātyantikam. (fr. -anta-) a neighbouring chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyayamauktikamālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāvṛttikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -vṛtti-) corresponding to a former mode of action View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāvṛttikamf(ī-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') well acquainted with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścittikamf(ī-)n. expiatory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścittikamf(ī-)n. expiable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścittikamf(ī-)n. requiring an expiation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretikam. the soul of a dead man, a ghost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītikaramfn. causing pleasure to (compound) (see a-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītikaramfn. inspiring love or affection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītikaram. Name of two authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītikaraṇan. the act of causing pleasure, gratifying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prītikarmann. an act of friendship or love, kind action View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇāhutikamfn. pūrṇāhuti
puruṣoktikamfn. having only the name of man, destitute, friendless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamfn. foul, stinking, putrid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. equals pūtīka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. Guilandina Bonduc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. a white ant (wrong reading for puttikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikan. ordure, excrement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikaraja(l) m. Guilandina Bonduc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikarañjam. Guilandina Bonduc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikarṇam. a disease of the ear with discharge of putrid matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikarṇakam. idem or 'f. idem or 'm. a disease of the ear with discharge of putrid matter ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikarṇakam. Guilandina Bonduc (varia lectio ṇika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikarṇatāf. idem or 'm. a disease of the ear with discharge of putrid matter ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūtimṛttikam. or n. "having fetid soil", Name of a hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raitikamf(ī-)n. (fr. rīti-) of or belonging to brass, brazen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raivatikam. metron. fr. revatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raivatikam. varia lectio for prec. (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktapaittikamfn. relating to rakta-pitta- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktapitttikamfn. subject to or suffering from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmānujamauktikan. Name of work
ratikaramf(ī-)n. causing pleasure or joy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratikaramf(i-)n. being in love, enamoured (equals kāmin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratikaram. a particular samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratikaf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratikarmann. sexual intercourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikan. calx of brass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabhaktikamind. (fr. 7. sa-+ bhakti-) respectfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍāhutikamfn. idem or 'mfn. serving for six oblations ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍbhāṣāvārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saduktikarṇāmṛtan. Name of an anthology. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍviṃśatika(prob. wrong reading) (varia lectio) mfn. the 26th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadyaḥśaktikaramfn. quickly causing strength
sagatikamfn. connected with a preposition etc. (See gati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sagṛhapatikamfn. with the householder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahetikaraṇamfn. followed by the particle iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saiddhāntikamf(ī-)n. (fr. siddhānta-) connected with or relating to an established truth etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saiddhāntikam. one who knows an established truth or is versed in a siddhānta- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saikatikamfn. belonging or relating to sandbanks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saikatikamfn. living in doubt and error (equals bhrāntijīvin-or saṃdeha-j-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saikatikam. an ascetic or religious mendicant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saikatikan. a thread worn round the wrist or neck to secure good fortune (= maṅgala-sūtra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saikatikan. equals mātri-yātrā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saimantikan. (fr. sīmanta-) red-lead (so called because used to make a mark along hair-parting) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaitikakṣam. patronymic fr. śiti-kakṣa- (-pāñcāleyāḥ-. on ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktihetikamfn. armed with a spear or lance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāktikamf(ī-)n. equals śaktyā jīvati- gaRa vetanādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāktikamf(ī-)n. peculiar to the śākta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāktikam. a worshipper of the śakti- (See śākta-above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāktikam. a spearman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktikaramfn. producing strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākuntikam. a fowler, bird-catcher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sālāvṛtikam. (in later language mostly śālā-vṛka-) "house-wolf (?)", a kind of wolf or hyena or jackal or similar animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samantikamind. contiguously, near (Comparative degree ka-taram-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmastikamfn. relating to the above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāvṛttikaSee a-samāvṛttika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavyāptikamfn. furnishing an example of mutual perpetual pervasion or concomitance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sambandhavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhyāpañcīkaraṇavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgatika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals saṃ-gati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃgatikamfn. (fr. saṃ-gati-) relating to society, social, associating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃgatikam. a new comer, visitor, guest, acquaintance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃgatikam. one who comes to transact business View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃghātikamfn. equals saṃ-ghāte sādhuḥ- gaRa guḍādi- equals saṃ-ghātāya prabhayati- gaRa saṃtāpādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃghātikamfn. belonging to a group View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃghātikan. (scilicet bha-) the 16th nakṣatra- after the janmarkṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃhātikan. (for saṃ-hāta-) Name of the sixteenth nakṣatra- after that in which the moon was situated at a child's birth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhitika wrong reading for sāṃh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃhitikamfn. equals sāṃhita- gaRa ukthādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃhitikam. the author of an astrological saṃhitā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃketikamfn. (fr. saṃ-keta-) consisting of signs, based on agreement, indicatory, conventional View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkhyāvṛttikara(khyāvṛ-) mfn. "causing repetition of counting", difficult to be counted, very numerous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkrāntikaumudīf. Name of an astronomy work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnipātika wrong reading for sāṃn- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃnipātikamfn. (fr. saṃnipāta-) coming into close contact or conjunction, coalescing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃnipātikamfn. complicated (especially applied to a dangerous illness produced by a combined derangement of the three humours) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃnipātikakarmann. the treatment of the above illness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃnipātikakarmann. miscellaneous, promiscuous, collective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātikam. the above bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampātikam. plural Name of particular demons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmpātikamfn. (fr. sam-pāta-) belonging or relating to contiguous hymns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampattika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals patti-, good condition, excellence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmpratikamf(ī-)n. suitable, fit, proper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmpratikamf(ī-)n. present (not future) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samprattikarmann. the act of delivering over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsthitikaSee evaṃ-saṃsthitika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatatika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals saṃ-tati-, progeny, offspring on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃtatikamfn. (fr. saṃ-tati-) bestowing offspring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃvittikamfn. (fr. saṃ-vitti-) based on a (mere) feeling or perception, subjective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃyātikamf(ā-and ī-)n. (fr. prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkhamauktikam. "shell-pearl", a kind of wheat (the husks of which resemble a shell and the grains a pearl) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikamfn. propitiatory, expiatory, averting evil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikamfn. producing or relating to ease or quiet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikan. a propitiatory rite for averting evil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikakarmann. a magical rite performed for removing obstacles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikalpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikalpadīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikalpapradīpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikalyāṇīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikamalākaram. Name of part of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikaramfn. causing peace or prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikaram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikaraṇan. the averting of evil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikarmann. any action for averting evil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikarmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikartṛmfn. causing tranquillity, calming, allaying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikartṛm. any divinity who averts evil or suffering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saprajāpatikamfn. together with prajāpati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saprakṛtikamfn. along with root or stem or base View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptacitika(t/a--) mfn. piled up in 7 layers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāptatikamfn. (fr. saptati-) worth seventy etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptaviṃśatikamfn. consisting of 27 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptikamfn. having the length of 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptikamfn. one who has finished or completed (especially a course of Vedic study) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptikamfn. final, finite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārīrakabhāṣyanyāyavārttikan. Name of Comm. on it. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārīrakabhāṣyavārttikan. Name of Comm. on it. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārundhatikamfn. together with arundhatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvabhautikamfn. (fr. sarva-bhūta-) relating to all elements or beings, comprising all animated beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvapūrtikarastavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvavibhaktikamfn. (fr. sarva-vibhakti-) applicable or belonging to all the cases of a noun etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasaṃtatika() View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāśvatikamfn. equals śāśvaṭa-, eternal, constant, permanent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāśvatikaf. the being eternal, eternity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṭcitika(ṣ/aṭ--) mfn. idem or 'mfn. consisting of six layers or strata ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. containing or amounting to a hundred ( śatikavṛddhi -vṛddhi- mfn.one whose gain in gambling amounts to 100) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. the hundredth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. (according to to grammar and also) bought with a hundred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. doing or effecting anything with a hundred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. bearing tax or interest per hundred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. changed with or for a hundred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikamfn. indicative of a hundred etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatikavṛddhimfn. śatika
ṣaṭpañcāśatikahorāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saugatikam. (only ) a Buddhist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saugatikam. a mendicant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saugatikam. an atheist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saugatikan. atheism, scepticism. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saukhasuptikam. idem or 'm. idem or 'mfn. one who asks another whether he has slept well gaRa susnātādi-.' or an official who asks a prince whether he has slept well ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauktikamfn. idem or 'mfn. (fr. śukta-) acid, acetic, acetous ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauktikamfn. relating to sour gruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauktikamfn. relating to a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauktikan. a pearl
sauktikamfn. (fr. kta-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauptikamfn. (fr. supta-) connected with or relating to sleep, nocturnal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauptikan. an attack on sleeping men, nocturnal combat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauptikaparvann. Name of the 10th book of the mahā-bhārata- (describing how the three surviving kuru- warriors, aśvatthāman-, kṛta-varman-, and kṛpa-, after the destruction of their army, attacked the camp of the pāṇḍava-s by night and murdered them while asleep;the whole pāṇḍava- army was thus destroyed, except the five pāṇḍu- princes themselves, who, with kṛṣṇa- and sātyaki-, were stationed at some distance from the camp). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saurohitikam. metron. fr. su-rohitikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sausnātikamfn. (fr. su-snāta-) one who asks whether an ablution has been successful or auspicious (see , Va1rtt. 3 ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sautrāntikam. a follower of the sūtrānta- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sautrāntikam. plural Name of one of the four great schools of Buddhism (said to admit the authority of the Buddhist sūtra-s, but not of the abhi-dharma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauvastikamf(ī-)n. of or belonging to the morrow, lasting till to-morrow, ephemeral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikamfn. (fr. sv-asti-) benedictive, salutatory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikam. a family Brahman or priest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikan. equals svasty-ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauvastikatvan. the lasting or enduring till tomorrow, ephemeralness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savārttikamfn. (a sūtra-) with its vārttika-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savibhaktikamfn. having a case-termination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savṛttikamfn. being in motion, active ( savṛttikatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savṛttikaf. savṛttika
sāyamprātikamfn. (fr. sāyam-prātar-) belonging to evening and morning , Va1rtt. 5 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntaśiromaṇivāsanāvārttikan. Name of Comm. on the above work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikakṣamfn. white-shouldered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikakṣinm. a vulture with a white belly (= pāṇḍarodaro gṛdhraḥ-) (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikakud(ś/iti--) mfn. white-humped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikakudamfn. idem or '(ś/iti--) mfn. white-humped ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭhamfn. white-necked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭhamfn. dark-necked (as rudra-- śiva-; see nīla-k-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. a particular bird of prey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. a peacock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. a gallinule (equals dātyūha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. (also with dīkṣita-and often confounded with śrī-kaṇṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭham. of various authors etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitikaṇṭhamfn. having a white throat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitikaṇṭhamfn. dark-necked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitikaṇṭham. śiva- (see śiti-k-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭhakamfn. blue-necked (as a peacock) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭharāmāyaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭhastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭhaṭhīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śitikaṇṭhaṭhīyaṭippaṇīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivabhūtikam. Name of a minister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śleṣabhittikamfn. resting on or adhering to a wall (said to mean simply"resting on") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślokavārttikan. (also called mīmāṃsā-śloka-vārttika-) a metrical paraphrase of śabara-'s mīmāṃsā-bhāṣya- by kumārila-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smārtikamf(ī-)n. based on tradition, traditional View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtikan. water (equals udaka-) (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtikalpadrumam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtikaraṇḍikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtikaumudīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtikaumudīṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopapattikamfn. well founded or substantiated, correct, right View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhadvāsaptatikaf. (plural) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
srautikam. a pearl-shell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīvatsamuktikanandyāvartalakṣitapāṇipādatalatāf. having the palms of the hands and soles of the feet marked with śrī-vatsa- and muktika- (for muktikā-?) and nandy-āvarta- (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikalpadrumam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikaṇṭha wrong reading for -kaṭa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikaṭam. (only ) penance, expiation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikaṭam. a snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikaṭam. equals prāñca-loha- or prāñcalloha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikathitamfn. mentioned or taught or prescribed in the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikaṭumfn. harsh to the ear, unmelodious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikaṭum. (in rhetoric) a harsh or unmelodious sound, cacophony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthitikartṛmfn. causing stability or permanence
subhūtikam. Aegle Marmelos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudarśanaprītikaram. Name of a kiṃ-nara- prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktikam. a particular disease of the cornea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūktikam. (in music) a kind of cymbal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktikarṇamfn. shell-eared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktikarṇamfn. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śulbasūtrabhāṣyavārttikavyākhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śulbavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supratikaramfn. easy to be requited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suprītikaram. "causing great delight", Name of a king of the kiṃnara-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sureśvaravārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sureśvaravārttikaṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tika gaRa purohitādi- (see sautikya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svadhitihetikam. "axe-armed", a soldier armed with an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāgatikamfn. bidding welcome to any one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svahastasvastikastanīf. covering (her) breasts with crossed hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāmikārttikam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapnāntikan. consciousness in dreams View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapratikara wrong reading for su-p- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a kind of bard (who utters words of welcome or eulogy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. any lucky or auspicious object, (especially) a kind of mystical cross or mark made on persons and things to denote good luck (it is shaped like a Greek cross with the extremities of the four arms bent round in the same direction;the majority of scholars regard it as a solar symbol;that is, as representing a curtailed form of the wheel of the Solar viṣṇu-, consisting of four spokes crossing each other at right angles with short fragments of the periphery of the circle at the end of each spoke turning round in one direction to denote the course of the Sun; according to to the late Sir Cunningham it has no connexion with sun-worship, but its shape represents a monogram or interlacing of the letters of the auspicious words su ast/i-[ svasti-]in the aśoka- characters;amongst jaina-s it is one of the 24 auspicious marks and is the emblem of the seventh arhat- of the present avasarpiṇī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. the crossing of the arms or hands on the breast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a bandage in the form of a cross View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a dish of a particular form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a kind of cake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a triangular crest-jewel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. the meeting of four roads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a particular symbol made of ground rice and formed like a triangle (it is used in fumigating the image of durgā-, and is said to symbolize the liṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a species of garlic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a cock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a libertine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. of one of skanda-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. of a dānava-
svastikam. of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. of another man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikamn. a mansion or temple of a particular form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikamn. Marsilea Quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikamn. a particular mode of sitting practised by yogin-s (in which the toes are placed in the inner hollow of the knees) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikadānan. crossing the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikakarṇamfn. marked on the ear with the figure called svastika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikaram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikarmann. causing welfare or success View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikayantran. a surgical instrument of a particular form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svātikarṇam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetikam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taittirīyavārttikan. Name of a commentary. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantravārttikan. equals mīmānsā-t-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tautikam. the pearl-oyster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tautikan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāvatikamfn. bought for or worth so much View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
toyavyatikaram. blending of the waters (of two rivers). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trayoviṃśatikamfn. consisting of 23 (gaṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trigartikam. the tīrtha- country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tripādvibhūtikathanan. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivaistikamfn. equals -vista- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛptikaramfn. giving satisfaction, 46, 9, 7. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udaṅmṛttikam. equals udag-bhūma- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāntikan. vicinity, proximity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāntikamfn. near, proximate, neighbouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāntikamind. near to, towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvabhaktikamfn. effective upwards, causing to come up, emetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvamauhūrtikamfn. happening immediately afterwards or after a short interval View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpātikamfn. (PrakrituppAiya) supernatural View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttarabhaktikamfn. employed after eating
vācaspatikalpatarum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vadantikam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaibhātikamfn. (fr. vi-bhāta-) matutinal, pertaining to the dawn, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaibhūtikamfn. (fr. vi-bhūti-) generally current or prevalent (?), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidāntikam. one who is learned in the vedānta- (wrong reading ved-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayantikamf(ā-or ī-)n. bearing a flag, a flag-bearer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaikṛtikamf(ī-)n. subject to change View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaikṛtikamf(ī-)n. changed, incidental View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaikṛtikamf(ī-)n. (in sāṃkhya-) belonging to a vikāra- id est to a production or evolved principle (See vi-kāra-, pra-kṛti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaimatikamfn. (fr. vi-mati-) mistaken, in mistake (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiṃśatikamf(ī-)n. (fr. viṃśatika-) purchased with twenty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaistikaSee bahu-v- (additions) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaitastikamfn. (fr. vi-tasti-) a span long (an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiyāvṛttikaramfn. equals bhogin- (varia lectio vaiyāvṛttya-k-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārṣaśatikamfn. (fr. varṣa-śata-) 100 years old Va1rtt. 5 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārṣaśatikamfn. bestowing a life of 100 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vartikam. equals vartaka-, a quail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārtikam. a kind of bird (equals vartika- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttāvyatikaram. bad news View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttāvyatikaram. general report, common rumour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikamfn. (fr. vārttā-and vṛtti-) skilled in a profession or business (equals vṛttau sādhuḥ-or vṛttim adhīte veda vā-) gaRa kathādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikamfn. and gaRa ukthādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikamfn. relating to news, bringing or conveying intelligence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikamfn. explanatory, glossarial, containing or relating to a critical gloss or annotation (See n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikam. a businessman, trader View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikam. an emissary, envoy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikam. one who knows antidotes, conjurer, physician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikam. the egg-plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikam. a sort of quail (prob. wrong reading for vārtikā- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikan. an explanatory or supplementary rule, critical gloss or annotation (added to a grammatical or philosophical sūtra- and defined to be"the exposition of the meaning, of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, and of that which is ill or imperfectly said";the term vārttika- is, however, especially applied to kātyāyana-'s critical annotations on the aphorisms of pāṇini-'s grammar, the object of which is to consider whether pāṇini-'s rules are correct or not, and to improve on them where this may be found to be necessary;and also to similar works on various matters by kumārila-, sureśvara- etc.; see tantra-v-, śloka-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikan. a marriage feast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikakāram. "composer of vārttika-s", Name of kātyāyana-, kumārila- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikakāram. of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikakāśikā(?) f. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikakṛtm. equals -kāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikapāṭham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikasāravyākhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikasūtrikamfn. one who studies the vārttika-s and sūtra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikatātparyaśuddhif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikatātparyaṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikaṭippanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikayojanāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsanāvārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikamf(ā-)n. relating to spring, vernal etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikamf(ā-)n. equals vasantam adhīte veda vā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikam. the spring festival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikam. an actor dancer the buffoon in a drama (equals vidūṣaka- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsavadatttikamfn. acquainted with the story of vāsava-dattā- or studying it on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastikarmāḍhyam. the soap berry, Sapindus Detergens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastikarmann. the application of an enema or injection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamf(ī-)n. windy, stormy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamf(ī-)n. affected by wind-disease, rheumatic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamf(ī-)n. exciting or allaying wind (in the body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamf(ī-)n. produced by or proceeding from disorder of the wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikamf(ī-)n. mad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. a man of mere words, noisy talker, flatterer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. a juggler or conjurer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. a person who cures poison, dealer in antidotes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. the bird cātaka- (see vātīka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. Name of an attendant of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikakhaṇḍam. Name of a pass leading to lake mānasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikapiṇḍakam. equals vātaka-p- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikaṣaṇḍam. equals -khaṇḍa- (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhaktika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals bhakti- (in āpta-v-,complete as to case terminations) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
videhamuktikathanan. videhamukti
vidyājambhakavārttikamfn. exercising magic of various kinds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñāneśvaravārttikan. vijñāneśvara
vikṛtikaumudīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipattikaramfn. causing misfortune or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamavyāptikamfn. furnishing an example of partial or one-sided invariable concomitance, sāṃkhya-s. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇubhaktikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivibhaktikamfn. lacking case-terminations ( vivibhaktikatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivibhaktikatvan. vivibhaktika
vratikain a--, cāndra-vr- etc. (umā-vr- wrong reading for umā-vrataka- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrātikan. a particular observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttamauktikan. Name of work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttavārttikan. Name of work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttika (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals vṛtti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttikaramf(ī-)n. affording a livelihood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttikarṣitamfn. distressed for (want of) a livelihood (bhṛty-abhāvena pīḍitaḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttivārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptikarmanmfn. whose business or function is to acquire or attain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaramfn. acting reciprocally, reciprocal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. reciprocity, reciprocal action or relation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. contact, contiguity, union (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = joined with, spreading through or over, pervading) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') taking to, accomplishing, performing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. incident, opportunity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. reverse, misfortune, calamity, accident, fatality
vyatikaram. destruction, end View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. mixing or blending together, mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. a confusing (or striking) resemblance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaratikṛtamfn. pervaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaravatmfn. mixed, of contrary kind or nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaritamfn. mixed or joined with (instrumental case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tikam. a traveller (prob. wrong reading for yātrika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatikartavyagaṅgāstutif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yātopayātikamfn. gaRa akṣa-dyūtādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaujanaśatikamf(ī-)n. (fr. yojana-+ śata-) one who goes a hundred yojana-s Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaujanaśatikamf(ī-)n. one who deserves to be approached from a distance of a hundred yojana-s Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yauktikamfn. (fr. yukti-) suitable, proper, fit, logical, reasonable (a-y-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yauktikamfn. connective, binding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yauktikamfn. usual, customary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yauktikam. a king's companion or associate (equals narma-saciva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvakrītikam. one conversant with the history of yava-krīta- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yayātikam. (mc.) equals yayāti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāyātikam. one conversant with the history of yayāti- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogavārttikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktikalpatarum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktikaramfn. suitable, proper, fit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktikaramfn. (or) established, proved View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktikathanan. statement of argument, giving reasons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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abhyarhita अभ्यर्हित a. 1 Honoured, revered, greatly respectable; अभ्यर्हितं च Vārttika on P.II.2.34, Kāsi.29. -2 Fit, becoming, suitable; अभ्यर्हिता बन्धुषु तुल्यरूपा वृत्ति- र्विशेषेणतपोधनानाम् Ki.3.11.
āvapanam आवपनम् 1 The act of sowing, throwing, scattering. -2 Sowing seed. -3 Wearing; भूमिरावपने प्रभुः Mb.1. 88.13. -4 Shaving. -5 A vessel, jar, ewer. -6 Instilling, inserting. -7 Place of origin, birth; यस्य छन्दोमयं ब्रह्म देह आवपनं विभो Bhāg.1.8.45. -8 A hempen cloth. -नी Ved. A vessel, jar; त्वमस्यावपनी जनानामदितिः Av.12.1.61. आवपन्तक āvapantaka आवपन्तिक āvapantika आवपन्तक आवपन्तिक a. Ved. Scattering.
āstika आस्तिक a. (-की f.) [अस्ति परलोकः इति मतिर्यस्य, ठक्] 1 One who believes in God and another world; यन्नास्त्येव तदस्ति वस्त्विति मृषा जल्पद्भिरेवास्तिकैः Prab.2 -2 A believer in sacred tradition. -3 Pious, faithful, believing; आस्तिकः श्रद्दधानश्च Y.1.268. -कः or आस्तीकः N. of a Muni. cf. अगस्त्यो माधवश्चैव मुचकुन्दो महामुनिः । कपिलो मुनिरास्तीकः पञ्चैते सुखशायिनः ॥ आस्तिकता āstikatā त्व tva आस्तिक्यम् āstikyam आस्तिकता त्व आस्तिक्यम् 1 Belief in God and another world; आस्तिक्यशुद्धमवतः प्रियधर्म धर्मम् Ki.18.43. -2 Piety, faith, belief; ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यम् Bg.18.42; आस्तिक्यं श्रद्दधानता परमार्थेष्वागमार्थेषु Śaṅkara.
iṣṭiḥ इष्टिः f. [इष्-क्तिन्] 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to Kātyāyana's Vārttikas; इष्टयो भाष्यकारस्य, इति भाष्यकारेष्टया &c.; cf. उपसंख्यान). -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 (यज्-क्तिन्) A sacrifice. Ms.11.2.2. शबर seems to interpret the word especially in the sense of 'a दर्शपूर्णमास sacrifice'. इष्टिराजसूयचातुर्मास्येषु । &c. MS.II.2.12. -8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c. -9 Summary in verses (= संग्रहश्लोक). एभिर्यज्ञेभिस्तदभीष्टिमश्याम् Rv.1.166.14. -Comp. -अयनम् a sacrifice lasting for a long time. -पचः 1 a miser. -2 a demon; an Asura; so ˚मुष्. -पशु an animal to be killed at a sacrifice. -श्राद्धम् A particular funeral rite.
utthāna उत्थान a. Causing to arise or spring up. -नम् 1 The act of rising or standing up, getting up; शनैर्यष्टयुत्थानम् Bh.3.9. -2 Rising (as of luminaries); इन्दुं नवोत्थानमि- वेन्दुमत्यै R.6.31 newly risen. -3 Rise, origin. -4 Resurrection. -5 (a) Effort, exertion, activity; मेदच्छेद- कृशोदरं लघु भवत्युत्थानयोग्यं वपुः Ś.2.5; ˚शीलः Dk.153 disposed to work; Mv.6.23; यद्युत्थानं भवेत्सह Ms.9.215, effort (for money), acquisition of property. (b) Manly exertion, manhood, Mb.1.2.6; राज्ञो हि व्रतमुत्थानम् Kau. A.1.19. also अर्थस्य मूलमुत्थानम् -5 Energy. उत्थानेन सदा पुत्र प्रयतेथा युधिष्ठिर । न हयुत्थानमृते दैवं राज्ञामर्थं प्रसाधयेत् ॥ Mb.12.56.14. -6 Joy, pleasure. -7 War, battle. -8 An army. -9 Evacuating (by stool &c.). -1 A book. -11 A court-yard. -12 A shed where sacrifices are offered. -13 A term, limit, boundary. -14 Business (cares &c.) of a family or realm. -15 Reflection. -16 Proximate cause of a disease. -17 Awakening. -18 A monastery. -19 Readiness of the army for fight; युद्धानुकूलव्यापार उत्थानमिति कीर्तितम् Śukra.1.325. -Comp. -एकादशी the eleventh day in the light fortnight of Kārttika when Viṣṇu rises from his four month's sleep (also called प्रबोधिनी) -वीरः A man of action, one who makes effort; Mb. -शीलिन् a. Industrious; Mb.2.
upasaṃkhyānam उपसंख्यानम् 1 Addition. -2 Supplementary addition, further or additional enumeration (a term technically applied to the Vārtikas. of Kātyāyana which are intended to supply omissions in Pāṇini's Sūtras and generally to supplement them); e. g. जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्था- नामुपसंख्यानम्; cf. इष्टि. -3 (In gram.) A substitute in form or sense.
