tailac affix तैल applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance from which oil is extracted: e. g. तिलतैलं सर्षपतैलम् ; taddhita affix. विकारे सेनहने तैलच्, Kas on P. V. 2. 29. confer, compare adhikāra governing rule consisting of a word ( प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः exempli gratia, for example ) or words ( et cetera, and others ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे exempli gratia, for example ) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; et cetera, and others अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeat confer, compare The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if oppo edition These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; singular. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥ confer, compare anarthaka (1) without any signification; having no meaning of themselves, literally possessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); id est, that is अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, exempli gratia, for example अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ confer, compare on P.I.4.93; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः confer, compare I. 1.3: Nirukta of Yāska. also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 confer, compare 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. on 1. varia lectio, another reading, XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. confer, compare 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). apavāda a special rule which sets aside the general rule; a rule forming an exception to the general rule. आतोनुपसर्गे कः III.2.2 which is an exception of the general rule कर्मण्यण् III.2.1; exempli gratia, for example येन नाप्राप्तो यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, तदपवादोयं येागो भवति; Pari. Śekh. Par 57; for details see Pari. Śekh. Pari. 57-65: cf न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् । न्याया उत्सर्गाः महाविधयः । अपवादा अल्पविषयाः विधय: । तानुत्सर्गेण मिश्रानेकीकृताञ् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः । confer, compare I. 23 and Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) thereon ; (2) fault; commentary शास्त्रापवादात् प्रतिपत्तिभेदात् confer, compare XIV. 30 on which उव्वट remarks शास्त्राणामपवादा दोषाः सन्ति पुनरुक्तता अविस्पष्टार्थता, कष्टशब्दार्थता... Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) avagraha (1) separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originat exempli gratia, for example The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. ( edition II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।( confer, compare on IV.2.36); also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् ( confer, compare on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; exempli gratia, for example समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः ( confer, compare V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. asiddha invalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidat Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the edition invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given confer, compare . Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. asiddhaparibhāṣā the same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध . For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. ādyudātta a word beginning with an acute-accent which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; id est, that is P. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216. confer, compare indra name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya confer, compare by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127. edition utsarga a general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23. confer, compare upasarga preposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': सोपसर्गेषु नामसु confer, compare XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; et cetera, and others उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् confer, compare I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, Nirukta of Yāska. ), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see et cetera, and others I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Nirukta of Yāska. 7 and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attach Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः edition XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 15, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. upasargadyotyatā the view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connect For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya edition by the D. E. Society, Poona. edition uṣṇih (उष्णिक्) name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see XVI 20-26. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ṛṣicchands the metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see XVI.1.5. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ekaśeṣa a kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः confer, compare अजा feminine. अश्वाः feminine. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original masculine gender. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. aindra name of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': ( I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). karmavadbhāva the activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see et cetera, and others on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga. id est, that is kalāpa (कलाप-व्याकरण) alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र. kātantra name of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. . A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375. Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. kātyāyana the well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascrib For details see edition . pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below. The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. kāryakālaparibhāṣā one of the important Paribhāṣā, regarding the application of the Paribhāṣā rules. See कायैकाल. For details see Pari. 3. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. kāryātideśa looking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59. kāśikā (1) name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. kīlhārn Kielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona. kaiyaṭa name of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the out of which Nageśa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390. Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. īśeḥ (VII.2.77) अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, confer, compare VI. l to 4; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः confer, compare on Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ confer, compare X. 1. For details and special features, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) confer, compare ch. X and XI: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also confer, compare IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. kramapāṭha recital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम . The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् confer, compare on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). gaṅgādhara [GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l) a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्. gūḍhabhāvavṛtti a commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriya Kaumudi by Krsnasesa of the famous Sesa family of grammarians. The date of this Krsnasesa is the middle of the sixteenth century. For details about Krsnasesa and the Sesa family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B. S. S. No. 78. gaurādi a class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; exempli gratia, for example P. VI.2.194. confer, compare ca (l) the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare confer, compare on II. 2.29. See also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). confer, compare on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; ( Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. confer, compare on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75. confer, compare cāndra name of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र . For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ciccandrikā name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona. jayāditya one of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका. jahatsvārthā ( वृत्ति ) a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). jātabahiraṅgāsiddhatva invalidity of a Bahiranga operation that has already taken place by virtue of the Antaranga-paribhasa-असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्ङ्गेthat which is ' bahiranga' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is 'antarahga' is to take effect. For details see Par. Sek. Paribhasa 50. jāti genus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same k The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः indeclinable on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). jainendravyākaraṇa name of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglect The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi. edition tatpuruṣa name of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष id est, that is P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, confer, compare , and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; et cetera, and others परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, confer, compare on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: confer, compare राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; exempli gratia, for example P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compare P.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona. confer, compare tadguṇasaṃvijñāna connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Bahuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; e g. the compound word सर्वादि in the rule सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि includes the word सर्व among the words विश्व, उभय and others, which alone form the अन्यपदार्थ or the external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned in Panini's rule अनेकमन्यमपदार्थे (P.II. 2. 24): literally भवति बहुर्वीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि । तद्यथा । चित्रवाससमानय। लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति । तद्गुण आनीयते तद्गुणाश्च प्रचरन्ति M.Bh. on I.1.27. For details confer, compare Mahabhasya on P.1.1.27 as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77. confer, compare tiṅartha senses possessed by the personal endings of verbs, viz. कारक ( कर्ता or कर्म ) संख्या and काल. For details see Vaiyakaranabhusanasara. तिङ्निघात the grave accent for the whole word (सर्वेनिघात्) generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb; तिङतिङ: P. VIII. 1.28. confer, compare taittirīyaprātiśākhya called also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore. edition dvanddha name of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ confer, compare ) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others ) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together et cetera, and others when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; id est, that is अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व. confer, compare dvikarmaka a term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52. exempli gratia, for example dvitva doubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव exempli gratia, for example cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others et cetera, and others P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् ， which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् confer, compare cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र et cetera, and others P. VIII. 4.47. For details see confer, compare on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. confer, compare on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synony Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature manuscript. confer, compare VI. 1.4; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. dhātu a root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; et cetera, and others ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, confer, compare अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; exempli gratia, for example P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा confer, compare शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) confer, compare गोप्ता, गेीपिता, exempli gratia, for example P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, confer, compare अगमत् exempli gratia, for example P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् confer, compare on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona. confer, compare dhātvarthe meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . literally धात्वर्थः क्रिया; confer, compare on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given confer, compare are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. dhṛta or dhṛtapracaya a kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3. navyamata a term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya D.E. Society, Poona. edition nāgeśa the most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundr He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the edition on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. D. E. Society, Poona. edition nipāta a particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elid Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works; edition