m. (fr.3. su-) juice, extract, (especially) the juice of the soma- plant, (also) the soma- plant itself (said to be the climbing plant Sarcostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida, the stalks[ aṃśu-]of which were pressed between stones[ adri-]by the priests, then sprinkled with water, and purified in a strainer[ pavitra-]; whence the acid juice trinkled into jars[ kalaśa-]or larger vessels[ droṇa-]; after which it was mixed with clarified butter, flour etc., made to ferment, and then offered in libations to the gods [in this respect corresponding with the ritual of the Iranian Avesta] or was drunk by the Brahmans, by both of whom its exhilarating effect was supposed to be prized; it was collected by moonlight on certain mountains [in ,the mountain mūja-vat- is mentioned]; it is sometimes described as having been brought from the sky by a falcon[ śyena-]and guarded by the gandharva-s; it is personified as one of the most important of Vedic gods, to whose praise all the 114 hymns of the 9th book of the besides 6 in other books and the whole are dedicated; in post-Vedic mythology and even in a few of the latest hymns of the [although not in the whole of the 9th book] as well as sometimes in the and in the , soma- is identified with the moon [as the receptacle of the other beverage of the gods called amṛta-, or as the lord of plants seeindu-, oṣadhi-pati-]and with the god of the moon, as well as with viṣṇu-, śiva-, yama-, and kubera-; he is called rājan-,and appears among the 8 vasu-s and the 8 loka-pāla-s[ ] , and is the reputed author of ,of a law-book etc.; see below) etc.
n.Name of a celebrated liṅga- of śiva- and of the place where it was set up by the god soma- (in the town described below;it was one of the 12 great liṅga- temples of India held in especial veneration[ see ], and was so famed for its splendour and wealth that it attracted the celebrated Mahmud of Ghazni, A.D. 1024, who, under pretext of destroying its idols, carried off its treasures along with its renowned gates) etc.
सोमः [सू-मन् Uṇ.1.139] 1 N. of a plant, the most important ingredient in ancient sacrificial offerings. -2 The juice of the plant; as in सोमपा, सोमपीथिन्; Ms. 3.257. -3 Nectar, beverage of the gods; अलब्धभागाः सोमस्य केवलं क्लेशभागिनः Bhāg.8.1.23. -4 The moon. [In mythology, the moon is represented as having sprung from the eye of the sage Atri; (cf. R.2.75) or as produced from the sea at the time of churning. The twenty-seven asterisms--mythologically represented as so many daughters of Dakṣa q. v. -are said to be his wives. The phenomenon of the periodical waning of the moon is explained by a myth which states that his nectareous digits are drunk up by different
gods in regular rotation, or by the invention of another legend which says that the moon, on account of his particular fondness and partiality for Rohiṇī, one of the 27 daughters of Dakṣa, was cursed by his father-in-law to be consumptive, but that at the intercession of his wives the sentence of eternal consumption was commuted to one of periodical consumption. Soma is also represented as having carried off Tārā, the wife of Bṛihaspati, by whom he had a son named Budha, who afterwards became the founder of the lunar race of kings; see Tārā (b) also.]; पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः Bg.15.13. -5 A ray of light. -6 Camphor. -7 Water. -8 Air, wind. -9 N. of Kubera. -1 Of Śiva. -11 Of Yama. -12 N. of Sugrīva. -13 (As the last member of comp.) Chief, principal, best; as in नृसोम q. v. -14 An ape. -15 One of the Manes. -16 the vessel (नाडी) 'Iḍā'; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः सहाग्निना । व्यवायं कुरुते नित्यं धीरो भूतानि धारयन् ॥ Mb.14.2.1 (com.). -17 Monday. -मा The soma plant. -मम् 1 Rice gruel. -2 Sky, heaven. -Comp. -अभिषवः the extraction of Soma juice. -अयनम् a kind of penance; cf. चान्द्रायण. -अहः Monday. -आख्यम् the red lotus. -आश्रयः N. of Śiva or Rudra; ˚अयनम् (सोमाश्रयायणम्) N. of a place of pilgrimages; ते त्वगच्छन्नहोरात्रा तीर्थं सोमाश्रयायणम् Mb.1.17.3. -ईश्वरः a celebrated representation of Śiva. -उद्भवा N. of the river Narmadā तथेत्युपस्पृश्य पयः पवित्रं सोमोद्भवायाः सरितो नृसोमः R.5.59 (where Malli. quotes Ak. 'रेवा तु नर्मदा सोमोद्भवा मेकलकन्यका'). -कान्त a. lovely as the moon. (-न्तः) the moon-stone. -क्षयः disappearance or waning of the moon, new moon; श्राद्धस्य ब्राह्मणः कालः प्राप्तं दधि घृतं तथा । सोमक्षयश्च मांसं च यदारण्यं युधिष्ठिर ॥ Mb.13.23.34. -गर्भः N. of Viṣṇu. -ग्रहः a vessel for holding Soma. -ज a. moon-born. (-जः) an epithet of the planet Mercury. (-जम्) milk. -दैवतम् the lunar mansion मृगशिरस्; दोग्ध्रीं दत्वा सवत्सां तु नक्षत्रे सोमदैवते Mb.13.64.7. -धारा 1 the sky, heaven. -2 the milky way. -नाथः 1 N. of a celebrated Liṅga or the place where it was set up; (which by its splendour and enormous wealth attracted the attention of Mahomad of Ghazani who in 124 A.D. destroyed the image and carried of the treasure); तेषां मार्गे परिचयवशादर्जितं गुर्जराणां यः संतापं शिथिलमकरोत् सोमनाथं विलोक्य । Vikr.18.87. -प, -पा m. 1 one who drinks the Soma; त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते Bg.9.2; Mb.12.284.8. -2 a Soma-sacrificer. -3 a particular class of Pitṛis; सोमपा नाम विप्राणां (पितरः) Ms.3.197. -पतिः N. of Indra. -पानम् drinking Soma juice. -पायिन्, -पीथः, -पीथिन्, -पीतिन् m. a drinker of Soma juice; तत्र केचित्... ... सोमपीथिन उदुम्बरनामानो ब्रह्मवादिनः प्रतिवसन्ति स्म Māl.1; Bhāg.5.26.29. -पीतिः f. 1 drinking Soma. -2 a Some sacrifice. -पुत्रः, -भूः, -सुतः epithets of Budha or Mercury. -प्रवाकः a person commissioned to engage sacrificial priests (श्रोत्रिय) for a Soma sacrifice. -बन्धुः 1 the sun. -2 the white water-lilly. -यज्ञः, -यागः the Soma sacrifice. -याजिन् m. one who performs a Soma sacrifice. -योगिन् a. being in conjunction with the moon. -योनिः a sort of yellow and fragrant sandal. -राजी a thin crescent of the moon. -रोगः a particular disease of women. -लता, -वल्लरी 1 the Soma plant. -2 N. of the river Godāvarī. -वंशः the lunar race of kings founded by Budha. -वल्कः 1 a kind of white Khadira. -2 N. of the plants, करञ्ज and कट्फल. -वल्लरिः(री), -वल्लिका, -वल्ली f. the moon-plant. -वारः, -वासरः Monday. -विक्रयिन् m. a vendor of Soma juice. -वीथी the orbit of the moon. -वृक्षः, -सारः the white Khadira. -शकला a kind of cucumber. -संस्था a form of the Soma-sacrifice; (these are seven:- अग्निष्टोम, अत्यग्निष्टोम, उक्थ, षोढशी, अतिरात्र, आप्तोर्याम and वाजपेय). -संज्ञम् camphor. -सद् m. a particular class of Manes or Pitṛis; विराट्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः Ms.3.195. -सिद्धान्तः the doctrine of Kāpālikas; या सोमसिद्धान्तमयाननेव N.1.87. -सिन्धुः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -सुत् m a Soma distiller. -सुत्वत् a. pressing Soma-plant for juice; अध्वरेष्वग्निचित्वत्सु सोमसुत्वत आश्रमान् Bk.5.11. -सुता the river Narmadā; cf. सोमोद्भवा above. -सूत्रम् a channel for conveying water from a Śiva-liṅga. ˚प्रदक्षिणा circumambulation around a Siva-liṅga so as not to cross the Soma-sūtra.
m. [√ 1. su] extracted juice, Soma; Soma plant (with the ep. in V. of râgan, king of plants); C.: Soma sacrifice (rare); V., C.: (drop in the sky, cp. indu), moon, moon god (also with the ep.râgan in C.); C.: ac counted son of Atri, one of the eight Vasus, identified with Vishnu and Siva, reputed author of a law-book; Monday; N.