ūrjaḥ ऊर्जः 1 N. of the month Kārtika (as giving vigour and energy); 'बाहुलोर्जौ कार्तिकिकः' इत्यमरः; ऊर्जमतङ्गजम् Śi.6.5. -2 Energy. -3 Power, strength. -4 Procreative power. -5 Life, breath. -6 N. of the sons of हिरण्यगर्भ (reckoned among the seven Ṛiṣis of the third Manvantara). -र्जा 1 Food ऊर्जावती (गङ्गा) Mb.13.26.84. -2 Energy. -3 Strength, sap. नाप्यूर्जां बिभरामास वैदेह्यां प्रसितो भृशम् Bk.6.3. -4 Growth. -5 N. of a daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Vasiṣṭha. -र्जम् Water. -Comp. -मासः The month कार्तिक; Bhāg.12.11.44. -मेध a. Eminent intelligence, very wise; Hch.
kātyāyanaḥ कात्यायनः 1 N. of a celebrated writer on grammar who wrote Vārtikas to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini; न स्म पुराद्यतन इति ब्रुवता कात्यायनेनेह Mbh. on P. III.2.118; Rām.2.67.3. -2 N. of a sage who is a writer on civil and religious law; Y.1.4. -Comp. सूत्रम् the Śrauta sūtras of Kātyāyana.
kārtika कार्तिक a. (-की f.) [कृत्तिका-अण्] Belonging to the month of Kārtika; कार्तिकीषु सवितानहर्म्यभाक् R.19.39. -कः 1 N. of the month in which the full moon is near the कृत्तिका or Pleiades (corresponding to October-November). -2 An epithet of Skanda. -की The full moon day in the month of Kārtika (Mar. त्रिपुरी पौर्णिमा). कार्तिक्याः प्रभृति आग्रहायणी मासे Mbh. on P.II. 3.28. -Comp. -उत्सवः a festival on the full-moon day of the month of कार्तिक.
kārtikikaḥ कार्तिकिकः The month of Kārtika.
kuṣmāṇḍaḥ कुष्माण्डः 1 A kind of pumpkin gourd. -2 A fals conception. -3 A particular religious formula. -डी 1 A religious ceremony. -2 An epithet of the wife of Śiva. -Comp. -नवमी f. The ninth day of the bright half of the month of Kārtika when a golden idol &c. is to be given as a religious gift.
kaumudaḥ कौमुदः The month Kārtika; कौमुदे मासि रेवत्यां शरदन्ते हिमागमे Mb.5.83.7.
kaumudī कौमुदी [कुमुदस्येयं प्रकाशकत्वात् अण् ङीष् Tv.] 1 Moonlight; शशिना सह याति कौमुदी Ku.4.33; शशिनमुपगतेयं कौमुदी मेघमुक्तम् R.6.85; (the word is thus popularly derived :-- कौ मोदन्ते जना यस्यां तेनासौ कौमुदी मता). -2 Anything serving as moonlight, i. e. causing delight and balmy coolness; त्वं कौमुदी नयनयोरमृतं त्वमङ्गे U.2; त्वमस्य लोकस्य च नेत्रकौमुदी Ku.5.71; या कौमुदी नयनयो- र्भवतः सुजन्मा Māl.1.34; cf. चन्द्रिका. -3 The full moon day in Kārtika; तस्मात्तु कपिला देया कौमुद्यां ज्येष्ठपुष्करे Mb.13.13.32. -4 The full moon day in Āśvina. -5 Festivity (in general). -6 Particularly, a festive day on which temples, houses &c. are illuminated. -7 (At the end of titles of works &c.) Elucidation, throwing light on the subject treated; e. g. तर्ककौमुदी, साख्यतत्त्वकौमुदी, सिद्धान्तकौमुदी &c. -Comp. -चारः the day of full moon in the month Āśvina. -तरुः the stick of a lamp. -पतिः the moon. -मुखम् appearance of moonlight; सखीजनोद्वी- क्षणकौमुदीमुखम् R.3.1. -वृक्षः the stick or stand of a lamp.
go गो m. f. (Nom. गौः) [गच्छत्यनेन, गम् करणे डो Tv.] 1 Cattle, kine (pl.) -2 Anything coming from a cow; such as milk, flesh, leather &c. -3 The stars; वि रश्मिभिः ससृजे सूर्यो गाः Rv.7.36.1. -4 The sky. -5 The thunderbolt of Indra; Ki.8.1. -6 A ray of light; नान्यस्तप्ता विद्यते गोषु देव Mb.1.232.11; बालो$यं गिरिशिखरेषु चारयन् गाः त्रैलोक्यं तिमिरभरेण दुष्टमेतत् (रविः नैर्मल्यं नयति) । Rām. Ch. 7.6. -7 A diamond. -8 Heaven. -9 An arrow. -f. 1 A cow; जुगोप गोरूपधरामिवोर्वीम् R.2.3; क्षीरिण्यः सन्तु गावः Mk.1.6. -2 The earth; दुदोह गां स यज्ञाय R.1.26; गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य 5.26;11.36; Bg.15.13; सेको$- नुगृह्णातु गाम् Mu.3.2; Me.3; cf. also the quotation for (-6). -3 Speech, words; कुलानि समुपेतानि गोभिः पुरुषतो$- र्थतः Mb.5.28; रघोरुदारामपि गां निशम्य R.5.12;2.59; Ki.4.2. -4 The goddess of speech, Sarasvatī. -5 A mother. -6 A quarter of the compass. -7 Water; सायं भेजे दिशं पश्चाद्गविष्ठो गां गतस्तदा Bhāg.1.1.36; also pl.; Bhāg.11.7.5. -8 The eye; गोकर्णा सुमुखी कृतेन इषुणा गोपुत्रसंप्रेषिता Mb.8.9.42. -9 A region of the sky. -m. A bull, an ox; असंजातकिणस्कन्धः सुखं स्वपिति गौर्गडिः K. P.1; Ms.4.72; cf. चरद्गव. -2 The hair of the body. -3 An organ of sense; अदान्तगोभिर्विशतां तमिस्रं पुनः पुनश्चर्वितचर्वणानाम् Bhāg..7.5.3. -4 The sign Taurus of the zodiac; Bṛi. S.49. -5 The sun. -6 The number 'nine' (in math.). -7 The moon. -8 A singer. -9 A billion. -1 A cow-sacrifice -11 A house; cf. गौर्वज्रं गौः प्रभा भूमिर्वाणी तोयं त्रिविष्टपम् । धेनुर्बस्तो वृषो दिग्गौर्नेत्रं लज्जा गुरू रमा ॥ इन्द्रियं श्रीरुमा ... Enm. -Comp. -कण्टकः, -कम् 1 a road or spot trodden down by oxen and thus made impassable. -2 the cow's hoof. -3 the print of a cow's hoof. -कर्ण a. having cow's ears. (-र्णः) 1 a cow's ear; गोकर्णसदृशौ कृत्वा करावाबद्धसारणौ Ks.6.57. -2 a mule. -3 a snake; Mb.8.9.42. -4 a span (from the tip of the thumb to that of the ring-finger); गोकर्णशिथिल- श्चरन् Mb.2.68.75; तालः स्मृतो मध्यमया गोकर्णश्चाप्यनामया Brahmāṇḍa P. -5 N. of a place of pilgrimage in the south, sacred to Śiva. श्रितगोकर्णनिकेतमीश्वरम् R.8.33. -6 a kind of deer. -7 a kind of arrow; Mb.8.9.42. -किराटा -किराटिका the Sārikā bird. -किलः, -कीलः 1 a plough -2 a pestle. -कुलम् 1 a herd of kine; वृष्टिव्याकुलगोकुलावनरसादुद्धृत्य गोवर्धनम् Gīt.4; गोकुलस्य तृषा- र्तस्य Mb. -2 a cow-house. -3 N. of a village (where Kṛiṣṇa was brought up). -कुलिक a. 1 one who does not help a cow in the mud. -2 squint-eyed. -कुलोद्भवा an epithet of Durgā. -कृतम् cow-dung. -क्षीरम् cow's milk. -क्षुरम्, -रकम् a cow's hoof. -खरः a beast (पशु); यत्तीर्थबुद्धिः सलिले न कर्हिचिज्जनेष्वभिज्ञेषु स एव गोखरः Bhāg.1.84.13. -खा a nail. -गृष्टिः a young cow which has had only one calf. -गोयुगम् a pair of oxen. -गोष्ठम् a cow-pen, cattle-shed. -ग्रन्थिः 1 dried cowdung. -2 a cow-house. -ग्रहः capture of cattle (गवालम्भ); Mb.12.265.2. -ग्रासः the ceremony of offering a morsel (of grass) to a cow when performing an expiatory rite. -घातः, -घातकः, -घातिन् m. a cow-killer. -घृतम् 1 rain-water. -2 clarified butter coming from a cow. -घ्न a. 1 destructive to cows. -2 one who has killed a cow. -3 one for whom a cow is killed, a guest. -चन्दनम् a kind of sandal-wood. -चर a. 1 grazed over by cattle. -2 frequenting, dwelling, resorting to, haunting पितृसद्मगोचरः Ku.5.77. -3 within the scope, power, or range of; अवाङ्मनसगोचरम् R.1.15; so बुद्धि˚, दृष्टि˚, श्रवण˚ स्वगोचरे दीप्ततरा बभूव Bu. Ch.1.13. -4 moving on earth. -5 accessible to, attainable; त्याग- सूक्ष्मानुगः क्षेम्यः शौचगो ध्यागोचरः Mb.12.236.12. -6 circulating, having a particular meaning, prevalent. (-रः) 1 the range of cattle, pasturage; उपारताः पश्चिम- रात्रिगोचरात् Ki.4.1. -2 (a) a district, department, province, sphere. (b) an abode, dwelling-place, a place of resort; Śi.1.21; Ms.1.39. -3 range of the organs of sense, an object of sense; श्रवणगोचरे तिष्ठ be within ear-shot; नयनगोचरं या to become visible. -4 scope, range, in general; हर्तुर्याति न गोचरम् Bh.2.16. -5 (fig.) grip, hold, power, influence, control; कः कालस्य न गोचरा- न्तरगतः Pt.1.146; गोचरीभूतमक्ष्णोः U.6.26; Māl.5.24; अपि नाम मनागवतीर्णो$सि रतिरमणबाणगोचरम् Māl.1. -6 horizon. -7 field for action, scope; इन्द्रियाणि हयानाहुर्विषयांस्तेषु गोचरान् Kaṭh.3.4. -8 the range of the planets from the Lagna or from each other. ˚पीडा inauspicious position of stars within the ecliptic; गोचर- पीडायामपि राशिर्बलिभिः शुभग्रहैर्दृष्टः (पीडां न करोति) Bṛi.S.41.13. (गोचरीकृ to place within the range (of sight), make current). -चर्मन् n. 1 a cow's hide. -2 a particular measure of surface thus defined by Vasiṣṭha :-- दशहस्तेन वंशेन दशवंशान् समन्ततः । पञ्च चाभ्यधिकान् दद्यादेतद्गोचर्म चोच्यते ॥ ˚वसनः an epithet of Śiva. -चर्या seeking food like a cow; गोचर्यां नैगमश्चरेत् Bhāg.11.18.29. -चारकः cowherd. -चरणम् the tending or feeding of cows; Bhāg.1.38.8. -ज a. 1 born in the earth (rice &c.). -2 produced by milk; अब्जा गोजा ...... Kaṭh.5.2. -जरः an old ox or bull; नाद्रियन्ते यथापूर्वं कीनाशा इव गोजरम् Bhāg.3.3.13. -जलम् the urine of a bull or cow. -जागरिकम् auspiciousness, happiness. (-कः) a preparer of food, baker. -जात a. born in the heaven (gods); गोजाता अप्या मृळता च देवाः Rv.6.5.11. -जिह्वा N. of a plant (Mar. पाथरी). -जिह्विका the uvula. -जीव a. living on cattle (milkman); Hch.1.7. -तल्लजः an excellent bull or cow. -तीर्थम् a cowhouse. -त्रम् [गां भूमिं त्रायते त्रै-क] 1 a cow-pen. -2 a stable in general. -3 a family, race, lineage; गोत्रेण माठरो$स्मि Sk.; so कौशिकगोत्राः, वसिष्ठगोत्राः &c.; Ms.3.19,9.141. -4 a name, appellation; जगाद गोत्र- स्खलिते च का न तम् N.1.3; Ś.6.5; see ˚स्खलित below; मद्गोत्राङ्कं विरचितपदं गेयमुद्गातुकामा Me.88. -5 a multitude. -6 increase. -7 a forest. -8 a field. -9 a road. -1 possessions, wealth. -11 an umbrella, a parasol. -12 knowledge of futurity. -13 a genus, class, species. -14 a caste, tribe, caste according to families. (-त्रः) a mountain; 'गोत्रं नाम्नि कुले$प्यद्रौ' इति यादवः; Śi.9.8. Hence गोत्रोद्दलनः means Indra; cf. इन्द्रे तु गोत्रोद्दलनः कुलघ्ने गिरिदारणे Nm. (-त्रा) 1 a multitude of cows. -2 the earth. ˚उच्चारः recitation of family pedigree. ˚कर्तृ, -कारिन् m. the founder of a family. ˚कीला the earth. ˚ज a. born in the same family, gentile, a relation; Bhāg.3.7.24; Y.2.135. ˚पटः a genealogical table, pedigree. ˚प्रवरः the oldest member or founder of a family. -भिद् m. an epithet of Indra; हृदि क्षतो गोत्रभिदप्यमर्षणः R.3.53;6.73; Ku.2.52. ˚स्खलनम्, ˚स्खलितम् blundering or mistaking in calling (one) by his name, calling by a wrong name; स्मरसि स्मर मेखलागुणैरुत गौत्रस्खलितेषु बन्धनम् Ku.4.8. -द a. giving cows; Ms.4.231. (-दः) brain. (-दा) N. of the river Godāvarī. -दत्र a. Ved. giving cows. (-त्रः) an epithet of Indra. (-त्रम्) a crown (protecting the head). -दन्त a. armed with a coat of mail. (-तम्) 1 yellow orpiment. -2 a white fossil substance. -दानम् 1 the gift of a cow. -2 the ceremony of tonsure or cutting the hair; रामलक्ष्मणयो राजन् गोदानं कारयस्व ह Rām.1.71.23; अथास्य गोदानविधेरनन्तरम् R.3. 33; (see Mallinātha's explanation of the word); कृत- गोदानमङ्गलाः U.1; अतोनं गोदानं दारकर्म च Kau. A.1.5; (Rām. explains the word differently). -3 the part of the head close to the right ear. -दाय a. intending to give cows. -दारणम् 1 a plough. -2 a spade, hoe. -दा, -दावरी N. of a river in the south. -दुह् m., -दुहः 'cow-milker', a cowherd; सुदुघामिव गोदुहे R.1.4.1; चिरं निदध्यौ दुहतः स गोदुहः Śi. -दोहः 1 the milking of cows. -2 the milk of cows. -3 the time of milking cows. -दोहनम् 1 the time of milking cows. -2 the milking of cows; न लक्ष्यते ह्यवस्थानमपि गोदोहनं क्वचित् Bhāg.1.19. 4. -दोहनी a milk-pail. -द्रवः the urine of a bull or cow. -धनम् 1 a herd or multitude of cows, cattle. -2 possession of cows. (-नः) a broad-pointed arrow. -धरः a mountain. -धर्मः the law of cattle, rules relating to cattle; (open and unconcealed intercourse of the sexes); गोधर्मं सौरभेयाच्च सो$धीत्य निखिलं मुनिः । प्रावर्तत तदा कर्तुं श्रद्धावांस्तमशङ्कया ॥ Mb.1.14.26. -धुमः, -धूमः 1 wheat; Bṛi. Up.6.3.13. -2 the orange. ˚चूर्णम् wheat flour; -सम्भवम् a sour paste. -धूलिः 'dust of the cows', the time of sunset or evening twilight (so called because cows, which generally return home at about sunset, raise up clouds of dust by their treading on the earth). -धेनुः a milch-cow with a calf. -भ्रः a mountain. -नन्दा an epithet of the wife of Śiva. -नन्दी the female of the Sārasa bird. -नर्दः 1 the (Indian) crane. -2 an epithet of Śiva (bellowing like a bull). -3 N. of a country. -नर्दीयः an epithet of Patañjali, author of the Mahābhāṣya. -नसः, -नासः 1 a kind of snake. -2 a kind of gem. -नसा the mouth of a cow. -नाथः 1 a bull. -2 an owner of land. -3 a herdsman. -4 an owner of kine. -नायः a cowherd; तद्यथा गोनायो$श्वनायः पुरुषनाय इत्येवं तदप आचक्षते$शनायेति Ch. Up.6.8.3. -नाशनः a wolf. -नासा the projecting snout of a cow or ox. -नासम् a kind of gem. -निष्यन्दः cow's urine. -पः 1 a cowherd (considered as belonging to a mixed tribe); गोपवेशस्य विष्णोः Me.15. -2 the chief of a cowpen. -3 the superintendent of a village. -4 a king. -5 a protector, guardian; Rv.1.61.1. ˚अनसी the wood of a thatch; गोपानसीषु क्षणमास्थितानाम् Śi.3.49. ˚अष्टमी the eighth day of the bright fortnight of Kārttika when Kṛiṣṇa is said to have worn the dress of a cowherd. ˚आटविका a cowherd. ˚कन्या 1 the daughter of a cowherd. -2 a nymph of Vṛindāvana. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚इन्द्रः, ˚ईशः the chief of herdsmen, an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. ˚चापः the rainbow. ˚दलः the betel-nut tree. ˚भद्रम् the fibrous root of a water-lily. ˚रसः gum myrrh. ˚राष्ट्राः (pl.) N. of a people. ˚वधूः f. a cowherd's wife; Bhāg.1.9.4. ˚वधूटी a young cowherdess, a young wife of a cowherd; गोपवधूटीदुकूलचौराय Bhāṣā P.1. (-पकः) 1 the superintendent of a district. -2 myrrh. (-पिका) 1 a cowherdess; Bhāg.1.9.14-15. -2 protectress. (-पी) a cowherd's wife (especially applied to the cowherdesses of Vṛindāvana, the companions of Kṛiṣṇa in his juvenile sports). -2 a milk-maid. -3 a protectress. -4 Nature, elementary nature. -पतिः 1 an owner of cows. -2 a bull. -3 a leader, chief. -4 the sun; नीहारमिव गोपतिः Bhāg.1.12.1; Mb.1.173.32. -5 Indra; सुराङ्गना गोपतिचापगोपुरं पुरम् (जहुः) Ki.8.1. -6 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -7 N. of Śiva. -8 N. of Varuṇa; एष पुत्रो महाप्रज्ञो वरुणस्येह गोपतेः Mb.5.98.11. -9 a king; नासतो विद्यते राजन् स ह्यरण्येषु गोपतिः Mb.12.135.26. -पथः N. of a Brāhmaṇa of Av. -पर्वतम् the name of the place where Pāṇini is said to have performed penance and propitiated Śiva; गोपर्वतमिति स्थानं शम्भोः प्रख्यापितं मया । यत्र पाणिनिना लेभे वैयाकरणिकाग्ऱ्यता ॥ अरुणाचलमाहात्म्यम्- उत्तरार्धः 2 अ. 68 श्लो. -पशुः a sacrificial cow. -पाः m. Ved. 1 a herdsman. -2 protector, or guardian; मन्द्राग्रे- त्वरी भुवनस्य गोपा Av.2.1.57. -पानसी a curved beam which supports a thatch; गोपानसी तु वलभिच्छादने वक्रदारुणि Ak.2.2.15. -पालः 1 a cowherd; Ms.4.253. -2 a king. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -4 an epithet of Kṛ&iṣṇa. ˚धानी a cow-pen, cow-shed. -पालकः 1 a cowherd. -2 a king. -3 an epithet of Śiva; also of Kṛiṣṇa. -पालिः an epithet of Śiva. -पालिका, -पाली the wife of a cowherd; पार्थः प्रस्थापयामास कृत्वा गोपालिकावपुः Mb.1.221.19. -पालितः N. of a lexicographer. -पित्तम् bile of cows, ox-bile (from which the yellow pigment गोरोचना is prepared; गोपित्ततो रोचना Pt.1.94.). -पीतः a species of wagtail. -पीथः protection; अस्माकमृषीणां गोपीथे न उरुष्यतम् Rv.5.65.6. (-थम्) a holy place, a place of pilgrimage. -पुच्छम् a cow's tail. -2 a particular point of an arrow. (-च्छः) 1 a sort of monkey; Bhāg.8.2.22. -2 a sort of necklace consisting of two or four or thirty-four strings. -3 a kind of drum. -पुटिकम् the head of Śiva's bull. -पुत्रः 1 a young bull. -2 an epithet of Karṇa. -पुरम् 1 a town-gate; उत्तुङ्गसौधसुरमन्दिरगोपुरम् Māl.9.1. -2 a principal gate; दधतमुच्चशिलान्तरगोपुराः Ki.5.5. -3 the ornamental gateway of a temple. -पुरीषम् cowdung. -प्रकाण्डम् an excellent cow or bull. -प्रचारः pasture-ground, pasturage for cattle; ग्राम्येच्छया गोप्रचारो भूमी राजवशेन वा Y.2.166. -प्रत (ता) रः 1 a ford for cattle. -2 a place of pilgrimage on the Śarayū; यद्गोप्रतरकल्पो$भूत्संमर्दस्तत्र मज्जताम् । अतस्तदाख्यया तीर्थं पावनं भुवि पप्रथे ॥ R.15.11. -प्रदानम् same as गोदान. -प्रवेशः the time when cows return home, sunset or evening-twilight; गोप्रवेशसमये Bṛi. S.24.35. -फणा 1 a bandage hollowed out so as to fit the chin or nose &c. -2 a sling. -बालः the hair of cows. -भुज् m. a king; गोभुजां वल्लभा लक्ष्मीः Rāj. T.5.6. -भृत् m. 1 a mountain. -2 a king. -मक्षिका a gadfly. -मघ a. granting cattle or cows कदा गोमघा हवनानि गच्छाः Rv.6.35.3. -मंडलम् 1 the globe. -2 a multitude of cows. -मण़्डीरः a kind of an aquatic bird; L. D. B. -मतम् = गव्यूति q. v. -मतल्लिका a tractable cow, an excellent cow; अरिर्मधोरैक्षत गोमतल्लिकाम् Śi.12.41. -मथः a cowherd. -मध्यमध्य a. slender in the waist. -महिषदा N. of one of the Mātṛis attending on कार्तिकेय. -मांसम् beef. -मायु 1 a kind of frog. -2 a jackal; अनुहंकुरुते घनध्वनिं न हि गोमायुरुतानि केसरी Śi.16. 25. -3 bile of a cow. -4 N. of a Gandharva. -मीनः a kind of fish. -मुखः, -मुखम् [गोर्मुखमिव मुखमस्य] a kind of musical instrument; Bg.1.13; गोमुखानां च शृङ्गाणाम- नीकद्वयवर्तिनाम् Śiva. B.24.55. (-खः) 1 a crocodile, shark. -2 a hole of a particular shape in a wall made by thieves. (-खम्) 1 a house built unevenly. -2 spreading unguents, smearing; 'गोमुखं कुटिलाकारे वाद्यभाण्डे विलेपने' इति विश्वः; यस्यामलिन्देषु न चक्रुरेव मुग्धाङ्गना गोमयगो- मुखानि Śi.3.48. (-खम्, -खी) a cloth-bag of the shape of a gnomon containing a rosary, the beads of which are counted by the hand thrust inside. -2 a house built unevenly. -3 a particular method of sitting (a योगासन) (-खी) the chasm in the Himālaya mountains through which the Ganges flows. -मूढ a. stupid as a bull. -मूत्रम् cow's urine. -मूत्रकः a variety of lapis lazuli (बैदूर्य); Kau. A.2.11. -कम् a particular attitude (मण्डल) in गदायुद्ध; दक्षिणं मण्डलं सव्यं गोमूत्रकमथापि च । व्यचर- त्पाण्डवो राजन्नरिं संमोहयन्निव ॥ Mb.9.58.23. -a. zigzagging, going unevenly. -मूत्रिका 1 an artificial verse, the second of which repeats nearly all the syllables of the first. (Malli. thus defines it :-- वर्णानामेकरूपत्वं यद्येकान्तरमर्धयोः गोमूत्रिकेति तत्प्राहुर्दुष्करं तद्विदो विदुः ॥ see Śi.19.46.) -2 a form of calculation. -मृगः a kind of ox (गवय). -मेदः a gem brought from the Himālaya and Indus, described as of four different colours:-- white, pale-yellow, red, and dark-blue. -मेदकः 1 see गोमेद. -2 a kind of poison (काकोल). -3 smearing the body with unguents. -मेधः, -यज्ञः a cow-sacrifice; Rām.7.25.8. -यानम्, -रथः a carriage drawn by oxen; Rām.2.82.26; Ms. 11.174. -युक्त a. drawn by oxen. -युतम् 1 a cattle station. -2 a measure of two Krośas (गव्यूत); गोयुते गोयुते चैव न्यवसत्पुरुषर्षभः Mb.14.65.22. -रक्षः 1 a cowherd. -2 keeping or tending cattle. -3 the orange. -4 an epithet of Śiva. ˚जम्बू f. wheat. -रक्षणम् tending cattle (with religious faith). -रङ्कुः 1 a water-fowl -2 a prisoner. -3 a naked man, a mendicant wandering about without clothes. -4 a chanter. -रवम् saffron. -रसः cow's milk. -2 curds. -3 buttermilk. -4 the flavour of a sentence; को रसो गोरसं विना Udb. ˚जम् buttermilk. -राजः an excellent bull. -राटिका, -राटी the Sārikā bird. -रुतम् a measure of distance equal to two Krośas. -रूपम् the form of a cow. (-पः) N. of Śiva. -रोचम् yellow orpiment. -रोचना a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow, or found in the head of a cow. -लवणम् a measure of salt given to a cow. -लाङ्गु- (गू) लः a kind of monkey with a dark body, red cheeks and a tail like that of a cow; गोलाङ्गूलः कपोलं छुरयति रजसा कौसुमेन प्रियायाः Māl.9.3. -लोकः a part of heaven, cow-world. -लोभिका, -लोभी 1 a prostitute. -2 white Dūrvā grass. -3 Zedoary. -4 N. of a shrub. -वत्सः a calf. ˚आदिन m. a wolf. -वधः the killing of a cow; Ms.11.59. -वर्धनः a celebrated hill in वृन्दावन the country about Mathurā. ('This hill was lifted up and supported by Kṛiṣṇa upon one finger for seven days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Kṛiṣṇa's divinity.') ˚धरः, ˚धरिन् m. an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -वरम् pounded cowdung. -वशा a barren cow. -वाटम्, -वासः a cow-pen. -वासन a. covered with an ox-hide. -विकर्तः, -विकर्तृ m. 1 the killer of a cow; Mb.4.2.9. -2 a husbandman. -विततः a horse-sacrifice having many cows. -विन्दः 1 a cowkeeper, a chief herdsman. -2 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -3 Bṛihaspati. ˚द्वादशी the twelfth day in the light half of the month of फाल्गुन -विष् f., -विष्ठा cowdung. -विषाणिकः a kind of musical instrument; Mb.6.44.4. -विसर्गः day-break (when cows are let loose to graze in forests); Rām.7.111.9. -वीथिः f. N. of that portion of the moon's path which contains the asterisms भाद्रपदा, रेवती and अश्विनी, or according to some, हस्त, चित्रा and स्वाती Bṛi. S.9.2. -वीर्यम् the price received for milk. -वृन्दम् a drove of cattle. -वृन्दारकः an excellent bull or cow. -वृषः, -वृषभः an excellent bull; न तां शेकुर्नृपा वोढुमजित्वा सप्त गोवृषान् Bhāg 1.58.33. ˚ध्वजः an epithet of Śiva. -वैद्यः a quack docter. -व्रजः 1 a cow-pen. -2 a herd of cows. -3 a place where cattle graze. -व्रत, -व्रतिन् a. one who imitates a cow in frugality; ...अत्र गोव्रतिनो विप्राः ... ॥ यत्रपत्रशयो नित्यं येन केन- चिदाशितः । येन केनचिदाच्छन्नः स गोव्रत इहोच्यते ॥ Mb.5.99. 13-14. -शकृत् n. cowdung; Ms.2.182. -शतम् a present of a hundred cows to a Brāhmaṇa. -शालम्, -ला a cow-stall. -शीर्षः, -र्षम् a kind of sandal; Kau. A.2.11. -2 a kind of weapon (arrow ?); Mb.7.178. 23. -षड्गवम् three pairs of kine. -षन्, -षा a. Ved. acquiring or bestowing cows. -षा (सा) तिः 1 acquiring cattle; or fighting for cattle. गोषाता यस्य ते गिरः Rv.8.84.7. -2 giving cattle. -ष्टोमः a kind of sacrifice fasting for one day. -संख्यः a cowherd. -सदृक्षः a species of ox (गवय). -सर्गः the time at which cows are usually let loose, day-break; see गोविसर्ग. -सवः a kind of cow-sacrifice (not performed in the Kali age); Mb.3.3.17. -सहस्रम् a kind of present (महादान). (-स्त्री) N. of two holidays on the fifteenth day of the dark half of कार्तिक and ज्येष्ठ. -सावित्री N. of a hymn (cf. गायत्री). -सूत्रिका a rope fastened at both ends having separate halters for each ox or cow. -स्तनः 1 the udder of a cow. -2 a cluster of blossoms, nosegay &c. -3 a pearl-necklace of four strings. -4 a kind of fort. -स्तना, -नी a bunch of grapes. -स्थानम्, -क्रम् a cow-pen. -स्वामिन् m. 1 an owner of cows. -2 a religious mendicant. -3 an honorary title affixed to proper names; (e. g. वोपदेवगोस्वामिन्). -हत्या cow-slaughter. -हल्लम् (sometimes written हन्नम्) cow-dung. -हरः, -हरणम् stealing of cows; गोष्ठमुत्किरति गोहरं वदेत् Bṛi. S.89.9. (v. l.) -हित a. cherishing or protecting kine. (-तः) N. of Viṣṇu.
