m. "Hymn - veda-"or" veda- of praise", the ṛg-- veda-, or most ancient sacred book of the Hindus (that is, the collective body of sacred verses called ṛca-s [see below], consisting of 1017 hymns [or with the vālakhilya-s 1028] arranged in eight aṣṭaka-s or in ten maṇḍala-s; maṇḍala-s 2-8 contain groups of hymns, each group ascribed to one author or to the members of one family;the ninth book contains the hymns sung at the soma- ceremonies;the first and tenth contain hymns of a different character, some comparatively modern, composed by a greater variety of individual authors;in its wider sense the term ṛg-- veda- comprehends the brāhmaṇa-s and the sūtra- works on the ritual connected with the hymns)
m. plural (bhrāj-) Name of a mythical race of beings (closely connected with fire, which they find[ ] and bring to men [ ] or enclose in wood [ ] or put in the navel of the world [ ];or which is brought to them and first kindled by mātari-śvan- [ ];they are also said to fabricate chariots [ ] and are mentioned together with the aṅgirasa-s, atharvan-s, ṛbhu-s, marut-s, druhyu-s etc.[ confer, compare ];in 12 bhṛgu-s are enumerated among gods; confer, compareGreek )
m. a golden deer (according to a story told in ,the rākṣasa-mārīca- transformed himself into a golden deer and so captivated rāma- and his wife sītā-, that the former left his forest-home to pursue it;during his absence rāvaṇa-q.v,disguised as a mendicant, presented himself before sītā- and carried her off).
(rather Nom.fr. mṛga-; seemārg-, mṛj-) cl.4 P., 10 A1. (; ) mṛgyati-, mṛg/ayate- (mc. also P.ti-; pr. p.mṛgayāṇa-), to chase, hunt, pursue etc. ; to seek, search for or through, investigate, examine etc. ; to visit, frequent ; to seek or strive after, aim at, endeavour to obtain (accusative) etc. ; to desire or request or ask anything (accusative) from (ablative, -tas-, genitive case with or without sakāśāt-)
भृगुः 1 N. of a sage, regarded as the ancestor of the family of the Bhṛigus, and described in Ms.1.35 as one of the ten patriarchs created by the first Manu; (said to be so called because he was produced along with flames; सह ज्वालाभिरुत्पन्ने भृगुस्तस्माद् भृगुः स्मृतः ।). [On one occasion when the sages could not agree as to which of the three gods, Brahman, Viṣṇu and Śiva, was best entitled to the worship of Brāhmaṇas, the sage Bhṛigu was sent to test the character of the three gods. He first went to the abode of Brahman, and, on approaching him, purposely omitted an obeisance. Upon this the god reprehended him severely, but was pacified by apologies. Next he entered the abode of Śiva in Kailāsa, and omitted, as before, all tokens of adoration. The vindictive deity was enraged and would have destroyed him, had he not conciliated him by mild words. (According to another account, Bhṛigu was coldly received by Brahman, and he, therefore, cursed him that he would receive no worship or adoration; and condemned Śiva to take the form of a Liṅga, as he got no access to the deity who was engaged in private with his wife). Lastly he went to Viṣṇu, and finding him asleep, he boldly gave the god a kick on his breast which at once awoke him. Instead of showing anger, however, the God arose, and on seeing Bhṛigu, inquired tenderly whether his foot was hurt, and then began to rub it gently. 'This', said Bhṛigu, 'is the mightiest god. He overtops all by the most potent of all weapons--kindness and generosity'. Viṣṇu was therefore, declared to be the god who was best entitled to the worship of all.] -2 N. of the sage Jamadagni. -3 An epithet of Śukra. -4 The planet Venus. -5 A cliff, precipice; कृत्वा पुंवत्पातमुच्चैर्मृगुभ्यः Śi.4.23; भृगुपतनकारणमपृच्छम् Dk. -6 Table-land, the level summit of a mountain. -7 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -8 An epithet of Śiva. -9 Friday. -Comp. -उद्वहः an epithet of Paraśurāma. -कच्छः, -च्छम् N. of a place on the north bank of the Narmadā (modern Broach). -जः, -तनयः 1 an epithet of Śukra. -2 the planet Venus. -नन्दनः 1 an epithet of Paraśurāma; वीरो न यस्य भगवान् भृगुनन्दनो$पि U.5.34. -2 of Śukra. -3 of Śaunaka; एवं निशम्य भृगुनन्दनसाधुवादम् Bhāg.1.1. 14. -पतनम् a fall from a precipice. -पतिः an epithet of Paraśurāma; भृगुपतियशोवर्त्म यत् क्रौञ्चरन्ध्रम् Me.59; so भृगूणांपतिः. -पातः Throwing oneself down from a cliff or a precipice; thus committing suicide; तत्र तत्यजुरा मानं भृगुपातेन केचन Śiva B.2.39. -वंशः N. of a family descended from Paraśurāma;. -वारः, -वासरः Friday. -शार्दूलः, -श्रेष्ठः, -सत्तमः epithets of Paraśurāma;. -सुतः, -सूनुः 1 an epithet of Paraśurāma;. -2 of Venus or Śukra; भृगुसूनुधरापुत्रौ शशिजेन समन्वितौ Mb.9.11.17.