confer, compare I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Nirukta of Yāska. XII. 8 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; et cetera, and others अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । confer, compare I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; Nirukta of Yāska. निपातः पादपूरणः confer, compare XII. 8, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 50, ( Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answer commentary Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; edition निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconcil confer, compare This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicat edition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206. edition nimittāpāyaparibhāṣā a popular name given by grammarians to the maxim निमित्तापाये नैमित्तिकस्याप्यपायः,. a thing, which is brought into existence by a cause, disappears on the disappearance of the cause. The maxim is not, of course, universally applicable. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 56, Sira. Pari. 99. nirdiśyamānaparibhāṣā a short form for the maxim निर्दिश्यमानस्यादेशा भवन्ति which means 'substitutes take the place of that or its part which has been actually stated or enunciated in the rule (of grammar)' Par. Sek. Pari. 12. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 12. nirvacana interpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; निष्कृष्य विगृह्य निर्वचनम्, Durgavrtti on confer, compare II. 1.For details see Nirukta II.1. Nirukta of Yāska. nirvartya one of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । confer, compare on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). patañjali the reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itsel The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; feminine. पतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explain confer, compare He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are cover edition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य. edition pada a word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' ( confer, compare III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and confer, compare affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु taddhita affix. as also before the et cetera, and others affixes मत्, वत् taddhita affix. which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; et cetera, and others स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् confer, compare on P. I. 2. 64 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. 2; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा confer, compare on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् confer, compare , (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others , (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words et cetera, and others verbs like एधते, वर्धते, id est, that is Verbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words. et cetera, and others padaprabheda lit, divisions of words: parts of speech. There are four parts of speech viz.नामन् , आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Prātiśākhya works, while there are given only two, सुबन्त and तिङन्त by Pāņini. For details see pp. 145, 146 Vol. VII. Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition. padamañjarī the learned commentary by Haradatta on the काशिकावृत्ति. Haradatta was a very learned grammarian of the Southern School, and the Benares School of Grammarians follow पदमञ्जरी more than the equally learned another commentary काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका or न्यास. In the Padamanjarī Haradatta is said to have given everything of importance from the Mahābhāșya; अधीते हि महाभाष्ये व्यर्था सा पदमञ्जरी. For details see Mahābhāșya D. E. S. Ed. Vol. VII P. 390-391. confer, compare pāṇini the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation o the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native pl feminine. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition. accusative case. pāṇinisūtra called also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162. confer, compare pāṇinisūtravārtika name given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. confer, compare Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224. et cetera, and others pāraskarādigaṇa or पारस्करप्रभृति, words headed by the word पारस्कर which have got some irregularity, especially the insertion of स् between the constituent words. For details see पारस्करप्रभृतीनि च संज्ञायाम् P. VI. 1.153 and the commentary thereon. pitkṛta a grammatical operation caused by an affix marked with the mute consonant प्: यत्तु खलु पिति ङित्कृतं प्राप्नोति ङिति च पित्कृतं केन तन्न स्यात्, M. Bh, on III. 1.-3 Vart. 7. For details see पित्. confer, compare puṃvadbhāva restoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पाश, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition. taddhita affix. puṃska masculine nature, hence masculine gender. The word is generally found as a part of the word भाषितपुंस्क which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the feminine gender or in the neuter and the masculine gender in the same sense. For details see M. Bh, on P. VI.3.34. puṣkaraṇa a popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare pūrvavipratiṣedha conflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l confer, compare on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others also पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare pailādi a class of words headed by the word पैल, the affix in the sense of युवन् applied to which (words) is elided; taddhita affix. पैलः पिता, पैलः पुत्रः ; for details see exempli gratia, for example on P.II.4. 59. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prakīrṇakāṇḍa name given to the third Kanda or book of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya where miscellaneous topics are treat The third Kanda consists of 14 sections called by the name Samuddesa. For details see pp. 381-382 Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition. edition prayoganiyama general rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति confer, compare on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction. confer, compare pravāda a grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, affix and the like: taddhita affix. लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । confer, compare XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on confer, compare IV. 22; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, confer, compare IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23. confer, compare prāgdeśa districts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ confer, compare on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prācīnamata the view or doctrine of the former or rather older grammarians. The word is used in many commentary books and the meaning of the word is to be decided according to the context. For example in the works of Ramacandra, the author of the Prakriyakaumudi and his followers, the word refers to the view given by the writers of the Kasikavrtti and the commentaries thereon in the works of Bhattoji and his pupils, it refers to the writer of the Prakriyakaumudi in addition to the writers of the Kasika, while in the works of Nagesa it refers to the writings of Bhattoji and his pupils. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. V1I pp. 23-24 D. E. Society's Edition. prādisamāsa a compound with प्र and others prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P. II.2.18 and explained in detail by the Varttikas headed by the Varttika प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया P. II. 2. 18 Vart. 4, which comes under the general head तत्पुरुष ; the compound is also called प्रादितत्पुरुष; कथं प्रभावो राज्ञः । प्रकृष्टो भाव इति प्रादिसमासो भविष्यति । confer, compare on P. III. 3.24 cf also प्रान्तः पर्यन्तः । बहुव्रीहिरयं प्रादिसमासो वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 180. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. priyādi a class of words headed by the word प्रिया which do not allow their previous word in a bahuvrihi compound to take the masculine base by the rule स्त्रियाः पुंवत्.. P. VI. 3.84: e. g. कल्याणीप्रियः For details, see Kas, on P. VI. 3.34. bṛhacchabdaratna a learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. विस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60. confer, compare bṛhatī a Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37. bhasaṃjñā the term भ applied to the noun-base in contrast with the term पद. For details see the word भ. bhāṣāvṛtti a short gloss on the of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव. confer, compare bhāskaraśāstrī surnamed Abhyankar (1785-1870) a great grammarian in the line of the pupils of Nāgeśa who was educated at Poona and lived at Sātārā. He taught many pupils, a large number of whom helped the spread of Vyākaraṇa studies even in distant places of the country, such as Vārāṇasi and others. For details see Vyākaraṇa pp. 27-29, D. E. Society's Edition. The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. bhairavamiśra one of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition. mantra name given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; confer, compare on P.I. 1.68 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. ( confer, compare I. 1. 68 confer, compare 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacr Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38. edition mahābhāṣyadīpikā a very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition. mahābhāṣyapradīpa a very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifi Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition. edition māhendra name of very ancient,prePaninian grammar ascribed to इन्द् of which some references only are available. The grammar work is also referred to as ऐन्द्र: यान्युञ्जह्यार् महेन्द्राद् व्यासो व्याकरणार्णवात् | पदरत्नानि किं तानि सन्ति पाणिनिगेाष्पदे Devabodha's confer, compare on the Mahabharata. For details see p. 124-27 Vol. VII Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's Edition. commentary māheśasutr the fourteen sutras अइउण्, ऋलृक् which are believed to have been composed by Siva and taught to Paanini, by means of the sounds of the drum beaten at the end of the dance; et cetera, and others नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजेा ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद्विमशौ शिवसूत्रजालम् Nandikeswara-kaarikaa 1. For details see Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare yathāśrutārthagrāhin one who grasps the sense as given by the actual wording without going into details re: the use or application : cf यथाश्रुतग्राहिप्रतिपत्रपेक्षोयम् यथोद्देशपक्षः इति कैयटः : Par. Sek. Pari. 2 et cetera, and others yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatā denotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29. confer, compare rāghavendracārya ( गजेन्द्रगडकर) a famous scholar of Grammar in the nineteenth century, who taught many pupils and wrote some commentary works, the well-known being प्रभा on the Sabdakaustubha, विषमपदव्याख्या on the Laghusabdendusekhara and त्रिपथगा on the Paribhisendusekhara. For details see p. 27 Vyakarana Mahbhasya Vol. VII D. E. Society's Edition. rājadantādi a class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fix There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: edition लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् exempli gratia, for example There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31. et cetera, and others rūpātideśa the actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96. confer, compare rephin a term applied(1)to the Visarjasnīya letter preceded by any vowel excepting अ and अा, ( 2 ) to the Visarjanīya preceded by अ in some specified words such as प्रातः, भाः, अविभः, अाद:, क: under certain conditions, as also, (3) to the Visarjanīya in हातः, सनितः et cetera, and others For details see et cetera, and others I.30-36. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) liṅga (1) sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि confer, compare on I.1.1 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). on P.I.3.62 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. confer, compare Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare confer, compare on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vākya a sentence giving an idea in a single unit of expression consisting of the verb with its karakas or instruments and adverbs; अाख्यातं साब्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् | साव्ययम् | उच्चैः पठति | सकारकम् | ओदनं पचति | confer, compare on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 10. Regarding the different theoretical ways of the interpretation of a sentence see the word शाब्दबोध. For details, see वाक्यपदीय II. 2 where the different definitions of वाक्य are given and the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट is established as the sense of a sentence. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vākyārtha the meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154. confer, compare vāraruca a work attributed to वररुचि: वाररुचे काव्यम् confer, compare on P. IV.3.101 cf also वाररुनो ग्रन्थ: S.K.on P.IV.3. 