janamejayaḥ जनमेजयः N. of a celebrated king of Hastināpura, son of Parīkṣit, the grandson of Arjuna. [His father died, being bitten by a serpent; and Janamejaya, determined to avenge the injury, resolved to exterminate the whole serpent-race. He accordingly instituted a serpent sacrifice, and burnt down all serpents except Takṣaka, who was saved only by the intercession of the sage Astika, at whose request the sacrifice was closed.. It was to this king that Vaiśampāyana related the Mahābhārata, and the king is said to have listened to it to expiate the sin of killing a Brāhmaṇa.].
jarat जरत् a. 1 Old, aged, decayed. -2 Infirm, decrepit. -m. An old man. -Comp. -कारुः N. of a great sage who married a sister of the serpent Vāsuki. [One day as he was fallen asleep on the lap of his wife, the sun was about to set. His wife, perceiving that the time of offering his evening prayers was passing away, gently roused him. But he became angry with her for having disturbed his sleep, and left her never to return. He, however, told her, as he went, that she was pregnant and would give birth to a son who would be her support, and at the same time the saviour of the serpent-race. This son was Astika]. -गवः an old ox; दारिद्र्यस्य परा मूर्तिर्यन्मानद्रविणाल्पता । जरद्गवधनः शर्वस्तथापि परमेश्वरः ॥ Pt.2.163.
takṣakaḥ तक्षकः [तक्ष् ण्वुल्] 1 A carpenter, wood-cutter (whether by caste or profession). -2 The chief actor in the prelude of a drama (i. e. the सूत्रधार). -3 N. of the architect of the gods. -4 N. of one of the principal Nāgas or serpents of the Pātāla, son of Kaśyapa and Kadru (saved at the intercession of the sage Āstika from being burnt down in the serpent-sacrifice performed by king Janamejaya, in which many others of his race were burnt down to ashes).
tāmasa तामस a. (-सी f.) [तमो$स्त्यस्य अण्] 1 Dark, consisting of darkness; व्यतिकर इव भीमस्तामसो वैद्युतश्च Māl.9.52; U.5.12. -2 Affected by or relating to तमस् or the quality of darkness (the third of the three qualities of nature); ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये Bg.7.12;17.2; M.1.1; Ms.12.33-34. -3 Ignorant. -4 Vicious. -सः 1 A malignant person, an incendiary, a villain. -2 A snake. -3 An owl. -4 N. of a son of Rāhu. -5 A kind of horse possessing the quality of तमस्; सात्त्विका राजसाश्चेति तामसाश्चेति ते हयाः Yuktikalpataru. -6 The 4th Manu; चतुर्थ उत्तमभ्राता मनुर्नाम्ना च तामसः Bhāg.8.1.27. -सम् Darkness. -सी 1 Night, a dark night. -2 Sleep. -3 An epithet of Durgā. -Comp. -लीना (in Sāṅ. phil.) One of the forms of dissatisfaction.
tāmra ताम्र a. [तम्-रक् दीर्घः Uṇ.2.16.] 1 Made of copper. -2 Of a coppery red colour, red; ततो$नुकुर्याद्विशदस्य तस्यास्ताम्रौष्ठपर्यस्तरुचः स्मितस्य Ku.1.44; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च Subhāṣ. -म्रः A kind of leprosy with red spots. -म्रम् 1 Copper. -2 A dark or coppery red. -3 A coppery receptacle; ताम्रलोहैः परिवृता निधयो ये चतुः- शताः Mb.2.61.29. -म्री A copper pot having a small hole at the botton used in measuring time by placing it in a water-vessel. -Comp. -अक्षः 1 a crow. -2 the (Indian) cuckoo. -अर्धः bell-metal. -अश्मन् m. a kind of jewel (पद्मराग); ताम्राश्मरश्मिच्छुरितैर्नखाग्रैः Śi.3.7. -आभम् red sandal (रक्तचन्दन). -उपजीविन् m. a coppersmith. -ओष्ठः (forming ताम्रोष्ठ or ताम्रौष्ठ) a red or cherry lip; Ku.1.44. -कारः, -कुट्टः a brazier, coppersmith. -कृमिः 1 a kind of red insect (इन्द्रगोप). -2 the lady bird. -3 cochineal. -गर्भम् sulphate of copper. -चूडः a cock; संध्याचूडैर- निबिडतमस्ताम्रचूडैरुडूनि । प्रासूयन्त स्फुटमधिवियद्भाण्डमण्डानि यानि ॥ Rām. Ch.6.96;7.56. -चडकः a particular position of the hand. -त्रपुजम् brass. -द्रुः the red sandalwood. -द्वीपः the island of Ceylon; Divyāvadāna.36. -धातुः 1 red chalk. -2 Copper; Rām.3. -पट्टः, -पत्रम् a copper-plate on which grants of land were frequently inscribed; पटे वा ताम्रपट्टे वा स्वमुद्रोपरिचिह्नितम् । अभिलेख्यात्मनो वंश्यानात्मानं च महीपतिः ॥ Y.1.319. -पर्णी N. of a river rising in Malaya, celebrated for its pearls; R.4.5. Hence ताम्रपर्णिक (= obtained in the same river); Kau. A.2.11. -पलः Alangium Hexapetalum; दद्यात्ताम्रपलं वापि अभावे सर्वकर्मणः Yuktikalpataru. -पल्लवः the Aśoka tree. -पाकिन् Thespesia Populneoides (Mar. लाखी-पारासा पिंपळ). -पुष्पः Kæmpferia Rotunda (Mar. बाहवा). -ष्पी Bignonia Suaveolens (Mar. धायरी, भुईपाडळ) -फलकम् a copper-plate. -मुख a. copper-faced. (-खः) 1 a Frank or European; -2 the Moghals. -वदनः (see ताम्रमुख); योत्स्यन्ति ताम्रवदनैरनेकैः सैनिका इमे Śiva. B.26.23. -वर्णी the blossom of sesamum. -लिप्तः N. of a country. -प्ताः (pl.) its people or rulers. -वृक्षः a species of sandal. -शिखिन् m. a cook. -सारकः a sort of Khadira. (-कम्) red sandal-wood.
tulasī तुलसी [तुलां सादृश्यं स्यति, सो-क गौरा˚ ङीप् शंकध्वा. Tv.] The holy basil held in veneration by the Hindus, especially by the worshippers of Visnu. -Comp. -पत्रम् (lit.) a Tulasī leaf; (fig.) a very small gift. -विवाहः the marriage of an image of Bālakriṣṇa with the holy basil, performed on the 12th day of the bright half of Kārtika. -वृन्दावनः, -नम् a square pedestal in which the sacred basil is planted.
taijasa तैजस a. (-सी f.) [तेजसो विकारः अण्] 1 Bright, splendid, luminous; वैराजा नाम ते लोकास्तैजसाः सन्तु ते शिवाः U.2. 12. -2 Made up or consisting of light; तैजसस्य धनुषः प्रवृत्तये R.11.43. -3 Metallic. -4 Passionate. -5 Vigorous, energetic. -6 Powerful, intense. -7 A kind of horse; ते तैजसाः पुण्यवता प्रदेशे भवन्ति पुण्यैरपि ते मिलन्ति Yuktikalpataru. -8 Endowed with the राजस quality; वैकारिक- स्तैजसश्च तामसश्चेत्यहं त्रिधा Bhāg.3.5.3. -सः The highly refined or subtle essence (Vedānta Phil.); विश्वश्च तैजसः प्राज्ञस्तुर्य आत्मा समन्वयात् Bhāg.7.15.54; Muṇḍ.4. -सम् 1 Any metal; Bhāg.11.21.12. -2 Ghee. -3 Intensity, severity. -4 Vigour, energy, might. -5 The group of senses; तैजसे निद्रयापन्ने पिण्डस्थो नष्टचेतनः । मायां प्राप्नोति मृत्युं वा Bhāg.11.28.3. -6 The movable (जङ्गम) world; तस्य तत्तेजसस्तस्माज्जज्ञे लोकेषु तैजसम् Mb.13.85.12. -Comp. -आवर्तनी a crucible.
dyūtaḥ द्यूतः तम् [दिव्-भावे-क्त-ऊठ् अर्धर्चा˚] 1 Play, gambling, playing with dice; द्यूतं हि नाम पुरुषस्यासिंहासनं राज्यम् Mk.2; द्रव्यं लब्धं द्यूतेनैव दारा मित्रं द्यूतेनैव । दत्तं भुक्तं द्यूतेनैव सर्वं नष्टं द्यूतेनैव 2.7; अप्राणिभिर्यत् क्रियते तल्लोके द्यूतमुज्यते Ms.9.223. -2 (fig.) A battle, fight; Mb. 3. -3 The prize won; Mb.9. -Comp. -अधिकारिन् m. the keeper of a gamblinghouse. -करः, -कृत् m. a gamester, a gambler; अयं द्यूतकरः सभिकेन खलीक्रियते Mk.2. -कारः, -कारकः 1 the keeper of a gambling house. -2 a gambler. -क्रीडा playing at dice, gambling. -धर्मः the laws concerning gambling; Ms 9.22. -पूर्णिमा, -पौर्णिमा the day of full moon in the month of Āśvina (also called कोजागर) when people spend their time in games of chance in honour of Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. -प्रतिपद् f. the first day of the bright half of Kārtika (usually spent in gambling). -बीजम् a cowrie, a shell used in playing. -मण्डलम् 1 a gambling house; गमनं परिकर्षं च कृष्णाया द्यूतमण्डले Mb.2.79.32. -2 a circle drawn round a gambler (to make him play); cf. द्यूतकर- मण्डली; Mk.2.6-7. -लेखकः, -कम् a gambling bill or one who marks the score at gambling; cf. Mk.2.19-2. -वृत्तिः 1 professional gambler; मित्रधृग् द्यूतवृत्तिश्च पुत्राचार्य- स्तथैव च Ms.3.16. -2 the keeper of a gambling-house. Ms.3.16. -सभा, -समाजः 1 a gambling-house. -2 an assembly of gamblers.
dvi द्वि num. a. (Nom. du. द्वौ m., द्वे f., द्वे n.) Two, both; सद्यः परस्परतुलामधिरोहतां द्वे R.5.68. (N. B. In comp. द्वा is substituted for द्वि necessarily before दशन्, विंशति and त्रिंशत् and optionally before चत्वारिंशत्, पञ्चाशत्, षष्टि, सप्तति and नवति, द्वि remaining unchanged before अशीति.) [cf. L. duo, bis or bi in comp.; Gr. duo, dis; Zend dva; A. S. twi.] -Comp. -अक्ष a. two-eyed, binocular. द्व्यक्षीं त्र्यक्षीं ललाटाक्षीम् Mb. -अक्षर a. dissyllabic. (-रः) a word of two syllables. -अङ्गुल a. two fingers long. (-लम्) two fingers' length. -अणुकम् an aggregate or molecule of two atoms, a diad. विषयो द्व्यणुकादिस्तु ब्रह्माण्डान्त उदाहृतः Bhāṣāparichchheda. -अन्तर a. separated by two intermediate links. -अर्थ a. 1 having two senses. -2 ambiguous, equivocal. -3 having two objects in view. ˚कर a. accomplishing two objects; आम्रश्च सिक्तः पितरश्च तृप्ता एका क्रिया द्व्यर्थकरीह लोके Vāyu P. ˚त्वम् the state of having to convey two senses; द्व्यर्थत्वं विप्रतिषिद्धम् MS.7.1.6. -अर्ध a. 1. -अवर a. at least two; द्व्यवरान् भोजयेद् विप्रान् पायसेन यथोचितम् Bhāg.8.16.43. -अशीत a. eighty-second. -अशीतिः f. eighty-two. -अष्टम् copper. ˚सहस्रम् 16. -अहः a period of two days. -आत्मक a. 1 having a double nature. -2 being two. -आत्मकाः m. (pl.) the signs of the zodiac Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces. -आमुष्यायणः 'a son of two persons or fathers', an adopted son who remains heir to his natural father though adopted by another. -आम्नात a. twice mentioned. -आहिक a. recurring every day (fever). -ऋचम् (द्वृचम् or द्व्यर्चम्) a collection of two verses or riks. -एकान्तर a. separated by two or by one (degree); द्व्येकान्तरासु जातानां धर्म्यं विद्यादिमं विधिम् Ms.1.7. कः, -ककारः 1 crow (there being two 'Ka's in the word काक). -2 the ruddy goose (there being two 'Ka's in the word कोक). -ककुद् m. a camel. -कर a. Yielding two senses, serving two purposes; तत्र द्विकरः शब्दः स्यात् । न च सकृदुच्चरितः शक्तो ŚB. on MS.12.1.4. -कार्षापणिक a. worth two कार्षापणs -कौडविक a. containing or worth two कुडवs. -गत a ambiguous. -गु a. exchanged or bartered for two cows. (-गुः) a subdivision of the Tatpuruṣa compound in which the first member is a numeral; द्वन्द्वो द्विगुरपि चाहम् Udb. -गुण a. double, twofold; पितुर्वधव्यसनमिदं हि येन मे चिरादपि द्विगुणमिवाद्य वर्धते Mu.5.6 (द्रिगुणाकृ to plough twice; द्विगुणीकृ to double, increase; द्विगुणीभूत a. double, augmented). -गुणित a. 1 doubled, multiplied by two; वैरोचनैर्द्विगुणिताः सहसा मयूखैः Ki.5.46. -2 folded double. -3 enveloped. -4 doubly increased, doubled. -चरण a. having two legs, two-legged; द्विचरणपशूनां क्षितिभुजाम् Śānti.4.15. -चत्वारिंश a. (द्वि-द्वा-चत्वारिंश) fortysecond. -चत्वारिंशत् f. (द्वि-द्वा चत्वारिंशत्) forty-two. -चन्द्रधी, -मतिः The illusion of seeing two moons due to an eye disease called Timira; N.13.42. -जः 'twice-born' 1 a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus (a Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya or Vaiśya); मातुर्यदग्रे जायन्ते द्वितीयं मौञ्जिबन्धनात् । ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशस्तस्मादेते द्विजाः स्मृताः Y.1.39. -2 Brāhmaṇa (over whom the Saṁskāras or purificatory rites are performed); जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारै- र्द्विज उच्यते. -3 any oviparous animal, such as a bird, snake, fish &c.; Mb.12.361.5. (द्विजश्रेष्ठ = द्विजाना- मण्डजानां सर्पाणां श्रेष्ठ); स तमानन्दमविन्दत द्विजः N.2.1; Ś.5.22; R.12.22; Mu.1.11; Ms.5.17. -4 a tooth; कीर्णं द्विजानां गणैः Bh.1.13. (where द्विज means 'a Brāhmaṇa' also). -5 A star; L. D. B. -6 A kind of horse; जलोद्भवा द्विजा ज्ञेयाः Aśvachikitsā. -7 A Brahmachārī; Bhāg.11.18.42. ˚अग्ऱ्य a Brāhmaṇa. ˚अयनी the sacred thread worn by the first three castes of the Hindus. ˚आलयः 1 the house of a dvija. -2 a nest. ˚इन्द्रः, ˚ईशः 1 the moon; द्विजेन्द्रकान्तं श्रितवक्षसं श्रिया Śi.12.3. -2 an epithet of Garuḍa. -3 camphor. ˚दासः a Sūdra. ˚देवः 1 a Brāhmaṇa; Bhāg.8.15.37. -2 a sage; Bhāg.3.1.23. -3 N. of Brahmadeva; Bhāg. 5.2.16. ˚पतिः, ˚राजः an epithet of 1 the moon; इत्थं द्विजेन द्विजराजकान्तिः R.5.23. -2 Garuḍa. -3 camphor. ˚प्रपा 1 a trench or basin round the root of a tree for holding water. -2 a trough near a well for watering birds, cattle &c. ˚प्रियः kind of khadira. ˚प्रिया the Soma plant. ˚बन्धुः, ˚ब्रुवः 1 a man who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa. -2 one who is 'twice-born' or a Brāhmaṇa by name and birth only and not by acts; cf. ब्रह्मबन्धु. ˚मुख्यः a Brāhmaṇa. ˚लिङ्गिन् m. 1 a Kṣatriya. -2 a pseudo-Brāhmaṇa, one disguised as a Brāhmaṇa. ˚वाहनः an epithet of Viṣṇu (having Garuḍa for his vehicle). ˚सेवकः a Sūdra. -जन्मन् a. 1 having two natures. -2 regenerated. -3 oviparous (-m.). -जातिः m. 1 a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus; एतान् द्विजातयो देशान् संश्रयेरन् प्रयत्नतः Ms.2.24. -2 a Brāhmaṇa. Ki.1.39; Ku.5.4. गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः H. -3 a bird. -4 a tooth. -5 A kind of horse; लक्षणद्वयसम्बन्धाद् द्विजातिः स्यात् तुरङ्गमः Yuktikalpataru. -जातीय a. 1 belonging to the first three castes of the Hindus. -2 of a twofold nature. -3 of mixed origin, mongrel. (-यः) a mule. -जानि a having two wives. -जिह्व a. double-tongued (fig. also). -2 insincere. (-ह्वः) 1 a snake; परस्य मर्माविधमुज्झतां निजं द्विजिह्वतादोषमजिह्मगामिभिः Śi.1.63; R.11.64;14.41; Bv.1.2. -2 an informer, a slanderer, tale-bearer. -3 an insincere person -4 a thief. -5 particular disease of the tongue. -ज्या the sine of an arc. -ठः 1 the sign visarga consisting of two dots. -2 N. of Svāhā, wife of Agni. -त्र a. (pl.) two or three; द्वित्राण्यहान्यर्हसि सोढुमर्हन् R.5.25; सूक्ष्मा एव पतन्ति चातकमुखे द्वित्राः पयोबिन्दवः Bh.2.121. -त्रिंश (द्वात्रिंश) a. 1 thirty second. -2 consisting of thirty two. -त्रिंशत् (द्वात्रिंशत्) f. thirty-two. ˚लक्षण a. having thirty-two auspicious marks upon the body. -दण्डि ind. stick against stick. -दत् a. having two teeth (as a mark of age). -दन्तः an elephant. -दल a. having two parts, two-leafed. -दश a. (pl.) twenty. -दश a. (द्वादश) 1 twelfth; गर्भात् तु द्वादशे विशः Ms.2.36. -2 consisting of twelve. -दशन् (द्वादशन्) a. (pl.) twelve. ˚अंशुः, ˚अर्चिस् m. an epithet of 1 the planet Jupiter. -2 Bṛihaspati, the preceptor of the gods. ˚अक्षः, ˚करः, ˚लोचनः epithets of Kārtikeya ˚अक्षरमन्त्रः- विद्या the mantra ऊँ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय; गन्धधूपादिभिश्चार्चेद्वाद- शाक्षरविद्यया Bhāg.8.16.39. ˚अङ्गुल a measure of twelve fingers. ˚अध्यायी N. of Jaimini's Mimāṁsā in twelve Adhyāyas. ˚अन्यिक a. committing twelve mistakes in reading. ˚अस्र a dodecagon. ˚अहः 1 a period of twelve days; शुध्येद् विप्रो दशाहेन द्वादशाहेन भूमिपः Ms.5.83;11.168. -2 a sacrifice lasting for or completed in twelve days. ˚अक्षः, ˚आख्यः a Buddha. ˚आत्मन् m. the sun; N.1.52. ˚आदित्याः (pl.) the twelve suns; see आदित्य. ˚आयुस् m. a dog. ˚लक्षणी f. the मीमांसासूत्र of जैमिनि (so called because it comprises twelve chapters); धर्मो द्वादशलक्षण्या व्युत्पाद्यः ŚB. on MS. ˚वार्षिक a. 1 twelve years old, lasting for twelve years; Pt.1. ˚विध a. twelve-fold. ˚सहस्र a. consisting of 12. -दशी (द्वादशी) the twelfth day of a lunar fortnight. -द्वादशान्यिक (द्वादशापपाठा यस्य जाताः द्वादशान्यिकः). -दशम् (द्वादशम्)) a collection of twelve, ˚आदित्याः Twelve Ādityas:- विवस्वान्, अर्यमा, पूषन्, त्वष्टा, सविता, _x001F_3भग, धाता, विधाता, वरुण, मित्र, रुद्र, विष्णु. ˚पुत्रा Twelve types of sons according to Dharmaśāstra:-- औरस, क्षेत्रज, दत्तक, कृत्रिम, गूढोत्पन्न, अपविद्ध, कानीन, सहोढ, क्रीत, पौनर्भव, स्वयंदत्त, पारशव. -दाम्नी a cow tied with two ropes. -दिवः a ceremony lasting for two days. -देवतम् the constellation विशाखा. -देहः an epithet of Gaṇesa. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa. -नग्नकः a circumcised man. -नवत (द्वि-द्वा-नवत) a. ninety-second. -नवतिः(द्वि-द्वा-नवतिः) f. ninety-two. -पः an elephant; यदा किञ्चिज्ज्ञो$हं द्विप इव मदान्धः समभवम् Bh.3.31; विपूर्यमाणश्रवणोदरं द्विपाः Śi. ˚अधिपः Indra's elephant. ˚आस्य an epithet of Gaṇesa. -पक्षः 1 a bird. -2 a month. -पञ्चाश (द्वि-द्वा-पञ्चाश) a. fifty-second. -पञ्चाशत् f. (द्वि-द्वा-पञ्चाशत्) fifty-two. -पथम् 1 two ways. -2 a cross-way, a place where two roads meet. -पद् see द्विपाद् below. -पद a. having two feet (as a verse). -पदः a biped man. -पदिका, -पदी a kind of Prākṛita metre. -पाद्, a. two footed; द्विपाद बहुपादानि तिर्यग् गतिमतीनि च Mb.14.37. -पादः 1 a biped, man. -2 a bird. -3 a god. -पाद्यः, -द्यम् a double penalty. -पायिन् m. an elephant. -फालबद्धः hair parted in two; N.1.16. -बाहुः man; Ks.53.94. -बिन्दुः a Visarga (:). -भातम् twilight. -भुजः an angle. -भूम a. having two floors (as a palace). -भौतिकः a horse possessing two elements out of the five; द्वयोर्लक्षणसंबन्धात् तुरगः स्याद् द्विभौतिकः Yuktikalpataru. -मातृ, -मातृजः an epithet of 1 Gaṇesa. -2 king Jarāsandha. -मात्रः a long vowel (having two syllabic instants); एकमात्रो भवेद् ह्रस्वो द्विमात्रो दीर्घ उच्यते Śikṣā. -मार्गी a cross-away. -मुखा 1 a leech. -2 kind of water-vessel; ˚अहिः, ˚उरगः a doublemouthed snake. -रः 1 a bee; cf. द्विरेफ. -2 = बर्बर q. v. -मुनि ind. the two Munis, Pāṇini and Kātyāyana; द्विमुनि व्याकरणस्य, विद्याविद्यावतारभेदाद् द्विमुनिव्याकरणमित्यपि साधु Sk. -मूर्वा N. of a plant, presumably some hemp. Mātaṅga. L.9.2. -यामी Two night-watches = 6 hours. -रदः an elephant; सममेव समाक्रान्तं द्वयं द्विरदगामिना R.4.4; Me.61. ˚अन्तकः, ˚अराति, ˚अशनः 1 a lion. -2 the Śarabha. -रसनः a snake. -रात्रम् two nights. -रूप a. 1 biform. -2 written in two ways. -3 having a different shape. -4 bi-colour, bipartite. (-पः) 1 a variety of interpretation or reading. -2 a word correctly written in two ways. -रेतस् m. a mule. -रेफः a large black bee (there being two 'Ra's in the word भ्रमर); अनन्तपुष्पस्य मधोर्हि चूते द्विरेफमाला सविशेषसङ्गा Ku.1.27;3.27,36. -लयः (in music) double time (?); साम्य of two things (like गीत and वाद्य); द्विलयान्ते चर्चरी V.4.35/36. -वक्त्रः 1 a double-mouthed serpent. -2 a kind of demon; एकवक्त्रो महावक्त्रो द्विवक्त्रो कालसंनिभः Hariv. -वचनम् the dual number in grammar. -वज्रकः a kind of house or structure with 16 angles (sides). -वर्गः The pair of प्रकृति and पुरुष, or of काम and क्रोध; जज्ञे द्विवर्गं प्रजहौ द्विवर्गम् Bu. Ch.2.41. -वाहिका a wing. -विंश (द्वाविंश) a. twenty-second. -विंशतिः f. (द्वाविंशति) twenty-two. -विध a. of two kinds or sorts; द्विविधः संश्रयः स्मृतः Ms.7.162. -वेश(स)रा a kind of light carriage drawn by mules. -व्याम, -व्यायाम a. two fathoms long. -शतम् 1 two hundred. -2 one hundred and two. -शत्य a. worth or bought for two hundred. -शफ a. clovenfooted. (-फः) any cloven-footed animal. -शीर्षः an epithet of Agni; also द्विशीर्षकः; सप्तहस्तः चतुःशृङ्गः सप्तजिह्वो द्विशीर्षकः Vaiśvadeva. -श्रुति a. comprehending two intervals. -षष् a. (pl.) twice six, twelve. -षष्ट (द्विषष्ट, द्वाषष्ट) a. sixty-second. -षष्टिः f. (-द्विषष्टिः, द्वाषष्टिः) sixty-two. -सन्ध्य a. having a morning and evening twi-light. -सप्तत (द्वि-द्वा-सप्तत) a. seventy-second. -सप्ततिः f. (द्वि-द्वा सप्ततिः) seventy two. -सप्ताहः a fortnight. -सम a. having two equal sides. -समत्रिभुजः an isosceles triangle. -सहस्राक्षः the great serpent Śeṣa. -सहस्र, -साहस्र a. consisting of 2. (-स्रम्) 2. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed in two ways, i. e. first length-wise and then breadth-wise. -सुवर्ण a. worth or bought for two golden coins. -स्थ (ष्ठ) a. conveying two senses; भवन्ति चद्विष्ठानि वाक्यानि यथा श्वेतो धावति अलम्बुसानां यातेति ŚB. on MS.4.3.4. -हन् m. an elephant. -हायन, -वर्ष a. two years old; शुके द्विहायनं कत्सं क्रौञ्चं हत्वा त्रिहायनम् Ms.11.134. -हीन a. of the neuter gender. -हृदया a pregnant woman. -होतृ m. an epithet of Agni.
dhaṭakaḥ धटकः A kind of weight equal to 42 Guñjās or Raktikas; तुल्या यवाभ्यां कथितात्र गुञ्जा वल्लस्त्रिगुञ्जो धरणं च ते$ष्टौ । गद्यानकस्तद्द्वयमिन्द्रतुल्यैर्वल्लैस्तथैवं धटकः प्रदिष्टः ॥ Līlā.
dhaureya धौरेय a. (-यी f.) [धुरं वहति ढक्] Fit for a burden. -यः 1 A beast of burden. -2 A horse. -3 A chief, leader; वयं वसिष्ठधौरेयाः सर्वे प्रतिभुवो$त्र वः Mv.3.46. धौर्तकम् dhaurtakam धौर्तिकम् dhaurtikam धौर्त्यम् dhaurtyam धौर्तकम् धौर्तिकम् धौर्त्यम् Fraud, dishonesty, roguery.
niyamaḥ नियमः 1 Restraining, checking. -2 Taming, subduing. -3 Confining, preventing. -4 A restraint, check; वाचि नियमः U.2.2; अधर्मानियमः Ms.8.122. -5 Restriction, limitation; Mb.14.13.11. -6 A rule or precept, law (in general), usage; नायमेकान्ततो नियमः Ś. B. -7 Regularity; कुसुमसुकुमारमूर्तिर्दधती नियमेन तनुतरं मध्यम् Ratn. 1.2. -8 Certainty, ascertainment. -9 An agreement, promise, vow, engagement. -1 Necessity, obligation. -11 Any voluntary or self-imposed religious observance (dependent on external conditions); [The earliest explanation of this expression is the one found in the ŚB. on MS.4.2.24. cf. को$यं नियमः । अनियतस्य नियतता । प्रयोगाङ्गतया सर्वे देशाः प्राप्नुवन्ति, न तु समच्चयेन । यदा समो न तदा विषमः । यदा विषमो न तदा समः । स एष समः प्राप्तश्चाप्राप्तश्च । यदा न प्राप्तः स पक्षो विधिं प्रयोजयति. This is very nicely stated in the Vārttika--'नियमः पाक्षिके सति']; R.1.94; Ki.5.4; (see Malli. on Śi.13.23). -12 Any minor observance or lesser vow, a duty prescribed to be done, but which is not so obligatory as a यम q. v. शौचमिज्या तपो दानं स्वाध्यायोपस्थनिग्रहः । व्रतमौनोपवासं च स्नानं च नियमा दशा ॥ Atri. -13 Penance, devotion, religious austerities; नियमविघ्न- कारिणी Ś.1; R.15.74. -14 (In Mīm. phil.) A rule or precept which lays down or specifies something which, in the absence of that rule, would be optional; विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ नियमः पाक्षिके सति. -15 (In Yoga phil.) Restraint of the mind, the second of the 8 principal steps of meditation in Yoga; दशैते नियमाः प्रोक्ता योगशास्त्र- विशारदैः Tantrasāra. -16 (In Rhet.) A poetical commonp lace or convention, as the description of the cuckoo in spring, peacocks in the rains &c. -17 Defining, definition. -18 Keeping down, lowering (as the voice). -19 Keeping secret; मन्त्रस्य नियमं कुर्याः Mb.5. 141.2. -2 Effort (यत्न); यथैते नियमं पौराः कुर्वन्त्यस्मिन्निवर्तने Mb.2.46.2. (नियमेन as a rule, invariably). -Comp. -उपमा a simile which expressly states that something can be compared only with something else. -धर्मः a law prescribing restraints. -निष्ठा rigid observance of prescribed rites. -पत्रम् a written agreement. -विधिः a religious rite, daily ritual; नियमविधिजलानां बर्हिषां चोप- नेत्री Ku.1.6. -स्थ a. observing penance; Ku.5.13. -स्थितिः f. steady observance of religious obligations, asceticism. -हेतुः a regulating cause.
pratikaraḥ प्रतिकरः Requital, compensation; न सुप्रतिकरं तत् तु मात्रा पित्रा च यत् कृतम् Rām.2.111.9. प्रतिकर्तव्य pratikartavya कार्य kārya प्रतिकर्तव्य कार्य a. 1 To be retaliated, returned or paid (as a debt. &c.) -2 To be counteracted. -3 To be cured or treated (by a physician). -र्यम् Retribution, retaliation; दिष्ट्या ते प्रतिकर्तव्ये मतिर्जातेयमच्युत Mb.1.4.1.
prabodhaḥ प्रबोधः 1 Awaking (fig. also), awakening; regaining one's consciousness, consciousness; अप्रबोधाय सुष्वाप R.12.5; मोहादभूत् कष्टतरः प्रबोधः 14.56. -2 Blowing, expanding (of flowers) -3 Wakefulness, sleeplessness; चिरप्रबोधान्न संभावितं धर्मासनमध्यासितुम् Ś.6. -4 Vigilance, watchfulness. -5 Knowledge, understanding, wisdom, removal of delusion, real knowledge; as in प्रबोधचन्द्रोदय; सूतात्मजाः सवयसः प्रथितप्रबोधम् R.5.65. -6 Consolation. -7 Reviving the fragrance of a perfume. -8 Explaining. -Comp. -उत्सवः N. of a festival observed from the tenth to the day of full-moon in the month of Kārtika.
prabodha प्रबोध (धि) नी The eleventh day of the bright half of Kārtika on which Viṣṇu awakes from his four months' sleep.
bakaḥ बकः 1 The Indian crane; न प्रयत्नशतेनापि शुकवत् पाठ्यते बकः H. -2 A cheat, rogue, hypocrite (the crane being a very cunning bird that knows well how to draw others into its clutches). -3 N. of a demon killed by Bhīma. -4 N. of another demon killed by Kṛiṣṇa. -5 N. of Kubera. -6 An apparatus for subliming metals or minerals. -की = पूतना q. v. अहो बकी यं स्तनकालकूटं जिघांस- यापाययदप्यसाध्वी Bhāg.3.2.23. -2 A female crane. -Comp. -चरः, -वृत्तिः, -व्रतचरः, -व्रतिकः, -व्रतिन् m. 'acting like a crane', a false devotee, religious hypocrite; अधोदृष्टिर्नैष्कृतिकः स्वार्थसाधनतत्परः । शठो मिथ्याविनीतश्च बकव्रतचरो द्विजः ॥ Ms.4.196. -चिञ्चिका, -चिञ्ची a kind of fish. -जित् m., -निषूदनः epithets of 1 Bhīma. -2 of Kṛiṣṇa. -धूपः a kind of perfume. -पञ्चकम् the last five days of the bright half of the month of Kārtika (during which even the heron no fish). -यन्त्रम् a kind of retort. -व्रतम् 'crane-like conduct', hypocrisy; ये बकव्रतिनो विप्राः Ms.4.197; see also 196 (बकव्रतचर). -सहवासिन् a lotus flower; Kuval.
bāhula बाहुल a. Manifold. -लः Fire; शीतरुजं समये च परस्मिन् बाहुलतो रसिका शमयन्ती Rām. Ch.4.99. -2 The month Kārtika. -लम् 1 Manifoldness. -2 An armour for the arms, vantbrass. -ली The day of full moon in the month of Kārtika. -Comp. -ग्रीवः a peacock.
bistaḥ बिस्तः A weight of gold (equal to 8 Raktikas or gunjās).
bodha बोध a. Knowing, understanding. -धः [बुध्-भावे घञ्] 1 Perception, knowledge, apprehension, observation, conception; बालानां सुखबोधाय T. S. -2 Idea, thought. -3 Understanding, intellect, intelligence, wisdom. -4 Waking up, becoming awake, a waking state, consciousness. -5 Opening, blooming, expanding. -6 Instruction, advice, admonition. -7 Awakening, rousing. -8 An epithet, designation. -9 N. of a district. -1 Exciting (a perfume.) -Comp. -अतीत a. unknowable, incomprehensible. -कर a. one who teaches or informs. (-रः) 1 a bard or minstrel who wakes up his master by singing appropriate songs in the morning. -2 an instructor, a teacher. -गम्य a. intelligible. -पूर्व a. intentional, conscious; cf. अबोधपूर्व Ś.5.2. -पूर्वम् ind. knowingly, consciously. -वासरः the eleventh day in the bright half of Kārtika when Viṣṇu is sopposed to rise from his four months' sleep; see Me.112, and प्रबोधिनी.
bodhana बोधन a. [बुध्-णिच् ल्यु-ल्युट् वा] 1Informing, acquainting. -2 Explaining, indicating. -3 Arousing, waking. -4 Kindling, inflaming. -नः The planet Mercury (बुधः); बुध इव शिशिरांशोर्बोधनस्येव देवः V.5.21. -नम् 1 Informing, teaching, instruction, giving a knowledge of; भयरुषोश्च तदिङ्गितबोधनम् R.9.49. -2 Denoting, signifying. -3 Arousing, awakening; समयेन तेन चिरसुप्तमनोभवबोधनं सममबोधिषत Śi.9.24. -4 Observing, perceiving. -5 Waking, being awake. -6 Making attentive. -7 Burning incence. -नी 1 The eleventh day in the bright half of Kārtika when Viṣṇu rises from his four months' sleep; शयनीबोधनीमध्ये या कृष्णैकादशी भवेत् । सैवोपोष्या गृहस्थेन नान्या कृष्णा कदाचन Tithyādi. -2 Long pepper. -3 Understanding, knowledge.
bhīṣma भीष्म a. [भी-णिच्-सुक्-अपादाने मक्] Terrible, dreadful, frightful, fearful; भीष्मो हि देवः सहसः सहीयान् Bhāg. 11.23.48. -ष्मः 1 The sentiment of terror (in rhetoric); see भयानक. -2 A demon, an imp, a fiend, goblin. -3 An epithet of Śiva. -4 N. of the son of Śantanu by Gangā; हृते भीष्मे हते द्रोणे शल्ये च निधनं गते Mb. [He was the youngest of the eight sons of Śantanu by Gangā; but all the others having died, he remained the sole heir to the throne after his father. On one occasion while Śantanu was walking by the side of a river, he beheld a charming young damsel named Satyavatī, the daughter of a fisherman, and, though bowed down with age, conceived a passion for her, and sent his son to negotiate the marriage. But the parents of the girl said that if their daughter bore sons to the king, they would not succeed to the throne, for after his death Śāntanava, being the rightful heir, would be the king. But Śāntanava, to please his father, made a vow to the parents that he would never accept the kingdom or marry a wife or become the father of children by any woman, so that if their daughter bore a son to Śantanu, he would be the king. This dreadful vow soon became known abroad, and thenceforth he was called Bhiṣma. He remained single, and, after the death of his father, he installed Vichitravīrya, the son of Satyavatī, on the throne, got him married to the two daughters of king Kāśirāja (see Ambikā), and became the guardian of his sons and grandsons, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. In the great war he fought on the side of the Kauravas, but was wounded by Arjuna with the assistance of Śikhanḍin and was lodged in a 'cage of darts'. But having got from his father the power of choosing his own time for death, he waited till the sun had crossed the vernal equinox, and then gave up his soul. He was remarkable for his continence, wisdom, firmness of resolve, and unflinching devotion to God]. -ष्मम् Horror, horribleness. -Comp. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the light half of Māgha (when Bhīṣma died). -जननी an epithet of the Ganges. -पञ्चकम् N. of the five days from the eleventh to the fifteenth of the bright balf of Kārtika (said to be sacred to Bhīṣma). -पर्वन् N. of the 6th Book of the Mahā-Bhārata. -सूः f. an epithet of the river Ganges; हरशिरसि पतन्ती भीष्मसूर्वः पुनातु Udb. -स्तवराजः N. of the 47th Chapter of शान्तिपर्व in Mahābhāraṭa.