m. N. of a king (V., C.); C.: N. of a country; king or native of Somaka: ikâ, f. N. of a bird; -ka½îsvara, m. king of Somaka; -kráyana, a. (î) serving as the price of the Soma plant: î, f. cow --;-grahá, m. bowl of Soma (V.); eclipse of the moon (C.); -tîrtha, n. N. of a place of pilgrim age; -tva, n. condition of Soma; -datta, m. N. of various kings and Brâhmans; -dâ, f. N. of a Brâhman woman; -deva, m. god Soma; god of the moon; N. of various men: -bhatta, m. N. of the author of the Kathâ- saritsâgara; -devatya, a. having Soma as its deity; -devî, f. N. of a wife of Kâmapâla; -nâtha, m. N. of various scholars; n. N. of a celebrated Li&ndot;ga and its temple in Gujerat (destroyed in 1024 a. d.); -pá, a. drinking or entitled to drink Soma juice (V., C.); m. pl. N. of a class of Manes; -p&asharp;, a. id.; -pâna, n. drinking of Soma; (-p&asharp;na), a. Soma drinking, m. Soma drinker (V.); -pây in, a., m. id.; -pâla, m. guardian of Soma (Br.); N. of various men; -p&asharp;van, m. Soma drinker (RV.); -pîdâ, f. N. of a princess; (sóma)-pîti, f. (V.)draught of Soma (always d.); -pîthá, m. id. (V.); -pîthín, a. partici pating in the Soma draught; -putra, m. son of Soma; son of the moon, planet Mercury; -purusha, m. servant of Soma; (sóma) prishtha, a. bearing Soma on its back (V.); -péya, n. draught of Soma (RV.); -prabha, a. having the splendour of the moon; m. N.: â, f. N.; -pravâka, m. herald of the Soma sacrifice (V.); -mád, a. (strg. st. -m&asharp;d) in toxicated with Soma (RV.1); -rasmi, m. N. of a Gandharva; (sóma)-râgan, a. (ñî) having Soma as a king; -râta, m. N.; -la devî, f. N. of a princess; -vamsa, m. lunar race of kings; -vams-ya, a. belonging to the lunar race; (sóma)-vat, a.containing Soma, attended etc. by Soma (V.); -vallî, f. Soma plant; -vâra, m. Monday; -vâsara, m. or n. id.; -vikrayín, a. selling Soma; m. seller of Soma; -vriddha, pp. invigorated by Soma (RV.); -sarman, m. N. of various men; (sóma)-sita, pp. sharpened by Soma; -sush man, m. N. (Br.); -sûra, m. N.; -samsthâ, f. fundamental form of the Soma sacrifice; -sad, m. pl. N. of the Manes of the Sâdhyas; -salila, n. Soma water; -sú-t, a.pressing Soma; -suta, m. son or descendant of the Moon; (sóma)-suti, f. pressing of Soma; -sútvan, a. pressing Soma; m. Soma-pres ser; -svâmin, m. N.; -½ânanda, m. N.; â raudrá, a. belonging to Soma and Rudra; n. (sc. sûkta) the hymn RV. VI, 74 (C.).
Was the famous plant which was used for the preparation of the libation of Soma made at the Vedic sacrifice. Its importance is sufficiently shown by the fact that the whole of the ninth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and six hymns in other Maṇdalas, are devoted to its praise. Nevertheless, little is actually known of the plant. Its twigs or shoots are described as brown (babhru), ruddy (aruna), or tawny (hari).s Possibly its twigs hang down if the epithet Naicāśākha refers to the plant as Hillebrandt thinks. The shoot is called amśu, while the plant as a whole is called andhas, which also denotes the juice. Parvan is the stem. Kξip, ‘finger,’ is used as a designation of the shoots, which may therefore have resembled fingers in shape; vaksanā and vāna also seem to have the sense of the shoot. There is some slight evidence to suggest that the stem was not round, but angular. The plant grew on the mountains, that of Mūjavant being specially renowned. These notices are inadequate to identify the plant. It has been held to be the Sarcostemma viminalc or the Asclepias acida (Sarcostemma brevistigma). Roth held that the Sarcostemma acidiim more nearly met the requirements of the case. Watt suggested the Afghan grape as the real Soma, and Rice thought a sugar-cane might be meant, while Max Mūller and Rājendralāla Mitra suggested that the juice was used as an ingredient in a kind of beer—i.e., that the Soma plant was a species of hop. Hillebrandt considers that neither hops nor the grape can explain the references to Soma. It is very probable that the plant cannot now be identified. In the Yajurveda the plant is purchased ere it is pressed. Hillebrandt considers that the sale must be assumed for the Rigveda. It grew on a mountain, and could not be obtained by ordinary people: perhaps some special tribe or prince owned it, like the Kīkatas. As it stands, the ritual performance is clearly an acquisition of the Soma from the Gandharvas (represented by a śūdra), a ritual imitation of the action which may have been one of the sources of the drama. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining the real plant from a great distance, several substitutes were allowed in the Brāhmaṇa period. The plant was prepared for use by being pounded with stones or in a mortar. The former was the normal method of pro¬cedure, appearing in the Rigveda as the usual one. The stones are called grāvan or αdn, and were, of course, held in the hands. The plant was laid on boards one beside the other (Adhiṣavana), and, according at least to the later ritual, a hole was dug below, so that the pounding of the plant by means of the stones resulted in a loud noise, doubtless a prophylactic against demoniac influences. The plant was placed on a skin and on the Vedi—-which was no longer done in the later ritual—Dhiṣaṇā in some passages denoting the Vedi. Sometimes the mortar and pestle were used in place of the stones. This use, though Iranian, was apparently not common in Vedic times. Camū denotes the vessel used for the offering to the god, Kalaśa and Camasa those used for the priests to drink from. Sometimes the Camū denotes the mortar and pestle. Perhaps the vessel was so called because of its mortar-like shape. The skin on which the shoots were placed was called Tvac, or twice go (‘cow-hide). Kośa, Sadhastha, Dru, Vana, Droṇa, are all terms used for Soma vessels, while Sruva denotes the ladle.’ Apparently the plant was sometimes steeped in water to increase its yield of juice. It is not possible to describe exactly the details of the process of pressing the Soma as practised in the Rigveda. It was certainly purified by being pressed through a sieve (Pavitra). The Soma was then used unmixed (βukra, śuci) for Indra and Vāyu, but the Kanvas seem to have dropped this usage. The juice is described as brown (babhru)," tawny (hart), or ruddy (aruna), and as having a fragrant smell, at least as a rule. Soma was mixed with milk (Gavāśir), curd or sour milk (Dadhyāśir), or grain (Yavāśir). The admixtures are alluded to with various figurative expressions, as Atka, ‘ armour ’j Vastra or Vāsas, 'garment'; Abhiśrī, 'admixturerūpa, ‘beautyJ; śrl, ‘splendour’; rasa, ‘flavour’; prayas, ‘ dainty ’; and perhaps nabhas, ‘ fragrance.’ The adjective tīvra denotes the ‘ pungent ’ flavour of Soma when so mixed. The Soma shoots, after the juice has been pressed out, are denoted by rjīsa, ‘residue.’ It seems probable that in some cases honey was mixed with Soma: perhaps the kośa madhti-ścut, ' the pail distilling sweetness,’ was used for the mixing. It seems doubtful if Surā was ever so mixed. There were three pressings a day of Soma, as opposed to the two of the Avesta. The evening pressing was specially connected with the Rbhus, the midday with Indra, the morning with Agni, but the ritual shows that many other gods also had their share. The drinker of Soma and the nondrinker are sharply discriminated in the texts. Localities where Soma was consumed were Árjīka, Pastyāvant, śaryaṇāvant, Suṣomā, the territory of the Pañcajanāh or ‘five peoples,’ and so on. The effects of Soma in exhilarating and exciting the drinkers are often alluded to. It is difficult to decide if Soma was ever a popular, as opposed to a hieratic drink. The evidence for its actual popularity is very slight, and not decisive.
(‘Descendant of Satyayajña’) is the name in the śatapatha Brāhmana of a travelling Brahmin who met Janaka of Videha. He may be identical with the man of the same name with the additional patronymic Prācīnayogya (‘descendant of Prācīnayoga’), who is mentioned as a pupil of Satyayajña in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
noun (masculine) (esp.) the juice of the Soma plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a day destined for extracting the Soma-juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a drug of supposed magical properties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of Pitṛs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular mountain or mountainous range (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Soma sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
air (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extract (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Monday (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva
nectar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon or moon-god (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Soma plant itself (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) name of a merchant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a writer on Dharma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various Brāhmans (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various kings (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) name of the author of the Katḥāsaritsāgara (who lived in Kaśmīr in the 11th century) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of the Rasendracūḍāmaṇi
name of various authors and other men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the god of the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the god Soma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a king or native of Somaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular Bharaṭaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people or country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Ṛṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Varṣaparvatas
the family of Drupada (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a Soma sacrificer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any sacrificer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a being reckoned among the Viśve Devāḥ (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of Pitṛs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a family of ṣis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a particular heretical Tantra system (followed by a sect of Śaivas and personified in the 3rd Act of the Prabodhacandrodaya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various astronomical wks (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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