कथम् ind. [किम्-प्रकारार्थे थमु कादेशश्च] 1 How, in what way, in what manner, whence; कथं मारात्मके त्वयि विश्वासः H.1; अथ स वैद्यः कथम् Mu.2 'well, how did the physician fare'; सानुबन्धाः कथं न स्युः संपदो मे निरापदः R.1.64,3.44; कथमात्मानं निवेदयामि कथं वा$$त्मापहारं करोमि Ś.1 (where the speaker is doubtful as to the propriety of what he says). -2 Oh what indeed ! (expressing surprise); कथं मामेवोद्दिशति Ś.6. -3 It is often connected with the particles इव, नाम, नु, वा, or स्वित् in the sense of, 'how indeed', 'how possibly', 'I should like to know', (where the question is generalized); कथं वा गम्यते U.3; कथं नामैतत् U.6. -4 When connected with the particles चित्, चन or अपि it means 'in every way', 'on any account', 'somehow', 'with great difficulty', 'with great efforts'; तस्य स्थित्वा कथमपि पुरः Me.3; कथमप्युन्नमितं न चुम्बितं तु Ś.3.24; न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथंचन Ms. 4.11,5.143; कथंचिदीशा मनसां बभूवुः Ku.3.34; कथं कथमपि
उत्थितः Pt.1; विसृज्य कथमप्युमाम् Ku.6.3; Me.22; Amaru.12,39,5,73; Pt.1. -5 Scarcely, hardly; कथमपि भुवने$स्मिंस्तादृशाः संभवन्ति Māl.2.9. -Comp. -कथिकः an inquisitive person. -कारम् ind. in what manner, how; कथंकारमनालम्बा कीर्तिर्द्यामधिरोहति Śi.2.52; कथंकारं भुङ्क्ते Sk; N.17.126. सो$हंकारं कथंकारं न करिष्यति मय्यरौ Śiva. B.15.17. -प्रमाण a. of what measure. -भावः what state. -भूत a. 1 how being. -2 of what nature or kind (oft. used by commentators). -रूप a. of what shape. -वीर्य a. of what power; Rām.3.
ad. how? whence? why? with pot. or impv. (sts. ind.) how could, would, or should ? with mâ and aor. how should not --? sts. exclamation, what! sts. weakened to a simple interrogative=nonne or num? with nú, how, I wonder? how much more? with neg. how much less? with iva, how so? why pray? with nâma, svid, how pray? why I wonder? with kana, by no means: generally strengthened by preceding negative; with kid and api (not till Kâlidâsa) indef. in some way, by some means, somehow or other, by accident; with difficulty, only just, scarcely (katham often repeated); a. little, somewhat;with neg. in no manner, by no means; yathâ katham kid, in whatever manner; in any way.
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