bhūta भूत p. p. [भू-क्त] 1 Become, being, existing. -2 Produced, formed. -3 Actually being, really happened, true; भूताश्चार्था विरुद्ध्यन्ति देशकालविरोधिताः Rām.5.3.37. -4 Right, proper, fit; अभूतेनापवादेन कीर्तीं निपतितामिव Rām. 5.15.34; भूतार्थव्याहृतिः सा हि न स्तुतिः परमेष्ठिनः R.1.33. -5 Past, gone. -6 Obtained. -7 Mixed or joined with. -8 Being like, similar, (see भू); मग्नां द्विषच्छद्मनि पङ्कभूते Ki.3.39. -तः 1 A son, child. -2 An epithet of Śiva. -3 The fourteenth day of the dark half of a lunar month (also भूता). -4 A great devotee. -5 N. of a priest of the gods. -6 The dark fortnight of a month (कृष्णपक्ष). -7 see भूतगण. -तम् 1 Any being (human, divine or even inanimate); इत्थं रतेः किमपि भूतमदृश्यरूपं मन्दीचकार मरणव्यवसायबुद्धिम् Ku.4.45; Pt.2. 87. -2 A living being, an animal, a creature; क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थो$क्षर उच्यते Bg.15.16; भूतेषु किं च करुणां बहुली- करोति Bv.1.122; U.4.6. -3 A spirit, ghost, an imp, a devil (m. also in these senses); ततो रक्षां महातेजः कुरु भूतविनाशिनीम् Rām.7.66.3. -4 An element; (they are five, i. e. पृथ्वी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु, and आकाश); तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1.29. -5 An actual occurrence, a fact, a matter of fact. -6 The past, past time. -7 The world. -8 Well-being, welfare. -9 A symbolical expression for the number 'five'. -1 Fitness, propriety. -Comp. -अनुकम्पा compassion for all beings; भूतानुकम्पा तव चेत् R.2.48. -अनुवादः a mention of established facts, a variety of अर्थवाद (q. v.); भूतानुवादमात्रमनर्थकम् ŚB. on MS.1.2.4. -अन्तकः the god of death, Yama. -अभिषङ्गः possession by evil spirits. -अरिः Asa Fœtida. -अर्थः 1 the fact, real fact, true state, truth, reality; आर्ये कथयामि ते भूतार्थम् Ś.1; भूतार्थशोभाह्नियमाणनेत्रा Ku.7.13; कः श्रद्धास्यति भूतार्थं सर्वो मां तुलयिष्यति Mk.3.24. -2 an element of life. ˚कथनम्, ˚व्याहृतिः f. a statement of facts; भूतार्थव्याहृतिः सा हि न स्तुतिः परमेष्ठिनः R.1.33. -अवमानिन् m. despiser of all; भूतावमानी हैहयश्चार्जुनः Kau. A.1.6. -आत्मक a. consisting or composed of the elements. -आत्मन् 1 one whose soul is purified. -2 composed of the five elements (as the body); cf. Ms.12.12. (-m.) 1 the individual (as opposed to the Supreme Soul); विद्यातपोभ्यां भूतात्मा बुद्धिर्ज्ञानेन शुद्ध्यति Ms.5.19; विधमिष्यति ते देहे भूतात्मानं चिरोषितम् Rām.6.59. 55. -2 an epithet of Brahman. -3 of Śiva. -4 of Viṣṇu; भूतात्मा भूतभावनः V. Sah. -5 an elementary substance. -6 the body. -7 war, conflict. -8 the elementary or vital principle. -9 a soul which clings to the elements, a carnal mind; भूतात्मनस्तपोविद्ये बुद्धेर्ज्ञानं विशोधनम् Y.3.34. -आदिः 1 the Supreme Spirit. -2 an epithet of Ahaṁkāra (in Sāṅkhya phil.). -आर्त a. possessed by a devil. -आवासः 1 the body. -2 an epithet of &Scute;iva. -3 of Viṣṇu; वसन्ति त्वयि भूतानि भूतावासस्ततो हरिः Hariv. -आविष्ट a. possessed by a devil or evil spirit. -आवेशः demoniac possession. -इज्यम्, -इज्या making oblations to the Bhūtas. -इन्द्रियजयिन् m. a kind of ascetic. -इष्टा the fourteenth day of a lunar fortnight. -ईशः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 of Śiva; भूतेशस्य भुजङ्गवल्लिवलयस्रङ्नद्धजूटा जटाः Māl.1.2; भूतेशप्रीति- हेतोः Udb. -ईश्वरः an epithet of Śiva; भूयः स भूतेश्वर- पार्श्ववर्ती R.2.46. -उन्मादः demoniac possession. -उपदेशः a reference to past things or such as already exist. -उपसृष्ट, -उपहत a. possessed by a devil. -ओदनः a dish of rice (eaten to counteract the influence of demons). -कर्तृ, -कृत् m. an epithet of Brahman; सर्वलोकप्रभुर्ब्रह्मा भूतकर्तृ तथर्षयः Rām.2.25.25; ततस्थानाह भूत- कृत् 7.4.12. -कला f. a power which produces the five elements; धरादिपञ्चभूतानां निवृत्त्याद्याः कलाः स्मृताः Śāradātilakam. -कालः 1 past time. -2 (in gram.) the past or preterite time. -केशी the holy basil. -कोटिः absolute non-entity; Bhddh. -क्रान्तिः f. possession by a devil. -गणः 1 the collection of created beings. -2 the whole class of spirits or devils; प्रेतान् भूतागणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः Bg.17.4. -गत्या truthfully; तदखिलमिह भूतं भूतगत्या ...... अभिलषति स्म N.9.159. -गुणः a quality of the elements; शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा भूतगुणाः स्मृताः Śāradātilakam. -ग्रस्त possessed by a devil. -ग्रामः 1 the whole multitude or aggregate of living beings; U.7; भूतग्रामः स एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते Bg.8.19. -2 a multitude of spirits. -3 the body. -घ्नः 1 a kind of birch tree. -2 a camel. -3 garlic. (-घ्नी) the holy basil. -चतुर्दशी the fourteenth day of the dark half of Kārtika. -चारिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -चिन्तकः = स्वभाववादिन् q. v.; दैवमित्यपरे विप्राः स्वभावं भूतचिन्तकाः Mb.12.232.19. -चिन्तनिकः an adherent to the doctrine that the mind or intellect is produced from material elements. -चिन्ता an enquiry into the elements, investigation into their nature. -चैतन्यम् intellectuality of matter. -जननी the mother of all beings. -जयः victory over the elements. -तन्त्रम् the doctrine of spirits. -तन्मात्रम् a subtle element. -दया compassion towards all beings, universal benevolence. -द्रुमः Cordia Latifolia (Mar. भोंकर). -द्रुह्, -ध्रुक् a. injurious, malicious. -धरा, -धात्री, -धारिणी the earth. -धात्री sleep. -नाथः an epithet of Śiva; तद् भूतनाथानुग नार्हसि त्वम् R.2.58. -नायिका an epithet of Durgā. -नाशनः 1 the marking-nut plant. -2 mustard. -3 pepper. (-नम्) 1 Asa Fœtida. -2 a bead used for rosaries (रुद्राक्ष). -निचयः the body. -पक्षः the dark fortnight. -पतिः 1 an epithet of Śiva; ध्यानास्पदं भूतपतेर्विवश Ku.3.43,74. -2 of Agni. -3 the sacred basil. -4 the sky; ज्वलसि यन्निशि भूतपतिं श्रितः N.4.55. -पत्री the holy basil. -पालः the guardian of living beings. -पूर्णिमा the day of fullmoon in the month of Āśvina. -पूर्वम् ind. formerly. a. 1 former, ancient, old; पश्यामि च जनस्थानं भूतपूर्वखरा- लयम् U.2.17. -2 deceased. -प्रकृतिः f. the origin of all beings; यामाहुः सर्वभूतप्रकृतिरिति Ś.1.1 (v. l.). -बलिः = भूतयज्ञ q. v. -ब्रह्मन् m. a low Brāhmaṇa who maintains himself with the offerings made to an idol; see देवल. -भर्तृ a. sustaining all beings; भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च Bg.13.16. -m. an epithet of Śiva. -भव a. existing in all beings. -भव्यम् past and future. -भावनः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -भाविन् a. 1 creating living beings. -भाषा, -भाषितम् the language of devils. -भृत् a. sustaining the elements or creatures; भूतभृन्न च भूतस्थो ममात्मा भूतभावनः Bg.9.5. -भौतिक a. consisting of the elements. -महेश्वरः an epithet of Śiva. -मातृ f. an epithet of Gaurī. -मातृका the earth. -मात्रम्, -त्रा the rudiment of an element. -मात्रा f. pl. the coarse and subtile elements; तास्वेव भूतमात्रासु प्रलीयन्ते विभागशः Ms.12.17. -यज्ञः an oblation or offering to all created beings, one of the five daily Yajñas to be performed by a householder. -योनिः the origin of all created beings. -रयाः a. a class of gods under the 5th Manu; Bhāg. -राज् m. an epithet of Śiva. -लिपिः a particular magic formula. -वर्गः the whole class of spirits. -वादिन् a. telling the real fact or truth. -वासः the Bibhītaka tree. -वाहनः an epithet of Śiva. -विक्रिया 1 epilepsy. -2 possession by a devil. -विज्ञान, -विद्या demonology (भूतविद्या); Ch. Up.7.1.2. -विनायकः a leader of evil beings; Bhāg. -विभुः a king; शाहभूविभुः Śāhendra. 2.93. -वृक्षः the Bibhītaka tree. -वेशी a white flowering Vitex Negundo (Mar. निर्गुडी). -शुद्धिः f. purification of the elements (of the body). -संसारः 1 the world of mortals. -2 the course of existence; घोरे$स्मिन् भूतसंसारे नित्यं सततयायिनि Ms.1.5. -संघः the totality of beings or of the elements. -संचारः demoniac possession. -संचारिन् m. a forest conflagration. -संप्लवः universal deluge or destruction; आभूतसंप्लवस्थानममृतत्वं हि भाषते. -समागमः the meeting of mortals; यथा काष्ठं च ... समेत्य च व्यपेयातां तद्वद् भूतसमागमः Mb.12.28.36. -सर्गः 1 the creation of the world, the class or order of created beings. -2 creation of the elements. -साक्षिन् m. 'allseeing', an eye-witness of created beings. -साधनी the earth. -सूक्ष्मम् a subtle element. -सृज् m. an epithet of Brahman; बहुधा गतां जगति भूतसृजा कमनीयतां समभिहृत्य पुरा Ki.6.42. -सृष्टिः f. 1 the illusion effected by the power of Bhūtas. -2 the whole class of Bhūtas taken collectively. -स्थानम् 1 the abode of living beings. -2 the abode of demons. -हत्या destruction of living beings. -हन्त्री a species of Dūrvā grass. -हरः bdellium. -हासः a kind of fever.
bhrātṛ भ्रातृ m. [भ्राज्-तृच् पृषो˚; cf. Uṇ.2.96.] 1 A brother. -2 An intimate friend or relation. -3 A near relative in general. -4 A term of friendly address (my good friend); भ्रातः कष्टमहो Bh.3.37;2.34; तत्त्वं चिन्तय तदिदं भ्रातः Moha M.3. -Dual. A brother and sister. [cf. L. frater; Zend bratar, Eng. brother.] -Comp. -गन्धि, -गन्धिक a. having only the name of a brother, a brother in mere name. -गन्धिकः, -गन्धिन् m. a brother in mere name; गत्वा चाह्वय सुग्रीव वालिनं भ्रातृगन्धिनम् Rām.4.12.13. -जः a brother's son. -जाया (also भ्रातुर्जाया) a brother's wife, a sister-in-law; अव्यापन्नामविहतगतिर्द्रक्ष्यसि भ्रातृजायाम् Me.1. -दत्तम् property given by a brother to a sister at the time of her marriage; मातृकं भ्रातृदत्तं वा स्तेना स्याद्यदि तं हरेत् Ms.9.92. -द्वितीया the second day of the bright half of Kārtika (when sisters invite their brothers to their houses and entertain them, who in their turn give them presents; the day seems to have been so called on account of Yamunā having entertained her brother Yama on that day; cf. यमद्वितीया). -पुत्रः (also भ्रातुष्पुत्रः) a brother's son. (-त्री) a niece. -वधूः a brother's wife. -भगिन्यौ a brother and sister. -श्वशुरः elder brother of the husband. -हत्या fratricide.
mahat महत् a. [मह्-अति] (compar. महीयस्; superl. महिष्ठ; nom. महान्, महान्तौ, महान्तः; acc. pl. महतः) 1 Great, big, large, huge, vast; महान् सिंहः, व्याघ्रः &c. -2 Ample, copious, abundant, many, numerous; महाजनः, महान् द्रव्यराशिः. -3 Long, extended, extensive; महान्तौ बाहू यस्य स महाबाहुः; so महती कथा, महानध्वा. -4 Strong, powerful, mighty; as महान् वीरः. -5 Violent, intense, excessive; महती शिरोवेदना, महती पिपासा. -6 Gross, thick, dense; महानन्धकारः. -7 Important, weighty, momentous; महत्कार्यमुपस्थितम्, महती वार्ता. -8 High, lofty, eminent, distinguished, noble; महत्कुलम्, महाञ् जनः. -9 Loud; महान् घोषः-ध्वनिः. -1 Early or late; महति प्रत्यूषे 'early in the morning'; महत्यपराह्णे 'late in the afternoon'. -11 High; महार्घ्र. -m. 1 A camel. -2 An epithet of Śiva. -3 (In Sāṅ. phil.) The great principle, the intellect (distinguished from मनस्), the second of the twenty-five elements or tattvas recognized by the Sāṅkhyas; Ms.1.15;12.14; महदाद्याः प्रकृतिविकृतयः सप्त Sāṅ. K.3,8,22 &c. -4 The superior of a monastery. -n. 1 Greatness, infiniteness, numerousness. -2 Kingdom, dominion; 'महद्राज्यविशालयोः' Viśva; इन्द्रियाणि महत्प्रेप्सुः Mb.5.129.26. -3 Sacred knoweldge. -4 The Supreme Being (परमात्मा); बुद्धेः परतरं ज्ञानं ज्ञानात् परतरं महत् Mb.12.24.1. -ind. Greatly, excessively, very much, exceedingly; त्रैलोक्योद्वेगदं महत् Rām.6.111.48. (Note : महत् as the first member of a Tatpuruṣa compound and a few other cases, remains unchanged, while in Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhi comp. it is changed to महा q. v.) -Comp. -आयुधम् a great weapon; नाना- विधमहदायुधनैपुण्य ...... Dk.1.1. -आवासः a spacious or large building. -आशा a high hope; महदाशापूर्णमानसः Dk.1.3. -आश्चर्य a. very wonderful. -आश्रयः dependence on or seeking protection with the great. -उन्मदः a kind of fish; L. D. B. -औषधिः f. a herb of wonderful power. On the Himālaya there are trees of the Devadāru family which have got resinous stems. These stems burn like oil-lamps. These sticks of pinewood, therefore, are the natural lamps of the Himālaya. cf. सरलासक्तमातङ्गग्रैवेयस्फुरितत्विषः । आसन्नोषधयो नेतुर्नक्तमस्नेहदीपिकाः ॥ R.4.75; ज्वलितमहौषधिदीपिकासनाथाम् R.9.7. -कथ a. talked of or mentioned by the great, in great men's mouths. -कार्तिकी full moon of Kārtika combined with the asterism Rohiṇī; L. D. B. -कुलम् a noble family. -कूपः a deep well. -क्षेत्र a. occupying a wide territory. -गदः fever. -जवः 1 Bos gavaeus. -2 a kind of antelope; L. D. B. -ज्यैष्ठी f. full-moon of ज्येष्ठ under certain combinations. -गुण a. having the qualities of the great. -तत्त्वम् the second of the 25 principles of the Sāṅkhyas. -दोष a. highly criminal; महादोषमबुद्ध- बोधनम् Kau. A.1.17. -द्वन्द्वः 1 loud uproar. -2 martial band of music; L. D. B. -फलः the Bilva tree; L. D. B. -बिलम् the atmosphere. -भद्रा the river Gaṅgā; L. D. B. -भीष्मः N. of Śantanu; L. D. B. -मण्डूकः a kind of yellow frog; L. D. B. -व्यतिक्रमः a great transgression. -सिंहः the lion of Durgā; L. D. B. -सिद्धिनिलयः a mosque (the word is used by परमानन्द in Śivabhārata 18.52). -सेवा service of the great. -स्थानम् a high place, lofty station.
mahā महा The substitute of महत् at the beginning of Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhi compounds, and also at the beginning of some other irregular words. (Note : The number of compounds of which महा is the first member is very large, and may be multiplied ad infinitum. The more important of them, or such as have peculiar significations, are given below.) -Comp. -अक्षः an epithet of Śiva. ˚पटलिक a chief keeper of archives. -अङ्ग a. huge, bulky. -(ङ्गः) 1 a camel. -2 a kind of rat. -3 N. of Śiva. -अञ्जनः N. of a mountain. -अत्ययः a great danger or calamity. -अध्वनिक a. 'having gone a long way', dead. -अध्वरः a great sacrifice. -अनसम् 1 a heavy carriage. -2 cooking utensils. (-सी) a kitchen-maid. (-सः, -सम्) a kitchen; सूपानस्य करिष्यामि कुशलो$स्मि महानसे Mb.4.2.2. -अनिलः a whirlwind; महानिलेनेव निदाघजं रजः Ki.14.59. -अनुभाव a. 1 of great prowess, dignified, noble, glorious, magnanimous, exalted, illustrious; ग्रहीतुमार्यान् परिचर्यया मुहुर्महानु- भावा हि नितान्तमर्थिनः Śi.1.17; Ś.3. -2 virtuous, righteous, just. (-वः) 1 a worthy or respectable person. -2 (pl.) people of a religious sect in Mahārāṣtra founded by Chakradhara in the 13th century. -अन्तकः 1 death. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -अन्धकारः 1 thick darkness. -2 gross (spiritual) ignorance. -अन्ध्राः (pl.) N. of a people and their country. -अन्वय, -अभिजन a. nobly-born, of noble birth. (-यः, -नः) noble birth, high descent. -अभिषवः the great extraction of Soma. -अमात्यः the chief or prime minister (of a king). -अम्बुकः an epithet of Śiva. -अम्बुजम् a billion. -अम्ल a. very sour. (-म्लम्) the fruit of the tamarind tree. अरण्यम् a great (dreary) forest, large forest. -अर्घ a. very costly, costing a high price; महार्घस्तीर्थानामिव हि महतां को$प्यतिशयः U.6.11. (-र्घः) a kind of quail. -अर्घ्य a. 1 valuable, precious. -2 invaluable; inestimable; see महार्ह below. -अर्चिस् a. flaming high. -अर्णवः 1 the great ocean. -2 N. of Śiva. -अर्थ a. 1 rich. -2 great, noble, dignified. -3 important, weighty. -4 significant. -अर्बुदम् one thousand millions. -अर्ह a. 1 very valuable, very costly; महार्हशय्यापरिवर्तनच्युतैः स्वकेशपुष्पैरपि या स्म दूयते Ku.5.12. -2 invaluable, inestimable; महार्हशयनोपेत किं शेषे निहतो भुवि Rām.6.19. 2. (-र्हम्) white sandal-wood. -अवरोहः the fig-tree. -अशनिध्वजः a great banner in the form of the thunderbolt; जहार चान्येन मयूरपत्रिणा शरेण शक्रस्य महाशनि- ध्वजम् R.3.56. -अशन a. voracious, gluttonous; Mb. 4. -अश्मन् m. a precious stone, ruby. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the bright half of Āśvina sacred to Durgā; आश्विने शुक्लपक्षस्य भवेद् या तिथिरष्टमी । महाष्टमीति सा प्रोक्ता ...... -असिः a large sword. -असुरी N. of Durgā. -अह्नः the afternoon. -आकार a. extensive, large, great. -आचार्यः 1 a great teacher. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -आढ्य a. wealthy, very rich. (-ढ्यः) the Kadamba tree. -आत्मन् a. 1 high-souled, high-minded, magnanimous, noble; अयं दुरात्मा अथवा महात्मा कौटिल्यः Mu.7; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75; U.1.49; प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् Bh.1.63. -2 illustrious, distinguished, exalted, eminent; किमाचाराः किमाहाराः क्व च वासो महात्मनाम् Mb.3. 1.4. -3 mighty (महाबल); अथायमस्यां कृतवान् महात्मा लङ्केश्वरः कष्टमनार्यकर्म Rām.5.9.74. (-m.) 1 the Supreme Spirit; युगपत्तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि Ms.1.54. -2 the great principle, i. e. intellect of the Sāṅkhyas. (महात्मवत् means the same as महात्मन्). -आनकः a kind of large drum. -आनन्दः, -नन्दः 1 great joy or bliss. -2 especially, the great bliss of final beatitude. (-न्दा) 1 spirituous liquor. -2 a festival on the ninth day in the bright half of Māgha. -आपगा a great river. -आयुधः an epithet of Śiva. -आरम्भ a. undertaking great works, enterprizing. (-म्भः) any great enterprize. -आलयः 1 a temple in general. -2 a sanctuary, an asylum. -3 a great dwelling. -4 a place of pilgrimage. -5 the world of Brahman. -6 the Supreme Spirit. -7 a tree &c. sacred to a deity. -8 N. of a particular dark fortnight. -9 पितृश्राद्ध in the month of Bhādrapada. (-या) N. of a particular deity. -आशय a. highsouled, nobleminded, magnanimous, noble; दैवात् प्रबुद्धः शुश्राव वराहो हि महाशयः Ks; राजा हिरण्यगर्भो महाशयः H.4; see महात्मन्. (-यः) 1 a noble-minded or magnanimous person; महाशयचक्रवर्ती Bv.1.7. -2 the ocean. -आस्पद a. 1 occupying a great position. -2 mighty, powerful. -आहवः a great or tumultuous fight. -इच्छ a. 1 magnanimous, noble-minded, high-souled, noble; मही महेच्छः परिकीर्य सूनौ R.18.33. -2 having lofty aims or aspirations, ambitious; विद्यावतां महेच्छानां ...... नाश्रयः पार्थिवं विना Pt.1.37. -इन्द्रः 1 'the great Indra', N. of Indra; इयं महेन्द्रप्रभृतीनधिश्रियः Ku.5.53; R.13.2; Ms.7.7. -2 a chief or leader in general. -3 N. of a mountain range; पतिर्महेन्द्रस्य महोदधेश्च R.6.54;4.39,43. ˚चापः rain-bow. ˚नगरी N. of Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra. ˚मन्त्रिन् m. an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚वाहः the elephant Airāvata; महेन्द्रवाहप्रतिमो महात्मा Mb.9.17.52. -इभ्य a. very rich. -इषुः a great archer; अधिरोहति गाण्डीवं महेषौ Ki.13.16. -इष्वासः a great archer, a great warrior; अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भामार्जुनसमा युधि Bg.1.4. -ईशः, -ईशानः N. of Śiva; महेशस्त्वां धत्ते शिरसि रसराजस्य जयिनीम् Udb. ˚बन्धुः the Bilva tree. -ईशानी N. of Pārvatī. -ईश्वरः 1 a great lord, sovereign; महेश्वरस्त्र्यम्बक एव नापरः R.; गोप्तारं न निधीनां कथयन्ति महेश्वरं विबुधाः Pt.2.74. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 a god (opp. प्रकृति). -5 the Supreme Being (परमात्मा); मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं तु महेश्वरम् Śvet. Up.4.1. ˚सखः N. of Kubera; यया कैलासभवने महेश्वरसखं बली Mb.9.11.55. (-री) 1 N. of Durgā. -2 a kind of bell-metal. -उक्षः (for उक्षन्) a large bull; a full grown or strong bull; महोक्षतां वत्सतरः स्पृशन्निव R.3.32;4.22;6.72; Śi.5.63. -उत्पलम् a large blue lotus. (-लः) the Sārasa bird. -उत्सवः 1 a great festival or occasion of joy; नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः Māl.1.36. -2 the god of love. -उत्साह a. possessed of great energy, energetic, persevering; अहं च कर्णं जानामि ...... सत्यसंधं महोत्साहं ...... Mb.3.91.2. (-हः) 1 perseverance. -2 great pride; ये जात्यादिमहो- त्साहान्नरेन्द्रान्नोपयान्ति च । तेषामामरणं भिक्षा प्रायश्चितं विनिर्मितम् ॥ Pt.1.38. -उदधिः 1 the great ocean; महोदधेः पूर इवेन्दु- दर्शनात् R.3.17. -2 an epithet of Indra. ˚जः a conchshell, shell. -उदय a. very prosperous or lucky, very glorious or splendid, of great prosperity. (-यः) 1 (a) great elevation or rise, greatness, prosperity; नन्दस्त्वतीन्द्रियं दृष्ट्वा लोकपालमहोदयम् Bhāg.1.28.1; अपवर्ग- महोदयार्थयोर्भुवमंशाविव धर्मयोर्गतौ R.8.16. (b) great fortune or good luck. (c) greatness, pre-eminence. -2 final beatitude. -3 a lord, master. -4 N. of the district called Kānyakubja or Kanouja; see App. -5 N. of the capital of Kanouja. -6 sour milk mixed with honey. -7 = महात्मन् q. v.; संसक्तौ किमसुलभं महोदयानाम Ki.7.27. ˚पर्वन् a time of union of the middle of श्रवण नक्षत्र and the end of व्यतिपात (generally in the month of माघ or पौष at the beginning of अमावास्या). -उदर a. big-bellied, corpulent. -(रम्) 1 a big belly. -2 dropsy. -उदार a. 1 very generous or magnanimous. -2 mighty, powerful. -उद्यम a. = महोत्साह q. v; महोद्यमाः कर्म समा- रभन्ते. -उद्योग a. very industrious or diligent, hardworking. -उद्रेकः a particular measure (= 4 प्रस्थs). -उन्नत a. exceedingly lofty. (-तः) the palmyra tree. -उन्नतिः f. great rise or elevation (fig. also), high rank. -उपकारः a great obligation. -उपाध्यायः a great preceptor, a learned teacher. -उरगः a great serpent; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् R.12.98. -उरस्क a. broad-chested. (-स्कः) an epithet of Śiva. -उर्मिन् m. the ocean; ततः सागरमासाद्य कुक्षौ तस्य महोर्मिणः Mb.3.2.17. -उल्का 1 a great meteor. -2 a great fire-brand. -ऋत्विज् m. 