101 This work possibly was not a grammar work and its author also was not the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. See वरुरुचि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). . The name वाररुचव्याकरण was given possibly to Katyayana's Prakrit Grammar, the author of which was वररुचि surnamed Katyayana. For details see p.395 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vārttika a statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discuss The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated edition . If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vārttikakāra believed to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः ) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition. et cetera, and others vārttikasiddhānta categorical conclusive statements made by the Varttikakara many of which were cited later on as Paribhasas by later writers For details see pp. 212220 Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahbhasya, D. E. Society's edition. vibhakti division, separation; separation of the base literally that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; id est, that is विभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to confer, compare affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73. taddhita affix. vibhāṣā optionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44. confer, compare virāma an ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण confer, compare XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110. confer, compare vīpsā complete application to all the different parts; comprehensive inclusion of every part or unit: desire to occupy completely: व्याप्तिविशेषविषया प्रयोक्तुरिच्छा वीप्सिा नानावा| चिनामधिकरणानां क्रियागुणाभ्यां युगपत्प्रयोक्तुर्व्याप्तुर्व्याप्तुमिच्छा नानाभूतार्थवाचिनां शब्दानां यान्यधिकरणानि वाच्यानि तेषां क्रियागुणाभ्यां युगपत्प्रयोक्तुमिच्छा वीप्सा; confer, compare ग्रामो ग्रामो रमणीयः । Kāś on P.VIII.1.4. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.VIII.1.1 and 4. exempli gratia, for example vaiyāghrapadya name of a treatise of grammar written in ten chapters by an ancient grammarian व्याघ्रपाद्; दशकं वैयाघ्रपद्यम् confer, compare on P. IV 2.65. For details, see Vyakaranamahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Ed. pp. 133, 134. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. vyapadeśivadbhāva treatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् confer, compare on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). confer, compare Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30, et cetera, and others vyākaraṇadarśana the science of Vyakarana with the element of Sphota introduced in it and brought consequently on a par with the other Darsanas by the stalwart grammar-scholar Bhartrhari of the 7th century A. D. For details see Sarvadarsanasangraha ' Paninidarsanam ' and page 385 Vol. VII. of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya edited by the D. ESociety, Poona. byāḍi name of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् confer, compare Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition. Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. śakti potentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III. śrīmānaśarmā a famous grammarian of Eastern India who has written a short scholarly gloss named Vijaya on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara. For details refer to Paribhasasamgraha. ṣaṭkāraka (1) the six Karakas or instruments of action, which are differently connected with the verbal activity, viz. कर्तृ, कर्म, करण, संप्रदान, अपादान and अधिकरण; for details see कारक ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. तत्र शक्तिमतो द्रव्यस्य कारकाख्यायामवान्तरव्यापारनिबन्धना षडुपाख्या भवन्ति |कर्ता कर्म करणं संप्रदानमपादानमधिकरणं चेति | Sringara Prakasa IV; (2) a work of the name (षट्कारक) written by a Jain grammarian Mahesanandin. confer, compare ṣaṭkāraka (1) the six Karakas or instruments of action, which are differently connected with the verbal activity, viz. कर्तृ, कर्म, करण, संप्रदान, अपादान and अधिकरण; for details see कारक ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. तत्र शक्तिमतो द्रव्यस्य कारकाख्यायामवान्तरव्यापारनिबन्धना षडुपाख्या भवन्ति |कर्ता कर्म करणं संप्रदानमपादानमधिकरणं चेति | Sringara Prakasa IV; (2) a work of the name (षट्कारक) written by a Jain grammarian Mahesanandin. confer, compare saṃnipātaparibhāṣā the maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take pl This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39. accusative case. sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa called also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably chang By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition. edition sarvanāmasthāna a term used in Panini's grammar, for the first five case affixes सु, औ, अस्, अम् and औ as also for the and acc. nominative case. afix इ ( शि ) of the neuter gender. The term appears to be an old one, which was used, by a specific mention, for the first five case-affixes which caused a special change in the base before them in the case of many words; plural शि सर्वनामस्थानम् । सुडनपुंसकस्य P.I.1.42-48. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's confer, compare p. 239 footnote. edition sarvavarman spelt as शर्वबर्मन् also, the reputed author of the Katantra Vyakarana. He is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadbya at the Satavahana court, and to have revised and redacted the Katantra Sutras already existing for the benefit of his patron. With him began the Katantra school of grammar, the main contribution to which was made by दुर्गसिंहृ who wrote a scholarly gloss on the Katantra Sutras. For details see कातन्त्र, siddhahemacandra a title given to his grammar by Hemacandra himself, which subsequently came to be called हैमशब्दानुशासन or हैमव्याकरण. For details see हेमचन्द्र. sthāna place of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see confer, compare III, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. 1.18 to 20, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 2-10; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49. confer, compare sthānivadbhāva behaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. sphoṭa name given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare confer, compare on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; commentary स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:|| confer, compare svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. svarasaṃdhi euphonic combination of two vowels, a detailed description of which . forms a small topic in the Prtisakhya and grammar works; wide chapters II. 1-26; T Pr. chapters 9 and 10 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III and अच्सन्धिप्रकणम् in the Siddhantakaumudi. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. svarita the circumflex accent, the accent between the acute (.उदात्त) and the grave ( अनुदात्त); for details see स्वर. hū the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् ),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3. et cetera, and others hareidīkṣita a reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.