'great priest', N. of the four chief sacrificial priests. -ऋद्धि a. very prosperous, opulent. (-f.) great prosperity or affluence. -ऋषभः a great bull. -ऋषिः 1 a great sage or saint; यस्मादृषिः परत्वेन महांस्त- स्मान्महर्षयः; (the term is applied in Ms.1.34 to the ten Prajāpatis or patriarchs of mankind, but it is also used in the general sense of 'a great sage'). -2 N. of Sacute;iva. -3 of Buddha. -ओघ a. having a strong current. -घः a very large number; शतं खर्व- सहस्राणां समुद्रमभिधीयते । शतं समुद्रसाहस्रं महौघमिति विश्रुतम् ॥ Rām.6.28.37. -ओष्ठ (महोष्ठ) a. having large lips. (-ष्ठः) an epithet of Śiva. -ओजस् a. very mighty or powerful, possessed of great splendour or glory; महौजसा मानधना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. (-m.) a great hero or warrior, a champion. (-n.) great vigour. -ओजसम् the discus of Viṣṇu (सुदर्शन). (-सी) N. of plant (Mar. कांगणी). -ओदनी Asparagus Racemosus (Mar. शतावरी). -ओषधिः f. 1 a very efficacious medicinal plant, a sovereign drug. -2 the Dūrvā grass. -3 N. of various plants ब्राह्मी, श्वेतकण्टकारी, कटुका, अतिविष &c. ˚गणः a collection of great or medicinal herbs:-- पृश्निपर्णी श्यामलता भृङ्गराजः शतावरी । गुड्चा सहदेवी च महौषधिगणः स्मृतः ॥ cf. also सहदेवी तथा व्याघ्री बला चातिबला त्वचा । शङ्खपुष्पी तथा सिंही अष्टमी च सुवर्चला ॥ महौषध्यष्टकं प्रोक्तं... . -औषधम् 1 a sovereign remedy, panacea. -2 ginger. -3 garlic. -4 a kind of poison (वत्सनाभ). -कच्छः 1 the sea. -2 N. of Varuṇa. -3 a mountain. -कन्दः garlic. -कपर्दः a kind of shell. -कपित्थः 1 the Bilva tree. -2 red garlic. -कम्बु a. stark naked. (-म्बुः) an epithet of Śiva. -कर a. 1 large-handed. -2 having a large revenue. -कर्णः an epithet of Śiva. -कर्मन् a. doing great works. (-m.) an epithet of Śiva. -कला the night of the new moon. -कल्पः a great cycle of time (1 years of Brahman); Bhāg.7.15.69. -कविः 1 a great poet, a classical poet, such as कालिदास, भवभूति, बाण, भारवि &c. -2 an epithet of Śukra. -कषायः N. of a plant (Mar. कायफळ). -कान्तः an epithet of Śiva. (-ता) the earth. -काय a. big-bodied, big, gigantic, bulky. (-यः) 1 an elephant. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 of a being attending on Śiva (= नन्दि). -कारुणिक a. exceedingly compassionate. -कार्तिकी the night of full-moon in the month of Kārtika. -कालः 1 a form of Śiva in his character as the destroyer of the world; महाकालं यजेद्देव्या दक्षिणे धूम्रवर्णकम् Kālītantram. -2 N. of a celebrated shrine or temple of Śiva (Mahākāla) (one of the 12 celebrated Jyotirliṅgas) established at Ujjayinī (immortalized by Kālidāsa in his Meghadūta, which gives a very beautiful description of the god, his temple, worship &c., together with a graphic picture of the city; cf. Me.3-38; also R.6.34); महाकालनिवासिनं कालीविलासिनमनश्वरं महेश्वरं समाराध्य Dk.1.1. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -4 N. of a kind of gourd. -5 N. of Śiva's servant (नन्दि). ˚पुरम् the city of Ujjayinī. ˚फलम् a red fruit with black seeds; पक्वं महाकालफलं किलासीत् N.22.29. -काली an epithet of Durgā in her terrific form. -काव्यम् a great or classical poem; (for a full description of its nature, contents &c., according to Rhetoricians see S. D.559). (The number of Mahākāvyas is usually said to be five:-रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, किरातार्जुनीय, शिशुपालवध and नैषधचरित or six, if मेघदूत-- a very small poem or खण़्डकाव्य-- be added to the list. But this enumeration is apparently only traditional, as there are several other poems, such as the भट्टिकाव्य, विक्रमाङ्कदेवचरित, हरविजय &c. which have an equal claim to be considered as Mahākāvyas). -कीर्तनम् a house. -कुमारः the eldest son of a reigning prince, heir-apparent. -कुल, -कुलीन a. of noble birth or descent, sprung from a noble family, nobly born. (-लम्) a noble birth or family, high descent. -कुहः a species of parasitical worm. -कृच्छ्रम् a great penance. -केतुः N. of Śiva. -केशः, -कोशः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a large sheath. -क्रतुः a great sacrifice; e. g. a horse-sacrifice; तदङ्गमग्ऱ्यं मघवन् महाक्रतोरमुं तुरङ्गं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि R.3.46. -क्रमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -क्रोधः an epithet of Śiva. -क्षत्रपः a great satrap. -क्षीरः sugar-cane. -क्षीरा f. a She-buffalo; Nighaṇṭaratnākara. -खर्वः, -र्वम् a high number (ten billions ?). -गजः a great elephant; see दिक्करिन्. -गणपतिः a form of the god Gaṇeśa. -गदः fever. -गन्ध a. exceedingly fragrant. (-न्धः) a kind of cane. (-न्धम्) a kind of sandalwood. (-न्धा) N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -गर्तः, -गर्भः -गीतः N. of Śiva. -गर्दभगन्धिका N. of a plant, भारङ्गी. -गल a. longnecked. -गवः Bos gavaeus. -गुण a. very efficacious, sovereign (as a medicine); त्वया ममैष संबन्धः कपिमुख्य महागुणः Rām.5.1.12. (-णः) a chief quality, cardinal virtue. -गुरुः a highly respectable or venerable person; (these are three, the father, mother and preceptor; पिता माता तथाचार्यो महागुरुरिति स्मृतः). -गुल्मा the Soma plant. -गृष्टिः f. a cow with a large hump. -ग्रहः 1 an epithet of Rāhu. -2 the sun; महाग्रहग्राहविनष्टपङ्कः Rām.5.5.6. -ग्रामः N. of the ancient capital of Ceylon, the modern Māgama. -ग्रीवः 1 a camel. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -ग्रीविन् m. a camel. -घूर्णा spirituous liquor. -घृतम् ghee kept for a long time (for medicinal purposes). -घोष a. noisy, loud-sounding. (-षम्) a market, fair. (-षः) a loud noise, clamour. -चक्रम् the mystic circle in the शाक्त ceremonial. -चक्रवर्तिन् m. a universal monarch. -चण्डा N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -चपला a kind of metre. -चमूः f. a large army. -छायः the fig-tree. -जङ्घः a camel. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा 1 a great braid of hair. -2 the matted hair of Śiva. -जत्रु a. having a great collar-bone. (-त्रुः) an epithet of Śiva. -जनः 1 a multitude of men, a great many beings, the general populace or public; महाजनो येन गतः स पन्थाः Mb.3.313. 117; आगम्य तु ततो राजा विसृज्य च महाजनम् 6.98.25. -2 the populace, mob; विलोक्य वृद्धोक्षमधिष्ठितं त्वया महाजनः स्मेरमुखो भविष्यति Ku.5.7. -3 a great man, a distinguished or eminent man; महाजनस्य संसर्गः कस्य नोन्नतिकारकः । पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् Pt.3.6. -4 the chief of a caste or trade. -5 a merchant, tradesman. -जवः an antelope. -जातीय a. 1 rather large. -2 of an excellent kind. -जालिः, -ली N. of a plant (Mar. सोनामुखी) -जिह्वः an epithet of Śiva. -ज्ञानिन् m. 1 a very learned man. -2 a great sage. -3 N. of Śiva. -ज्यैष्ठी the day of fullmoon in the month of Jyeṣṭha; ताभिर्दृश्यत एष यान् पथि महाज्यैष्ठीमहे मन्महे N.15.89; पूर्णिमा रविवारेण महाज्यैष्ठी प्रकीर्तिता Agni P.121.63. -ज्योतिस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -ज्वरः great affliction. -ज्वाल a. very brilliant or shining. (-लः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 a sacrificial fire. -डीनम् a kind of flight; 'यानं महाडीनमाहुः पवित्रामूर्जितां गतिम्' Mb.8.41.27 (com.). -तपस् m. 1 a great ascetic. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -तलम् N. of one of the seven lower regions; see पाताल. -तारा N. of a Buddhist goddess. -तिक्तः the Nimba tree. -तिथिः the 6th day of a lunation. -तीक्ष्ण a. exceedingly sharp or pungent. (-क्ष्णा) the markingnut plant. -तेजस् a. 1 possessed of great lustre or splendour. -2 very vigorous or powerful, heroic. (-m.) 1 a hero, warrior. -2 fire. -3 an epithet of Kārtikeya. (-n.) quick-silver. -त्याग, -त्यागिन् a. very generous. (-m.) N. of Śiva. -दंष्ट्रः a species of big tiger. -दन्तः 1 an elephant with large tusks. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -दण्डः 1 a long arm. -2 a severe punishment. -दम्भः an epithet of Śiva. -दशा the influence exercised (over a man's destiny) by a predominant planet. -दानम् the gift of gold equal to one's own weight; अथातः संप्रवक्ष्यामि महादानस्य लक्षणम्. -दारु n. the devadāru tree. -दुर्गम् a great calamity; Pt. -दूषकः a kind of grain. -देवः N. of Śiva. (-वी) 1 N. of Pārvatī. -2 the chief queen. -द्रुमः the sacred fig-tree. -द्वारम् a large gate, the chief or outer gate of a temple. -धन a. 1 rich. -2 expensive, costly; हेमदण्डैर्महाधनैः Rām.7. 77.13. (-नम्) 1 gold. -2 incense. -3 a costly or rich dress. -4 agriculture, husbandry. -5 anything costly or precious. -6 great booty. -7 a great battle (Ved.). -धनुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 lymph. -4 N. of Meru. -धी a. having a great understanding. -धुर्यः a full-grown draught ox. -ध्वजः a camel. -ध्वनिक a. dead. -नग्नः an athlete; Buddh. -नटः an epithet of Śiva; महानटः किं नु ...... तनोति ...... साम्प्रतमङ्गहारम् N.22.7; महानटबाहुनेव बद्धभुजाङ्केन Vās. -नदः a great river. -नदी 1 a great river, such as Gaṅgā, Kṛiṣṇā; मन्दरः पर्वतश्चाक्षो जङ्घा तस्य महानदी Mb.8.34.2; संभूयाम्भोधिमभ्येति महानद्या नगापगा Śi.2.1. -2 N. of a river falling into the bay of Bengal. -नन्दा 1 spirituous liquor. -2 N. of a river. -3 ninth day of the bright half of the month of Māgha; माघमासस्य या शुक्ला नवमी लोकपूजिचा । महानन्देति सा प्रोक्ता ... . -नरकः N. of one of the 21 hells. -नलः a kind of reed. -नवमी the ninth day in the bright half of Āśvina, sacred to the worship of Durgā ततो$नु नवमी यस्मात् सा महानवमी स्मृता. -नाटकम् 'the great drama', N. of a drama, also called Hanumannāṭaka, (being popularly ascribed to Hanumat); thus defined by S. D. :-- एतदेव यदा सर्वैः पताकास्थानकैर्युतम् । अङ्कैश्च दशभिर्धीरा महानाटकमूचिरे ॥ -नाडी sinew, tendon. -नादः 1 a loud sound, uproar. -2 a great drum. -3 a thunder-cloud. -4 a shell. -5 an elephant. -6 a lion. -7 the ear. -8 a camel. -9 an epithet of Śiva. (-दम्) a musical instrument. -नाम्नी 1 N. of a परिशिष्ट of Sāmaveda. -2 (pl.) N. of 9 verses of Sāmaveda beginning with विदा मघवन् विदा. -नायकः 1 a great gem in the centre of a string of pearls. -2 a great head or chief. -नासः an epithet of Śiva. -निद्र a. fast asleep. (-द्रा) 'the great sleep', death. -निम्नम् intestines, abdomen. -नियमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निर्वाणम् total extinction of individuality (according to the Buddhists). -निशा 1 the dead of night, the second and third watches of the night; महानिशा तु विज्ञेया मध्यमं प्रहरद्वयम् -2 an epithet of Durgā. -नीचः a washerman. -नील a. dark-blue. (-लः) a kind of sapphire or emerald; इन्द्रनीलमहानीलमणिप्रवरवेदिकम् Rām.5.9.16; महा- महानीलशिलारुचः Śi.1.16;4.44; R.18.42; Kau. A.2.11. 29. ˚उपलः a sapphire. -नृत्यः, -नेत्रः an epithet of Śiva. -नेमिः a crow. -न्यायः the chief rule. -पक्ष a. 1 having many adherents. -2 having a large family or retinue; महापक्षे धनिन्यार्थे निक्षेपं निक्षिपेद् बुधः Ms.8.179. (-क्षः) 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 a kind of duck. (-क्षी) an owl. -पङ्क्तिः, -पदपङ्क्तिः a kind of metre. -पञ्चमूलम् the five great roots:-- बिल्वो$ग्निमन्थः श्योनाकः काश्मरी पाटला तथा । सर्वैस्तु मिलितैरेतैः स्यान्महापञ्चमूलकम् ॥ -पञ्चविषम् the five great or deadly poisons:-- शृङ्गी च कालकूटश्च मुस्तको वत्सनाभकः । शङ्खकर्णीति योगो$यं महापञ्चविषाभिधः ॥ -पटः the skin. -पथः 1 chief road, principal street, high or main road; संतानकाकीर्णमहापथं तत् Ku.7.3. -2 the passage into the next world, i. e. death. -3 N. of certain mountain-tops from which devout persons used to throw themselves down to secure entrance into heaven. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -5 the long pilgrimage to mount Kedāra. -6 the way to heaven. -7 the knowledge of the essence of Śiva acquired in the pilgrimage to Kedāra. -पथिक a. 1 undertaking great journeys. -2 one receiving Śulka (toll) on the high way; cf. Mb.12.76.6 (com. महापथिकः समुद्रे नौयानेन गच्छन् यद्वा महापथि शुल्कग्राहकः) -पद्मः 1 a particular high number. -2 N. of Nārada. -3 N. of one of the nine treasures of Kubera. -4 N. of the southernmost elephant supporting the world. -5 an epithet of Nanda. -6 a Kinnara attendant on Kubera. (-द्मम्) 1 a white lotus. -2 N. of a city. ˚पतिः N. of Nanda. -पराकः a. a particular penance; Hch. -पराङ्णः a late hour in the afternoon. -पवित्रः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः large cattle; महापशूनां हरणे ... दण्डं प्रकल्पयेत् Ms.8.324. -पातः a long flight; Pt.2.58. -पातकम् 1 a great sin, a heinous crime; ब्रह्महत्या सुरापानं स्तेयं गुर्वङ्गनागमः । महान्ति पातकान्याहुस्तत्संसर्गश्च पञ्चमम् ॥ Ms.1154. -2 any great sin or transgression. -पात्रः a prime minister. -पादः an epithet of Śiva. -पाप्मन् a. very sinful or wicked. -पुराणम् N. of a Purāṇa; महापुराणं विज्ञेयमेकादशकलक्षणम् Brav. P. -पुंसः a great man. -पुरुषः 1 a great man, an eminent or distinguished personage; शब्दं महापुरुषसंविहितं निशम्य U. 6.7. -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पौरुषिकः a worshipper of Viṣṇu; तदहं ते$भिधास्यामि महापौरुषिको भवान् Bhāg.2.1.1. -पुष्पः a kind of worm. -पूजा great worship; any solemn worship performed on extraordinary occasions. -पृष्ठः a camel. -पोटगलः a kind of large reed. -प्रजापतिः N. of Viṣṇu. -प्रतीहारः a chief door-keeper. -प्रपञ्चः the great universe. -प्रभ a. of great lustre. (-भः) the light of a lamp. -प्रभुः 1 a great lord. -2 a king, sovereign. -3 a chief. -4 an epithet of Indra. -5 of Śiva -6 of Viṣṇu. -7 a great saint or holy man. -प्रलयः 'the great dissolution', the total annihilation of the universe at the end of the life of Brahman, when all the lokas with their inhabitants, the gods, saints &c. including Brahman himself are annihilated; महाप्रलयमारुत ...... Ve.3.4. -प्रश्नः a knotty question. -प्रसादः 1 a great favour. -2 a great present (of food offered to an idol); पादोदकं च निर्माल्यं नैवेद्यं च विशेषतः । महाप्रसाद इत्युक्त्वा ग्राह्यं विष्णोः प्रयत्नतः -प्रस्थानम् 1 departing this life, death. -2 setting out on a great journey for ending life; इहैव निधनं याम महाप्रस्थानमेव वा Rām.2.47.7 (com. महाप्रस्थानं मरणदीक्षा- पूर्वकमुत्तराभिमुखगमनम्); Mb.1.2.365. -प्राणः 1 the hard breathing or aspirate sound made in the pronunciation of the aspirates. -2 the aspirated letters themselves (pl.); they are:-ख्, घ्, छ्, झ्, ठ्, ढ्, थ्, ध्, फ्, भ्, श्, ष्, स्, ह्. -3 a raven. -प्राणता possession of great strength or essence; अन्यांश्च जीवत एव महाप्राणतया स्फुरतो जग्राह K. -प्रेतः a noble departed spirit. -प्लवः a great flood, deluge; ... क्षिप्तसागरमहाप्लवामयम् Śi.14.71. -फल a. 1 bearing much fruit. -2 bringing much reward. (-ला) 1 a bitter gourd. -2 a kind of spear. (-लम्) 1 a great fruit or reward. -2 a testicle. -फेना the cuttle-fish bone. -बन्धः a peculiar position of hands or feet. -बभ्रुः a kind of animal living in holes. -बल a. very strong; नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः Rām (-लः) 1 wind, storm. -2 a Buddha. -3 a solid bamboo. -4 a palm. -5 a crocodile. -बला N. of a plant; महाबला च पीतपुष्पा सहदेवी च सा स्मृता Bhāva. P. (-लम्) lead. ˚ईश्वरः N. of a Liṅga of Śiva near the modern Mahābaleśwara. -बाध a. causing great pain or damage. -बाहु a. long-armed, powerful. (-हुः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -बि(वि)लम् 1 the atmosphere. -2 the heart. -3 a water-jar, pitcher. -4 a hole, cave. -बिसी a variety of skin (चर्म), a product of द्वादशग्राम in the Himālayas. -बी(वी)जः an epithet of Śiva. -बी (वी)ज्यम् the perinæum. -बुध्न a. having a great bottom or base (as a mountain). -बुशः barley. -बृहती a kind of metre. -बोधिः 1 the great intelligence of a Buddha. -2 a Buddha. -ब्रह्मम्, -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -ब्राह्मणः 1 a great or learned Brāhmaṇa. -2 a low or contemptible Brāhmaṇa. -भटः a great warrior; तदोजसा दैत्यमहाभटार्पितम् Bhāg. -भद्रा N. of the river Gaṅgā. -भाग a. 1 very fortunate or blessed, very lucky or prosperous. -2 illustrious, distinguished, glorious; उभौ धर्मौ महाभागौ Mb.12.268.3; महाभागः कामं नरपतिरभिन्नस्थितिरसौ Ś.5.1; Ms.3.192. -3 very pure or holy, highly virtuous; पतिव्रता महाभागा कथं नु विचरिष्यति Mb.4.3.16. -भागता, -त्वम्, -भाग्यम् 1 extreme good fortune, great good luck, prosperity. -2 great excellence or merit. -भागवतम् the great Bhāgavata, one of the 18 Purāṇas. (-तः) a great worshipper of Viṣṇu. -भागिन् a. very fortunate or prosperous. -भाण्डम् a chief treasury. -भारतम् N. of the celebrated epic which describes the rivalries and contests of the sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. (It consists of 18 Parvans or books, and is said to be the composition of Vyāsa; cf. the word भारत also); महत्त्वाद्भारतत्वाच्च महाभारतमुच्यते -भाष्यम् 1 a great commentary. -2 particularly, the great commentary of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -भासुरः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भिक्षुः N. of Śākyamuni. -भीता a kind of sensitive plant (लाजाळू). -भीमः an epithet of king Śantanu. -भीरुः a sort of beetle or fly. -भुज a. long-armed, powerful. -भूतम् a great or primary element; see भूत; तस्यैतस्य महाभूतस्य निःश्वसितमेतद्यदृग्वेदः Up.; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1. 29; Ms.1.6. (-तः) 1 the Supreme Being. -2 a great creature. -भोगः 1 a great enjoyment. -2 a great coil or hood; great winding. -3 a serpent. (-गा) an epithet of Durgā. -मणिः 1 a costly or precious jewel; संस्कारोल्लिखितो महामणिरिव क्षीणो$पि नालक्ष्यते Ś.6.5. -2 N. of Śiva. -मति a. 1 high-minded. -2 clever. (-तिः) N. of Bṛihaspati or Jupiter. -मत्स्यः a large fish, sea-monster. -मद a. greatly intoxicated. (-दः) an elephant in rut. -मनस्, -मनस्क a. 1 high-minded, nobleminded, magnanimous; ततो युधिष्ठिरो राजा धर्मपुत्रो महामनाः Mb.4.1.7. -2 liberal. -3 proud, haughty. (-m) a fabulous animal called शरभ q. v. -मन्त्रः 1 any sacred text of the Vedas. -2 a great or efficacious charm, a powerful spell. -मन्त्रिन् m. the prime-minister, premier. -मयूरी N. of Buddhist goddess. -मलहारी a kind of Rāgiṇi. -महः a great festive procession; Sinhās. -महस् n. a great light (seen in the sky). -महोपाध्यायः 1 a very great preceptor. -2 a title given to learned men and reputed scholars; e. g. महामहो- पाध्यायमल्लिनाथसूरि &c. -मांसम् 'costly flesh', especially human flesh; न खलु महामांसविक्रयादन्यमुपायं पश्यामि Māl.4; अशस्त्रपूतं निर्व्याजं पुरुषाङ्गोपकल्पितम् । विक्रीयते महामांसं गृह्यतां गृह्यतामिदम् 5.12 (see Jagaddhara ad loc.). -माघी the full-moon day in the month of Māgha. -मात्र a. 1 great in measure, very great or large. -2 most excellent, best; वृष्ण्यन्धकमहामात्रैः सह Mb.1.221.27; 5.22.37. (-त्रः) 1 a great officer of state, high stateofficial, a chief minister; (मन्त्रे कर्मणि भूषायां वित्ते माने परिच्छदे । मात्रा च महती येषां महामात्रास्तु ते स्मृताः); Ms. 9.259; गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः कृतमहामात्रापसर्पः (v. l. महामात्यापसर्पः) पौरजानपदानपसर्पयेत् Kau. A.1.13.9; Rām.2.37.1. -2 an elephant-driver or keeper; मदोन्मत्तस्य भूपस्य कुञ्जरस्य च गच्छतः । उन्मार्गं वाच्यतां यान्ति महामात्राः समीपगाः ॥ Pt.1.161. -3 a superintendent of elephants. (-त्री) 1 the wife of a chief minister. -2 the wife of a spiritual teacher. -मानसी N. of a Jain goddess. -मान्य a. being in great honour with; मकरन्दतुन्दिलानामरविन्दानामयं महामान्यः Bv.1.6. -मायः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -माया 1 worldly illusion, which makes the material world appear really existent. -2 N. of Durgā; महामाया हरेश्चैषा यया संमोह्यते जगत् Devīmāhātmya. -मायूरम् a particular drug. (-री) N. of an amulet and a goddess; Buddh. -मारी 1 cholera, an epidemic. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -मार्गः high road, main street. ˚पतिः a superintendent of roads. -मालः N. of Śiva. -माहेश्वरः a great worshipper of Maheśvara or Śiva. -मुखः a crocodile. -मुद्रा a particular position of hands or feet (in practice of yoga). -मुनिः 1 a great sage. -2 N. of Vyāsa. -3 an epithet of Buddha. -4 of Agastya. -5 the coriander plant. (-नि n.) 1 coriander seed. -2 any medicinal herb or drug. -मूर्तिः N. of Viṣṇu. -मूर्धन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -मूलम् a large radish. (-लः) a kind of onion. -मूल्य a. very costly. (-ल्यः) a ruby. -मृगः 1 any large animal. -2 an elephant, -3 the fabulous animal called शरभ. -मृत्युः, -मेधः N. of Śiva. -मृत्युंजयः a kind of drug. -मृधम् a great battle. -मेदः the coral tree; महामेदाभिधो ज्ञेयः Bhāva. P. -मेधा an epithet of Durgā. -मोहः great infatuation or confusion of mind. (ससर्ज) महामोहं च मोहं च तमश्चाज्ञानवृत्तयः Bhāg.3.12.2. (-हा) an epithet of Durgā. -यज्ञः 'a great sacrifice', a term applied to the five daily sacrifices or acts of piety to be performed by a house-holder; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो (or देवयज्ञः) बलिर्भौतो (or भूतयज्ञः) नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7,71, (for explanation, see the words s. v.). -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -यमकम् 'a great Yamaka', i. e. a stanza all the four lines of which have exactly the same words, though different in sense; e. g. see Ki.15.52, where विकाशमीयुर्जगतीशमार्गणाः has four different senses; cf. also बभौ मरुत्वान् विकृतः समुद्रः Bk.1.19. -यशस् a. very famous, renowned, celebrated. -यात्रा 'the great pilgrimage', the pilgrimage to Benares. -यानम् N. of the later system of Buddhist teaching, firstly promulgated by Nāgārjuna (opp. हीनयान). -याम्यः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -युगम् 'a great Yuga', consisting of the four Yugas of mortals, or comprising 4,32, years of men. -योगिन् m. 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 a cock. -योनिः f. excessive dilation of the female organ. -रक्तम् coral. -रङ्गः a large stage. -रजतम् 1 gold; उच्चैर्महारजतराजिविराजितासौ Śi.4.28. -2 the thorn-apple. -रजनम् 1 safflower. -2 gold. -3 turmeric; तस्य हैतस्य पुरुषस्य रूपं यथा महारजनं वासः Bṛi. Up.2.3.6. -रत्नम् 1 a precious jewel; वज्रं मुक्ता प्रवालं च गोमेदश्चेन्द्रनीलकः ॥ वैडूर्यः पुष्करागश्च पाचिर्माणिक्यमेव च । महारत्नानि चैतानि नव प्रोक्तानि सूरिभिः ॥ Śukra.4.155-56. -रथः 1 a great chariot. -2 a great warrior or hero; द्रुपदश्च महारथः Bg.1.4; कुतः प्रभावो धनंजयस्य महारथजयद्रथस्य विपत्तिमुत्पादयितुम् Ve.2; दशरथः प्रशशास महारथः R.9.1; Śi.3.22; (a महारथ is thus defined:-- एको दशसहस्राणि योधयेद्यस्तु धन्विनाम् ॥ शस्त्रशास्त्र- प्रवीणश्च विज्ञेयः स महारथः ॥). -3 desire, longing; cf. मनोरथ. -रवः a frog. -रस a. very savoury. (-सः) 1 a sugarcane. -2 quicksilver. -3 a precious mineral. -4 the fruit of the date tree. -5 any one of the eight substances given below :-दरदः पारदं शस्ये वैक्रान्तं कान्तमभ्रकम् । माक्षिकं विमलश्चेति स्युरेते$ष्टौ महारसाः ॥ (-सम्) sour ricewater. -राजः 1 a great king, sovereign or supreme ruler; पञ्चाशल्लक्षपर्यन्तो महाराजः प्रकीर्तितः Śukra.1.184. -2 a respectful mode of addressing kings or other great personages (my lord, your majesty, your highness); इति सत्यं महाराज बद्धो$स्म्यर्थेन कौरवैः Mb. -3 a deified Jaina teacher. -4 a fingernail. ˚अधिराजः a universal emperor, paramount sovereign. ˚चूतः a kind of mango tree. -राजिकः N. of Viṣṇu. -राजिकाः (m. pl.) an epithet of a class of gods (said to be 22 or 236 in number.). -राज्यम् the rank or title of a reigning sovereign. -राज्ञी 1 the reigning or chief queen, principal wife of a king. -2 N. of Durgā. -रात्रम् midnight, dead of night. -रात्रिः, -त्री f. 1 see महाप्रलय; ब्रह्मणश्च निपाते च महाकल्पो भवेन्नृप । प्रकीर्तिता महारात्रिः. -2 midnight. -3 the eighth night in the bright half of Āśvina. -राष्ट्रः 'the great kingdom', N. of a country in the west of India, the country of the Marāṭhās. -2 the people of Mahārāṣṭra; the Marāṭhās (pl.). (-ष्ट्री) N. of the principal Prākṛita; dialect, the language of the people of the Mahārāṣṭra; cf. Daṇḍin:-महाराष्ट्राश्रयां भाषां प्रकृष्टं प्राकृतं विदुः Kāv.1.34. -रिष्टः a kind of Nimba tree growing on mountains. -रुज्, -ज a. very painful. -रुद्रः a form of Śiva. -रुरुः a species of antelope. -रूप a. mighty in form. (-पः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 resin. -रूपकम् a kind of drama. -रेतस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रोगः a dangerous illness, grievous malady; (these are eight :-उन्मादो राजयक्ष्मा च श्वासस्त्वग्दोष एव च । मधुमेहश्चाश्मरी च तथो- दरभगन्दरौ ॥). -रौद्र a. very dreadful. (-द्री) an epithet of Durgā. -रौरवः N. of one of the 21 hells; Ms.4.88-9. -लक्ष्मी 1 the great Lakṣmī, or Śakti of Nārāyaṇa; सेवे सैरिभमर्दिनीमिह महालक्ष्मीं सरोजस्थिताम्. -2 a young girl who represents the goddess Durgā at the Durgā festival. -लयः 1 a great world destruction. -2 the Supreme Being (महदादीनां लयो यस्मिन्). -लिङ्गम् the great Liṅga or Phallus. (-ङ्गः) an epithet of Śiva. -लोलः a crow. -लोहम् a magnet. -वंशः N. of a wellknown work in Pali (of the 5th century). -वक्षस् m. epithet of Śiva. -वनम् a large forest in Vṛindāvana. -वरा Dūrvā grass. -वराहः 'the great boar', an epithet of Viṣṇu in his third or boar incarnation. -वर्तनम् high wages; -वल्ली 1 the Mādhavī creeper. -2 a large creeping plant. -वसः the porpoise. -वसुः silver; Gīrvāṇa. -वाक्यम् 1 a long sentence. -2 any continuous composition or literary work. -3 a great proposition, principal sentence; such as तत्त्वमसि, ब्रह्मैवेदं सर्वम् &c. -4 a complete sentence (opp. अवान्तरवाक्य q. v.); न च महावाक्ये सति अवान्तरवाक्यं प्रमाणं भवति ŚB. on MS.6.4.25. -वातः a stormy wind, violent wind; महावातातैर्महिषकुलनीलैर्जलधरैः Mk.5.22. -वादिन् m. a great or powerful disputant. -वायुः 1 air (as an element). -2 stormy wind, hurricane, tempest. -वार्तिकम् N. of the Vārtikas of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -विडम् a kind of factitious salt. -विदेहा N. of a certain वृत्ति or condition of the mind in the Yoga system of philosophy. -विद्या the great lores; काली तारा महाविद्या षोडशी भुवनेश्वरी । भैरवी छिन्नमस्ता च विद्या धूमवती तथा । बगला सिद्धविद्या च मातङ्गी कमला- त्मिका । एता दश महाविद्याः ... ॥ -विपुला a kind of metre. -विभाषा a rule giving a general option or alternative; इति महाविभाषया साधुः. -विभूतिः an epithet of Śiva. -विषः a serpent having two mouths. -विषुवम् the vernal equinox. ˚संक्रान्तिः f. the vernal equinox (the sun's entering the sign Aries). -विस्तर a. very extensive or copious. -वीचिः N. of a hell. -वीरः 1 a great hero or warrior. -2 a lion. -3 the thunderbolt of Indra. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 of Garuḍa. -6 of Hanumat. -7 a cuckoo. -8 a white horse. -9 a sacrificial fire. -1 a sacrificial vessel. -11 a kind of hawk. ˚चरितम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -वीर्य a. of great valour, very powerful. (-र्यः) 1 N. of Brahman. -2 the Supreme Being. (-र्या) the wild cotton shrub. -2 an epithet of संज्ञा, the wife of the sun. -वृषः a great bull. -वेग a. 1 very sw
yama यम a. [यम्-घञ्] 1 Twin, twinborn. -2 Coupled. -मः 1 Restraining, controlling, curbing; यमो राजा धार्मिकाणां मान्धातः परमेश्वरः Mb.12.91.42. -2 Control, restraint. -3 Self control. -4 Any great moral or religious duty or observance (opp. नियम); तप्तं यमेन नियमेन तपो$मुनैव N.13.16; यमनियमकृशीकृतस्थिराङ्गः Ki.1. 1. (यम and नियम are thus distinguished:-- शरीरसाधनापेक्षं नित्यं यत् कर्म तद् यमः । नियमस्तु स यत् कर्म नित्यमागन्तुसाधनम् ॥ Ak.2.49; See Malli. on Śi.13.23 and Ki.1.1 also. The yamas are usually said to be ten, but, their names are given differently by different writers; e. g. ब्रह्मचर्यं दया क्षान्तिर्दानं सत्यमकल्कता । अहिंसा$स्तेयमाधुर्ये दमश्चेति यमाः स्मृताः ॥ Y.3.312; or आनृशंस्यं दया सत्यमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् । प्रीतिः प्रसादो माधुर्यं मार्दवं च यमा दश ॥ sometimes only five yamas are mentioned:-- अहिंसा सत्यवचनं ब्रह्मचर्यमकल्कता । अस्तेयमिति पञ्चैते यमाख्यानि व्रतानि च ॥). -5 The first of the eight aṅgas. or means of attaining Yoga; the eight aṅgas are:-- यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयो$- ष्टाङ्गानि; Śāndilya Up.1.1.2. -6 The god of death, death personified, regarded as a son of the sun; he presides over the पितृs and rules the spirits of the dead; दत्ताभये त्वयि यमादपि दण्डधारे U.2.11. -7 A twin; धर्मात्मजं प्रति यमौ च (i. e. नकुलसहदेवौ) कथैव नास्ति Ve.2.25; यमयो- श्चैव गर्भेषु जन्मतो ज्येष्ठता मता Ms.9.126. -8 One of a pair or couple, a fellow. -9 N. of Saturn. -1 A crow. -11 A symbolical expression for the number 'two'. -12 Ved. A rein, bridle; पृष्ठे सदो नसोर्यमः Ṛv.5. 61.2. -13 Ved. A driver, charioteer; अग्निं रथानां यमम् Ṛv.8.13.1. -14 N. of a deity who chastises beings for their misdeeds; यमं कालं च मृत्युं च स्वर्गं संपूज्य चार्हतः Mb.12.2.3. -मम् 1 A pair or couple. -2 (In gram.) The twin letter of any consonant. -3 Pitch of the voice. -मी N. of the river Yamunā. -मौ (m. du.) 1 Twins; कथं त्वमेतौ धृतिसंयमौ यमौ Ki.1. 36. -2 N. of the Aśvins; यमौ यमोपमौ चैव ददौ दानान्यनेकशः Mb.14.61.38. -3 Nakula and Sahadeva; भीमार्जुनयमा- श्चापि तद्युक्तं प्रतिपेदिरे Mb.3.6.14. ˚मैथुनौ twins of different sex. -Comp. -अनुगः, -अनुचरः a servant or attendant of Yama. -अनुजा N. of the river Yamunā मघोनि वर्षत्य- सकृद् यमानुजा Bhāg.1.3.51. -अन्तकः an epithet of 1 Śiva. -2 of Yama. -अरिः, -घ्नः, -रिपुः &c. N. of Viṣṇu. -ईशम् the Nakṣatra Bharaṇī. -किङ्करः a messenger of death. -कीटः 1 a wood-louse. -2 an earth-worm. -कीलः N. of Viṣṇu. -कोटिः, -टी N. of a mythical town to the east of Laṅkā लङ्का कुमध्ये यमकोटिरस्याः Siddhāntaśiromaṇi. -घण्टः N. of an astrological Yoga (this is inauspicious). -जः a. twin-born, twin; यमजौ चापि भद्रं ते नैतदन्यत्र विद्यते Mb.3.14.19; भ्रातरौ आवां यमजौ U.6;4; also यमजात-जातक. -दंष्ट्रा 'Yama's tooth', the jaws of death. (-ष्ट्राः pl.) the last eight days of the month Aśvina and the whole of Kārtika (regarded as a period of general sickness). -दिश् f. the south. -दूतः, -दूतकः 1 a messenger of death. -2 a crow. -दूतिका tamarind. -देवता the asterism Bharaṇī. -द्रुमः Bombax Heptaphyllum (Mar. सांवरी). -द्वितीया the second day in the bright half of Kārtika when sisters entertain their brothers (Mar. भाऊबीज); cf. भ्रातृद्वितीया. -धानी the abode of Yama; नरः संसारान्ते विशति यमधानीजवनिकाम् Bh.3.112. -धारः a kind of double-edged weapon. -पटः, -पट्टिका a piece of cloth on which Yama with his attendants and the punishments of hell are represented (Mar. यमपुरी); याव- देतद् गृहं प्रविश्य यमपटं दर्शयन्न् गीतानि गायामि Mu.1.18/19. -पदम् a repeated word. -पाशः the noose of Yama. -पुरुषः Yama's servant or minister. -प्रियः the fig tree. -भगिनी N. of the river Yamunā. -यातना the tortures inflicted by Yama upon sinners after death, (the word is sometimes used to denote horrible tortures', 'extreme pain'). -रथः a buffalo. -राज् m. Yama, the god of death. -वाहनः = यमरथः q. v. -व्रतम् 1 an observance or vow made to Yama. -2 an impartial punishment (as given by Yama); यथा यमः प्रियद्वेष्यौ प्राप्ते काले नियच्छति । तथा राज्ञा नियन्तव्याः प्रजास्तद् हि यमव्रतम् ॥ Ms.9. 37. -शासनः the lord Śiva; यशो यदीयं यमशासनालय-क्षमाधर- स्पर्धनमाचचार सः Rām. Ch.2.12; (यमशासनालयः = हिमा- लयः). -श्रायम् the abode of Yama; यात यूयं यमश्रायं दिशं नायेन दक्षिणाम् Bk.7.36. -सभा the tribunal of Yama. -सूर्यम् a building with two halls, one facing the west and the other facing the north. -स्वसृ f. 1 N. of the river Yamunā; क्षणमिव पुलिने यमस्वसुस्ताम् Bhāg.3.4.27. -2 N. of Durgā.
ramā रमा [रमयति रम्-अच्] 1 A wife, mistress. -2 N. of Lakṣmī, wife of Viṣṇu and Goddess of wealth; रमा यत्र न वाक् तत्र यत्र वाक् तत्र ना रमा Udb. -3 Good luck, fortune. -4 Riches. -5 Splendour. -6 N. of the eleventh day in the dark half of Kārtika. -Comp. -आस्पदः, -कान्तः, -नाथः, -पतिः epithets of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.1. 55.4. -प्रियः Viṣṇu. (-यम्) a lotus. -वेष्टः turpentine.
vaṃśaḥ वंशः [वमति उद्गिरति वम्-श तस्य नेत्वम् Uṇ.4.116] 1 A bamboo; धनुर्वशविशुद्धो$पि निर्गुणः किं करिष्यति H. Pr.23; वंशभवो गुणवानपि संगविशेषेण पूज्यते पुरुषः Bv.1.8 (where वंश has sense 2 also); Me.81. -2 A race, family, dynasty, lineage; स जातो येन जातेन याति वंशः समुन्नतिम् H.2; सूर्यप्रभवो वंशः R.1.2. &c.; see वंशकर, वंशस्थिति &c. -3 A shaft. -4 A flute, pipe, reed-pipe; कूजद्भिरापादितवंशकृत्यम् R.2.12. -5 A collection, assemblage, multitude (usually of similar things); सान्द्रीकृतः स्यन्दनवंशचक्रैः R.7.39. -6 A cross-beam; यदस्थिभिर्निर्मित- वंशवंश्यस्थूणं त्वचा रोमनखैः पिनद्धम् Bhāg.11.8.33. -7 A joint (in a bamboo). -8 A sort of sugar-cane. -9 The back-bone. -1 The Śāla tree. -11 A particular measure of length (equal to ten hastas). -12 The central projecting part of a sabre. -13 Bamboo-manna. -14 Offspring. -15 A son. -16 A particular musical note. -17 Pride, arrogance. -Comp. -अग्रम्, -अङ्कुरः 1 the tip or end of a bamboo-cane. -2 the shoot of a bamboo. -अनुकीर्तनम् genealogy. -अनुक्रमः genealogy. -अनुचरितम् the history of a dynasty or family. -आगत a. inherited. -आवली a pedigree, genealogy. -आह्वः bamboo-manna. -कठिनः a thicket of bamboos. -कफम् cottony seeds floating in the air. -कर a. 1 founding a family. -2 perpetuating a race; वंशस्थितिं लौहितिक lauhitika लौहितिक a. Reddish.
vara वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् 'to ask a boon'; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; 'वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे' इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately). -Comp. -अङ्ग a. having an excellent form. (-ङ्गः) 1 an elephant. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Cupid. -4 a Nakṣatra year consisting of 324 days. (-ङ्गी) turmeric. (-ङ्गम्) 1 the head; वराङ्गानि महार्हाणि धनुषा शातयामि वः Rām.1.66.1; वराङ्गमुर्व्यामपतच्चमूमुखे Mb.8.91.53. -2 the best part. -3 an elegant form. -4 pudendum muliebre. -5 green cinnamon. -अङ्गना a lovely woman; वराङ्गनासेवनमल्पभोजनम् Lakṣmīcharitra. -अन्नम् excellent dish; पक्वापक्वं दिवारात्रं वरान्नममृतोपमम् Mb.7.67.2. -अरणिः a mother; ददर्श रावणस्तत्र गोवृषेन्द्रवरारणिम् Rām.7.23.22. -अर्ह a. 1 worthy of a boon. -2 very worthy, highly esteemed; -मत्कृते$द्य वरार्हायाः श्यामतां समुपागतम्(मुखम्) Mb.3.144. 11. -3 very expensive. -आनना a lovely-faced woman. -आजीविन् m. an astrologer. -आरुहः an ox. -आरोह a. having fine hips. (-हः) 1 an excellent rider. -2 a rider on an elephant or horse. -3 mounting, riding. (-हा) an elegant or a beautiful woman; कामं कुरु वरा- रोहे देहि मे परिरम्भणम् Māl.6.11. -आलिः the moon. -आसनम् 1 an excellent seat. -2 the chief seat, a seat of honour. -3 the China rose. -4 a cistern, reservoir. (-नः) 1 a door-keeper. -2 a lover, paramour -इन्द्रः 1 a chief, sovereign. -2 Indra. -3 (also n.) N. of a part of Bengal. -न्द्री the ancient Gaura or Gauda country. -ईश्वरः N. of Śiva. -उरुः, -रूः f. a beautiful woman (lit. having beautiful thighs). -क्रतुः an epithet of Indra. -गात्र a. fair-limbed, beautiful. -चन्दनम् 1 a kind of sandal wood. -2 the pine tree. -तनु a. fairlimbed. (-नुः f.) a beautiful woman; वरतनुरथवासौ नैव दृष्टा त्वया मे V.4.22. -तन्तुः N. of an ancient sage; कौत्सः प्रपेदे वरतन्तुशिष्यः R.5.1. -त्वचः the Nimba tree. -द a. 1 conferring a boon, granting or fulfilling a boon; आगच्छ वरदे देवि जपे मे संनिधौ भव Sandhyā. -2 propitious. (-दः) 1 a benefactor. -2 N. of a class of Manes. -3 fire for propitiatory burnt offerings. ˚चतुर्थी N. of the 4th day in the bright half of माघ, ˚हस्तः the boon-giving or beneficent hand (placed on the head of a suppliant by a deity &c.). (-दा) 1 N. of a river; वरद वरदारोधोवृक्षैः सहावनतो रिपुः M.5.1. -2 a maiden, girl. -दक्षिणा 1 a present made to the bridegroom by the father of the bride. -2 a term for expense incurred in fruitless endeavours to recover a loss. -दानम् the granting of a boon. -दानिक a. arising from the bestowal of a favour or boon; चतुर्दश वने वासं वर्षाणि वरदानिकम् Rām.2.17.7. -द्रुमः agallochum. -धर्मः a noble act of justice. -निमन्त्र- णम् a journey undertaken by the parents of the bride to recall the bridegroom (who pretends to go to Kāśī.). -निश्चयः the choice of a bridegroom. -पक्षः the party of the bridegroom (at a wedding); प्रमुदितवरपक्षमेकतस्तत् R.6.86. -पुरुषः the best of men; अहं वरपुरुषमनुष्यो वासुदेवः कामयितव्यः Mk.1.3/31. -प्रद a. granting wishes. -प्रदा N. of Lopāmudrā. -प्रस्थानम्, -यात्रा the setting out of the bridegroom in procession towards the house of the bride for the celebration of marriage. -फलः the cocoa-nut tree. -बाह्लिकम् saffron. -युवतिः, -ती f. a beautiful young woman. -रुचिः N. of a poet and grammarian (one of the 'nine gems' at the court of king Vikrama; see नवरत्न; he is identified by some with Kātyāyana, the celebrated author of the Vārtikas on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -लक्षणम् the requisites of wedding. पाणिग्रहणमन्त्राश्च प्रथितं वरलक्षणम् Mb.7.55.16. -लब्ध a. received as a boon. (-ब्धः) the Champaka tree. -वत्सला a mother-in-law. -वर्णम् gold. -वर्णिनी 1 an excellent or fair-complexioned woman; मया हीयं वृता पूर्वं भार्यार्थे वरवर्णिनी Mb.1.5.23. -2 a woman in general. -3 turmeric. -4 lac. -5 N. of Lakṣmī. -6 of Durgā. -7 of Sarasvatī. -8 the creeper called Priyaṅgu. -9 a yellow pigment. -वृद्धः N. of Śiva. -शीतम् cinnamon. -सुरत a. 1 very wanton. -2 acquainted with the secrets of sexual intercourse. -स्रज् f. 'the bridegroom's garland', the garland put by the bride round the neck of the bridegroom.
vaikuṇṭhaḥ वैकुण्ठः 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu; मन्दं जहास वैकुण्ठो मोहयन्निव मायया Bhāg.1.8.44. -2 Of Indra. -3 Holy basil. -ण्ठम् 1 The heaven of Viṣṇu; ततो वैकुण्ठमगमद्भास्वरं तमसः परम् Bhāg.1.88.25. -2 Talc. -Comp. -चतुर्दशी the fourteenth day of the bright half of Kārtika. -लोकः the world of Viṣṇu.
śārada शारद a. [शरदि भवम् अण्] 1 Belonging to autumn, autumnal; (the f. is शारदी in this sense); विमलशारद- चन्दिरचन्द्रिका Bv.1.113; R.1.9; Ms.6.11; मेघः शारद एव काशधवलः पानीयरिक्तोदरः Subhāṣ. -2 Annual. -3 New, recent; P.VI.2.9. -4 Young, fresh. -5 Modest, shy, bashful. -6 Diffident, not bold. -7 Able, clever; शिखीब शारदः N.9.14. -दः 1 A year. -2 An autumnal sickness. -3 Autumnal sunshine. -4 A kind of kidneybean. -5 The Bakula tree. -दी 1 The full-moon day in the month of Āśvina (or Kārtika). -2 Alstonia Scholaris (Mar. सातवीण). -दम् 1 Corn, grain. -2 The white lotus. -दा 1 A kind of Vīṇā or lute. -2 N. of Durgā. -3 Of Sarasvatī; (शरत्काले पूरा यस्मान्नवम्यां बोधिता सुरैः । शारदा सा समाख्याता पीठे लोके च नामतः ॥; लिखति यदि गृहीत्वा (लेखनीं) शारदा सार्वकालम् Śiva mahimna 32. ˚अम्बा (शारदाम्बा) the goddess Sarasvatī.
sairaḥ सैरः रिः The month of Kārtika. सैरन्ध्रः sairandhrḥ सैरिन्ध्रः sairindhrḥ सैरन्ध्रः सैरिन्ध्रः 1 A menial servant or attendant. -2 A mixed tribe, the offspring of a Dasyu and an Ayogava female; सैरिन्ध्रं वागुरावृत्तिं सूते दस्युरयोगवे Ms.1.32. सैरन्ध्री sairandhrī सैरिन्ध्री sairindhrī सैरन्ध्री सैरिन्ध्री 1 A maid-servant or female attendant in the women's apartments [a woman of the mixed tribe described in सैरन्ध्र (2)]. -2 An independent female artisan working in another person's house. -3 An epithet of Draupadī (assumed by her when she acted as servant to Sudeṣṇā, queen of Virāṭa).
sopadhi सोपधि a. Fraudulent. -ind. Deceitfully, fraudulently; अरिषु हि विजयार्थिनः क्षितीशा विदधति सोपधि संधि- दूषणानि Ki.1.45. सोपन्यास sōpanyāsa सोपपत्तिक sōpapattika सोपन्यास सोपपत्तिक a. Well-founded or substantiated.
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"tika" has 137 results.
     
anaikāntikaundetermined, indefinite एतद्प्यनैकान्तिकं यदल्पप्राणस्य सर्वोच्चैस्तन्महाप्राणस्य सर्वनीचै: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.2.30, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.37; not invariable, confer, compare अनैकान्तिकं ज्ञापकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.2.102, VIII.3.34
anaimittikanot possessed of any definite cause; अनैमित्तिको ह्यनुबन्धलेाप: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.20 also on I. 1.59 and I. 2.64.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
tatkālaprāptikaoccurring or presenting itself at the same time or simultaneously.
tikakitavādia class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.68.
tikantaddhita affix. affix तिक added to the word मृद् in the sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) e. g. मृत्तिका confer, compare; P. V. 4.39.
naipātikaaccessory; accidental; निपातात् अागतानि.
naimittikaeffect; one that is caused; confer, compare निमित्ताभावे नैमित्तिकस्याप्यभावः a Paribhāsā given by Vyādi, Siradeva and others.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pratikaṇṭhamvocally, pronouncedly, expressly without any attention to the derivation or the formation of the word; ( 2 ) irregular formation; c.. सर्वशास्त्रार्थं प्रतिकण्ठमुक्तम् where प्रतिकण्ठ is explained as निपातन by Uvvata; confer, compare प्रतिकण्ठं निपातनम् : उत्सर्गविधिभिः साधयितुमशक्या अपि प्रयोगविशेषा निपात्यन्ते शास्त्रसंपूर्तये. Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.23.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vārtikapāṭhathe text of the Varttikas as traditionally handed over in the oral recital or in manuscripts As observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.(see वार्त्तिक),although a large number of Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya are ascribed to Katyayana, the genuine Varttikapatha giving such Varttikas only, as were definitely composed by him, has not been preserved and Nagesa has actually gone to the length of making a statement like " वार्तिकपाठ: भ्रष्टः" ; confer, compare . Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P.I.l.I2 Varttika 6.
vārtikavacanaa small pithy statement or assertion in the manner of the original sutras which is held as much authoritative as the Sutra: cf न ब्रुमो वृत्तिसूत्रवचनप्रामाण्यादिति | किं तर्हि | वार्तिकवचनप्रामाण्यादिति [ M.Bh. on P.II..1.1 Varttika 23.
vārttikasiddhāntacategorical conclusive statements made by the Varttikakara many of which were cited later on as Paribhasas by later writers For details see pp. 212220 Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahbhasya, D. E. Society's edition.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vṛttitrayavārtikaa very short work in verse-form explaining in a very general manner the nature of Sūtras and Vārttikas; the work is anonymous.
vyatikara(1)confusion of one numberaffix for another number-affix (वचन), as noticed in the statements. e. g. अक्षीणि मे दर्शनीयानि; पादा मे सुकुमारंतरा: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 4. 21; (2) any confusion, say confusion of one grammatical element for another; confer, compare हृि: परस्मैपदानां यथा स्यात्, स्व आत्मनेपदानां, व्यतिकरो मा भूत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.4.1 Vart, 2.
śabdavyutpattikaumudīa small treatise on the derivation of words written by a grammarian named RajaramaSastrin.
śāśvatikaeternal or permanent, as contrasted with कार्य id est, that is produced; confer, compareएतस्मिन्वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययो: शाश्वतिको विरोधः Siradeva Pari.36; cf also एके वर्णाञू शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr.XIII.4.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
sāṃpratika(l)what is actually expressed .or found in the context; confer, compare सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिर्विज्ञायते M. Bh on P. VI. 1.177 Vart. 1: (2) original, found in the original context of Prakriti; confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 6; (3) of the present time: confer, compare Purus. Pari. 15.
sāṃhitikaoriginal, as belonging to the Samhitapatha of the Sutras and not introduced for some additional purpose without forming a part of the actual affix; confer, compare अाकर्षात् ष्ठल् | इह केषां चित्सांहितिकं षत्वं केषांचित्षिदर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 4.9.
sārvavibhaktikapertaining to all cases, i. e. prescribed to convey the sense of all case affixes; the term is commonly used by commentators with reference to the taddhita affix. affix तस् prescribed by the rule प्रतियोगे पञ्चम्यास्तसि: and the Varttika तसिप्रकरणे आद्यादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् thereon: confer, compare P, V. 4.44 and Vart. 1 .
aṅgavatconsidered as auxiliary or part of another exempli gratia, for example पूर्वाङ्गवद्भावः, पराङ्गवद्भाव:; cf सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2 and the Vārtika thereon "परमपि च्छन्दसि पूर्वस्याङ्गवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम्."
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthavadgrahaṇaparibhāṣāa well known maxim or Paribha of grammarians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थकस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
āpatyapatronymic affix such as अण् and others. The term अापत्य, which is the same as the usual term अपत्य in तस्यापत्यम् P.IV.I, is found sometimes used in the Vārttikas and in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare आयत्याज्जीवद्वंश्यात्स्वार्थे द्वितीयो युवसंज्ञ: P.IV.1.163 Vārt 6.
ika(1)substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; confer, compare ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example आखानिकः confer, compare इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ikakthe same affix as ठक् mentioned by the वार्तिककार in the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60.
iṣṭaa word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form id est, that is the correct form : confer, compare इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.
iṣṭia word generally used in the statements made in the Mahā bhāṣya, similar to those of the Sūtrakāra and the Vārttikakāras, which are 'desired ones' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words; confer, compare प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियो न त्विाष्टिज्ञः, इष्यत एतद् रूपमिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.56.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
uktārthaa word or expression whose sense has been already expressedition The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary conventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. (Par. 46) grammars.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
aupasaṃkhyānikasubsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; confer, compare औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; confer, compare also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kīlhārnKielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona.
kṛdgrahaṇamention of a kṛt id est, that is of a word ending with a kṛt affix. The word mainly occurs in the Paribhāṣā कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम् which occurs first as an expression of the Vārttikakāra (P.I.4.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9) and has been later on given as a Paribhāṣā by later grammarians (Pari. Śek. Pari.28).The Paribhāṣā is referred to as वृद्ब्रह्मणपरिभाषा in later grammar works especially commentary works.
kṛllukthe elision of a kṛt affix: the word is found used along with the words प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः, and प्रकृतिवत् कारकं भवति in the Vārttika अाख्यानात्कृतस्तदाचष्टे इतेि कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकम् by means of which the phrase कंसं घातयति is formed for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे.
krukankṛt affix रुक; e.g, भीरुकः; confer, compare(भियः) क्रुकन्नपि वक्तव्यः P.III.2.174 Vārttika.
kroṣṭrīyaan ancient school of grammarians who are believed to have written rules or Vārttikas on some rules of Pāṇini to modify them; the क्रोष्ट्रीय school is quoted in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare परिभाषान्तरमिति च मत्वा क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3.
klībatvaa word used in the sense of 'neuter gender' by grammarians later than पतञ्जलि and the Vārttikakāra; confer, compare समभागे क्लीबलिङ्गमर्धमेकदेशिना समस्यते Bhāṣā Vr. on P.II.2.2; पक्षे हि क्लीबत्वम् Kaiyaṭa's Pr. on II.1. 51; समाहारद्वन्द्वे क्लीबत्वप्रसङ्गात् Durgh. Vr. on P.II.4.l7.
ksa(1)aorist vikaraṇa affix substituted for च्लि; confer, compare P.III.1.45, 46; e. g. अदृक्षत्, आश्लिक्षत्, अधुक्षत् confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.1.45,46; (2) kṛt affix स applied to the root दृश् preceded by a pronoun such as त्यद्, तद् et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example यादृक्षः, तादृक्ष: et cetera, and others confer, compare दृशेः क्सश्च वक्तव्य: P.III.2.60 Vārttika. (3) affix स applied to the root गाह् or ख्या or कव् to form the noun कक्ष; confer, compare कक्षो गाहतेः क्स इति नामकरण: ख्यातेर्वा कषतेर्वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
khyunkṛt affix अन applied to the root कृ in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words अाढ्य, सुभग, स्थूल et cetera, and others provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( च्व्यर्थ ), exempli gratia, for example अाढ्यं करणम् , सुभगंकरणम्; confer, compare P. III. 2.56; feminine. अाढ्यंकरणी, confer, compare नञ्स्नञीकक्ख्युंस्तरुणतलुनानामुपसंख्यानम् P.IV.1.15.Vārttika.
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
cekīyitathe sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works confer, compare धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omittedition See चर्करीत।
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
jhacwording of the affix झ (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel of अन्त acute, by चितः (P.VI.1.163) the property चित्व being transferred from the original झ to अन्त; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. तथा च झचश्चित्करणमर्थवद् भवति on P.VII.1.3.
jhita term, meaning 'having झ् as इत्' used by the Varttikakra in connection with those words in the rules of Panini which themselves as well as words referring to their special kinds, are liable to undergo the prescribed operation; confer, compare झित् तस्य च तद्विशेषाणां च मत्स्याद्यर्थम्। पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति। मात्त्प्यिक;। तद्विशेषाणाम्। शाफरिकः शाकुलिकः । M.Bh.on P.I. 1. 68 Vart. 8.
ñiṭhataddhita affix. affix इक added to words headed by काशी as also to words meaning a village in the Vahika country optionally with the affix ठञ् in the Saisika senses;exempli gratia, for example काशिका, काशिकी, बैदिका, बेदिकी, शाकलिकां, शाकलिकी. The affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added to the word काल preceded by आपद् as also by some other words; e. g. आपत्कालिका, अापत्कालिकी तात्कालिका, तात्कालिकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.2. 116,117,118 and Varttika on IV. 2.116.
ḍarakrt affix अर added to the root खन् in the sense of 'instrument' or 'location' exempli gratia, for example आखरः, confer, compare P.III.3. 125 Vartika.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇastaddhita affix. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
taṇancient term for संज्ञा and छन्दस् used by the Vartikakara: confer, compare बहुलं तणीति वक्तव्यम् । किमिदं तणीति । संज्ञाचन्दसो र्ग्रहणम् , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.54 Vart. 11: III. 2.8 Vart. 2; IV. 1.52. Vart. 3.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadādividhia convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: confer, compare यस्मिन्विधिस्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
trimuni(1)the famous three ancient grammarians Panini (the author of the Sutras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), and Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhasya;) (2) the grammar of Panini, called so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians.
dūsataddhita affix. affix prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of milk(दुग्ध) along with the affixes सोढ and मरीस optionally, by the Vartikakara; e. g. अविदूसम् । अविसोढम् । अविमरीसम्; confer, compare Kas, on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). IV. 2. 36.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātānarthakatvathe view prominently expressed by the Varttikakara that nipatas do not possess any sense, which was modified by Bhartrhari who stated that they do possess sense which, of course, is indicated and not expressedition See निपात.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
parisaṃkhyānaliterally enumeration; enunciation;mention ; the word is found generally used by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras at the end of their Varttikas. The words वक्तव्यम्, वाच्यम् , and the like, are similarly usedition
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
puruṣakāraname of a commentary on the Sarasvatikaņthābharaņa of Bhoja by Kŗşņalilāśukamuni.
pauṣkarasādian ancient grammarian who belonged to the dynasty of पुष्करसद्, whose views are quoted by the Varttikakara and the writers of the Pratisakhya works: cf चयो द्वितीयाः शारि पौष्करसादेः P. VIII. 4.48 Vart. 3; confer, compare also व्यञ्जनपरः पौष्करसादेर्न पूर्वश्च ञकारम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V: confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 16; XIV. 2, XVII. 6.
prāgdeśadistricts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): confer, compare प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prādisamāsaa compound with प्र and others prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P. II.2.18 and explained in detail by the Varttikas headed by the Varttika प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया P. II. 2. 18 Vart. 4, which comes under the general head तत्पुरुष ; the compound is also called प्रादितत्पुरुष; confer, compare कथं प्रभावो राज्ञः । प्रकृष्टो भाव इति प्रादिसमासो भविष्यति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.24 cf also प्रान्तः पर्यन्तः । बहुव्रीहिरयं प्रादिसमासो वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 180.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bhāṣyasūtrathe brief pithy statements in the Mahābhāṣya of the type of the Sūtras or the Vārttikas. These assertions or statements are named 'ișṭi' also.
bhāṣyeṣṭithe brief pithy assertions or injunctions of the type of Sūtras given by Patañjali in a way to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Vārttikas thereon. See the word इष्टि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. and the word भाष्यसूत्र also.
bhoganirtaddhita affix. affix भोगीनर् suggested by the Vārttikakāra to form words like राजभोगीन, अाचार्यभोगीन which are derived by the rule आत्मन्विश्वजनभोगोत्तरपदात् ख: P. V. 1.9.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
madhyamapadalopaliterally the dropping of the middle word or member ( of a compound generally) as for instance in शाकपार्थिक for शाकप्रियपार्थिव; the word मध्यमपदलोप is also used in the sense of a compound. The compounds which have the middle word dropped are enumerated by the Vārttikakāra under the Vārttika शाकपार्थिवादीनां मध्यमपदलेापश्च Bh. Vṛ. II.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).; cf also Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.6.30.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
yañ(1)short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: confer, compare अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) taddhita affix. affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः et cetera, and others, confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the taddhita affix. affix अण् added to them : exempli gratia, for example अाभजित्य: confer, compare P. V. 3. 118.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
rak(1)taddhita affix.affix र proposed by the Varttikakra instead of अारक् for being affixed to the word गोधा to form the word गौधारः: confer, compare आरग्वचनमनर्थकं रका सिद्धत्वात् P.IV.1.130 Vart. 1 ; (2) krt affix रक् applied to the root ज्या; confer, compare रकेि ज्यः प्रसारणम् P. I.1.4 Vart. 6.
ramaugment र inserted after the vowel अ of the root भ्रस्ज्, when the letterर् which is already present in भ्ररुज् (before अ) and the penultimate स् are dropped; the result is that the word भर्ज्, in short, becomes substituted in the place of भ्रस्ज्: confer, compare भ्रस्जो रोपधयो रमन्यतरस्याम्P.VI. 4.47, and भ्रस्जो रोपधयोर्लोप अागमो रम् विधीयते as Bharadvajiya Varttika thereon
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vacana(1)literally statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; confer, compare अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; confer, compare ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन et cetera, and others; confer, compare वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन et cetera, and others as classes of words; confer, compare also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.8.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇārthavattvathe theory or view that individual letters are severally possessed of different senses. For instance, the difference in the meanings of the words कूप, यूप, and सृप is due to the difference in their initial letter. The theory is not acceptable to the Vaiyakaranas nor the theory वर्णानर्थवत्व given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. They follow the theory of संघातार्थवत्त्व i. e. sense given by a group of words together. See M.Bh, on Siva Sutra 5, Varttikas 9 to 15.
varṇikuberanāthaor वर्णिकुवेरानन्द an old writer on grammar who has written a work named शब्दविवरण on the meanings of words. The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. Both the works are incomplete. The शब्दविवरण is based mostly upon ancient grammar works of Patanjali Vararuci, Varttikakara, Sarvavarman, Bhartrhari and others.
vasuthe krt. affix क्वसु which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The word वसु is used for क्वसु by the Varttikakara: confer, compare वसुसंप्रसारणमाज्विधौ सिद्धं वक्तव्यम् P.VI.4.22 Vart. 9.
vākyakāraa term used for a writer who composes a work in pithy, brief assertions in the manner of sutras, such as the Varttikas. The term is found used in Bhartrhari's Mahabhasyadipika where by contrast with the term Bhasyakara it possibly refers to the varttikakara Katyayana; confer, compare एषा भाष्यकारस्य कल्पना न वाक्यकारस्य Bhartrhari Mahabhasyadipika. confer, compare also Nagesa's statement वाक्यकारो वार्तिकरमारभते: confer, compare also चुलुम्पादयो वाक्यकारीया ; Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti.
vācanikaexpressly cited by a वचन or a statement of the authors of the Sutra, the Varttika and the Mahabhasya, as contrasted with what naturally occurs or is inferred from their statements; confer, compare नेदं वाचनिकसलिङ्गता असंख्यता च ( अव्ययानाम् ) ( स्वाभाविकमेतत् M.Bh. on P.I. 1.38 Vart. 5 and P. II.2.6, confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.64 Vart. 53.
vācya(1)directly expressed (sense) as contrasted with व्यङ्ग्य or ध्वनित: confer, compare शब्देनार्थान् वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात्पौर्वापर्यम् | M.Bh. on P. I.4.109 Vart. 10; (2) which should be stated or which deserves to be stated, The word वाच्य is generally put in connection with the additions or corrections to the sutras by the Varttikakara and the Mahbhasyakara in their explanations: confer, compare तत्रैतावद्वाच्यम्, M.Bh. on P. I.4.1 ; confer, compare also वाच्य ऊर्णोर्णुवद्भावःM.Bh. on P. III.1. 22 Vart. 3; III. I. 36 Vart. 6.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vārarucaa work attributed to वररुचि: confer, compare वाररुचे काव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. IV.3.101 cf also वाररुनो ग्रन्थ: S.K.on P.IV.3. 101 This work possibly was not a grammar work and its author also was not the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. See वरुरुचि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The name वाररुचव्याकरण was given possibly to Katyayana's Prakrit Grammar, the author of which was वररुचि surnamed Katyayana. For details see p.395 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
vārarucakārikāan ancient grammarwork in verse believed to have been written by an ancient scholar of grammar, who, if not the same as Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas, was his contemporary and to whom the authorship of the Unadi Sutras is ascribed by some scholars. See वररुचि.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vebhaktabelonging to a case-affix; confer, compare क्राभ्यां सॊ वैभक्तः ( मूर्धन्यमापद्यते )। ऋक्षु। वणिक्षु । confer, compare also वैभक्तस्य णत्वे P. VI. 1.85 Varttika 6.
vyavasthāliterally definite arrangement; restriction regarding the application of a rule, especially when it seems to overlap, as done by the Varttikakara, and later on by the Paribhashas laid down by grammarians regarding the rules of Panini: confer, compare स्वाभिधेयापेक्षावधिनियमो व्यवस्था S. K. on P. I.1.34; confer, compare also लक्ष्यानुसाराह्यवस्था Par. Sek. Pari. 99, 108.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śabdārthasaṃbandhathe connection between a word and its sense which is a permanently established one. According to grammarians,words, their sense and their connection, all the three, are established for ever: confer, compare सिद्धे शव्दार्थसंबन्ध P. I.1. . Varttika 1,and the Bhasya thereon सिद्ध शब्द: अर्थः संबन्धश्चेति | Later grammarians have described twelve kinds of शब्दार्थसंबन्ध viz. अभिधा,विवक्षा, तात्पर्य, प्रविभाग, व्यपेक्ष, सामर्थ्य अन्वय, एकार्थीभाव, दोषहान, गुणोपादान, अलंकारयेाग and रसावियोग: confer, compare Sringaraprakasa.I.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śrutaliterally what is actually heard; the word is used in connection with such statements as are made by the authoritative grammarians, Panini and the Varttikakara by their actual utterance or wording, as contrasted with such dictums as can be deduced only from their writings. confer, compare श्रुतानुभितंयोः श्रौतः संबन्धो बलीयान्. Par. Sek Pari. 104.
ṣaḍgavacliterally a collection of six cows; secondarily 'a collection of six animals or quadrupeds'. The word षड्गव was prescribed by later grammarians as a tad-affix by means of a Vartika when they saw the the word षड्गव used in language after the word अश्व et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वषड्गवम्; confer, compare प्रकृत्यर्थस्य षट्त्वे षङ्गवच् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.29.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
sadhīnartad, affix अधीन proposed by the Varttikakara in the sense of 'something in that or from that'; exempli gratia, for example राजनीदं राजाधीनं; confer, compare तस्मातत्रेदमिति सधीनर् P. V. 4.7 Vart. 2. The standard affix in such cases is ख ( ईन ) by the rule अषडक्ष अध्युत्तरपदात् ख; P. V. 4.7.
siddha(1)established; the term is used in the sense of नित्य or eternal in the Varttika सिद्धे शब्दार्थसंबन्धे where, as Patanjali has observed, the word सिद्ध meaning नित्य has been purposely put in to mark an auspicious beginning of the शब्दानुशासनशास्त्र which commences with that Varttika; confer, compare माङ्गलिक आचार्यो महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थे सिद्धशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्क्ते M.Bh.on Ahnika 1; (2) established, proved, formed; the word is many times used in this sense in the Mahabhasya, as also in the Varttikas especially when a reply is to be given to an objection; confer, compare P.I. 1.3 Vart. 17, I.1. 4. Vart. 6: I. I. 5, Vart.5,I.1.9 Vart. 2 et cetera, and others
su(l)case affix ( सु ) of the nominative singular and ( सु ) of the locative plural; confer, compare P. IV. 1.2: (2) Unadi affix सु ( क्सु ) applied to the roots इष्: e.g, इक्षु: confer, compare इषः क्सुः Unadi 437. सुक् augment सुक् added according to some grammarians to any word optionally with असुक्, which is prescribed in the case of the words अश्व, वृष, क्षीर and लवण before the affix क्यच् ( य ) in the sense of desire. e. g. दधिस्यति, मधुस्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1 51 Varttika.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
sūtrakārathe original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara;confer, compare पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1.
saunāganame of a school of ancient grammarians who composed Varttikas in explanation of the sutras of Panini; confer, compare सौनागाः पठन्ति P. III. 2.56 Vart. 1, IV. 1.74 Vart. 1. confer, compare एतदेव सौनागैर्विस्तरतरकेण पठितम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.18 Vart. 4.
skandhaca taddhita affix. affix in the sense of collection, added to the words नर, करि and तुरङ्ग: confer, compare Varttika on P. IV. 2.51 quoted in the Kasikvrtti.
smṛtian authoritative dictum of an ancient grammarian before the famous author of the Varttika;confer, compare तथा च स्मृतिः श्तिपा शापानुबन्धेन निर्दिष्ट्ं etc, Siradeva Pari. 68.
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
hṛdayahāriṇīname of a commentary written by a grammrian named दण्डनाथ on the Sarasvatikanthabharana of Bhojarja.
     DCS with thanks   
280 results
     
tika noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35372/72933
akṛtika adjective
Frequency rank 41559/72933
agatika adjective not to be walked on (as an evil path) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
without resort or resources (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41632/72933
agastika noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 41646/72933
atikaṭu adjective sehr kaṭu
Frequency rank 41996/72933
atikaṭuka adjective
Frequency rank 41997/72933
atikaṇṭaka noun (masculine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 41998/72933
atikathana noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 41999/72933
atikandaka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 42000/72933
atikapha noun (masculine) excessive phlegm
Frequency rank 42001/72933
atikaruṇātman adjective very karuṇātman
Frequency rank 42002/72933
atikardama adjective
Frequency rank 42003/72933
atikarśana noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 31503/72933
atikarṣaṇa noun (neuter) excessive exertion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42004/72933
atikala adjective
Frequency rank 42005/72933
atikalya adjective
Frequency rank 31504/72933
atyantika adjective too close (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42315/72933
adantika adjective without teeth
Frequency rank 31631/72933
adhimuktika noun (masculine) name of Mahākāla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42493/72933
anantika adjective
Frequency rank 31732/72933
anātyantika adjective intermittent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not final (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not perpetual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
recurrent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31801/72933
anāstika noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 20555/72933
anicchantika adjective
Frequency rank 42943/72933
anicchantika noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 42944/72933
anivartika adjective incessant not leading to a rebirth
Frequency rank 8546/72933
anivṛttika adjective not leading to rebirth
Frequency rank 43009/72933
anutpattikadharmakṣānti noun (feminine) acquiescence in the state which is still future (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preparation for a future state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31910/72933
anuśatika adjective accompanied with or bought for a hundred (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43333/72933
anṛtika adjective
Frequency rank 43400/72933
anaikāntika adjective having many objects or purposes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unsteady (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
variable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9308/72933
antika adjective near (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26400/72933
antika noun (neuter) proximity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vicinity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1751/72933
antika adjective lasting till (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reaching to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reaching to the end of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
until (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8921/72933
aparāntika adjective living at the western border
Frequency rank 43649/72933
apratikarman adjective of unparalleled deeds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20652/72933
apravṛttika adjective
Frequency rank 43965/72933
abhaktika adjective not showing Bhakti
Frequency rank 44076/72933
abhittika adjective
Frequency rank 44138/72933
abhautika adjective not material (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not relating to or produced by the gross elements (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32399/72933
amūrtika adjective formless shapeless
Frequency rank 32481/72933
avakąptika adjective
Frequency rank 45083/72933
avarṣaśatika adjective not living 100 years
Frequency rank 45222/72933
avitṛptika adjective
Frequency rank 45365/72933
aśītika adjective an octogenarian (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measuring eighty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23279/72933
aṣṭauninditika noun (masculine) name of Carakasaṃhitā, Sū. 21
Frequency rank 45747/72933
asāṃketika adjective
Frequency rank 32882/72933
ākṛtika adjective having the form of ...
Frequency rank 46183/72933
ākhyātika adjective verbal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46221/72933
ātyantika adjective continual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
endless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
entire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
infinite (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uninterrupted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
universal (as the world's destruction etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6661/72933
ādhibhautika adjective belonging or relating to created beings (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
derived or produced from the primitive elements (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
elementary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
material (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10039/72933
ānantika adjective
Frequency rank 46408/72933
ānṛtika adjective not true
Frequency rank 46434/72933
ānṛtikatva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 46435/72933
āntika adjective deadly
Frequency rank 33081/72933
āparāntika adjective
Frequency rank 46453/72933
ābhighātika adjective used for an attack
Frequency rank 46500/72933
āmaraṇāntika adjective continuing till death (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having death as the limit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lasting for life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33113/72933
āvantika adjective belonging to or coming from Avanti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46694/72933
āstika noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 10588/72933
āstika adjective believing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
faithful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who believes in the existence (of God) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23409/72933
icchantika adjective one who is destitute of Buddha nature
Frequency rank 15536/72933
itikartavya adjective proper or necessary to be done according to certain conditions (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12848/72933
uttarabastika noun (neuter) [medic.] uttarabasti
Frequency rank 33372/72933
uttarabhaktika adjective employed after eating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33373/72933
utpattika adjective having an origin
Frequency rank 47187/72933
utpātika adjective supernatural (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47198/72933
upapātika adjective
Frequency rank 47551/72933
upāntika noun (neuter) proximity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vicinity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27223/72933
ekabhaktika adjective eating only one meal (a day) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47978/72933
ekaviṃśatikalpakathānakavarṇana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa 13
Frequency rank 47993/72933
ekāntika adjective devoted to one aim or object or person or theory (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27281/72933
aikāntika adjective absolute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
complete (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exclusive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
necessary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10898/72933