मृग् 4 P., 1 Ā. (मृग्यति, मृगयते, मृगित) 1 To seek, search for, seek after; न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत् Ku.5. 45; गता दूता दूरं क्वचिदपि परेतान् मृगयितुम् G. L.25. -2 To hunt, chase, pursue. -3 To aim at, strive after. -4 To examine, investigate; अविचलितमनोभिः साधकैर्मृग्यमाणः Māl.5.1; अन्तर्यश्च मुमुक्षुभिर्नियमितप्राणादिभिर्मृग्यते V.1.1 'inwardly sought or investigated'. -5 To ask for, beg of one; एतावदेव मृगये प्रतिपक्षहेतोः M.5.2. -6 To visit, frequent.
मृगः [मृग्-क] 1 (a) A quadruped, an animal in general; नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः । विक्रमार्जित- राज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता; see मृगाधिप below. (b) A wild beast. -2 A deer, an antelope; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; R.1.4,5; आश्रममृगो$यं न हन्तव्यः Ś.1. -3 Game in general. -4 The spots on the moon represented as an antelope. -5 Musk. -6 Seeking, search. -7 Pursuit, chase, hunting. -8 Inquiry, investigation. -9 Asking, soliciting. -1 A kind of elephant; N. of the third caste of elephants; Mātaṅga L.1.26.29; 'भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः । क्रमेण हिमवद्विन्ध्यसह्यजाः ।' com. on Rām.1.6.25. -11 N. of a particular class of men; मृगे तुष्टा च चित्रिणी; वदति मधुरवाणीं दीर्घनेत्रा$तिभीरुश्चपलमतिसुदेहः शीघ्रवेगो मृगो$यम् Śabdak. -12 The lunar mansion called मृगशिरस्. -13 The lunar month called मार्गशीर्ष. -14 The sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -15 N. of a district in Śākadvīpa. -Comp. -अक्षी a fawn-eyed or deer-eyed woman; त्वय्यासन्ने नयनमुपरिस्पन्दि शङ्के मृगाक्ष्याः Me.97. -अङ्कः 1 the moon. -2 comphor. -3 the wind. -अङ्गना a doe. -अजिनम् a deer's skin. -अण्डजा musk. -अद् m., -अदनः, -अन्तकः a small tiger or hunting leopard, hyena. -अधिपः, अधिराजः a lion; केसरी निष्ठुरक्षिप्तमृगयूथो मृगाधिपः Śi.2.53; -मृगाधिराजस्य वचो निशम्य R.2.41. -अरातिः 1 a lion. -2 a dog. -अरिः 1 a lion. -2 a dog. -3 a tiger. -4 N. of a tree. -अशनः a lion. -आजीवः 1 a hunter. -2 a hyena. -आविधः a hunter. -आस्यः the sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -इन्द्रः 1 a lion; ततो मृगेन्द्रस्य मृगेन्द्रगामी R.2.3. -2 a tiger. -3 the sign Leo of the zodiac. ˚आसनम् a throne. ˚आस्यः an epithet of Śiva. ˚चटकः a hawk. -इष्टः a variety of jasmine. -ईक्षणा a fawn-eyed woman. -ईश्वरः 1 a lion. -2 the sign Leo of the zodiac. -उत्तमः the best antelope. -उत्तमम्, -उत्तमाङ्गम् the constellation मृगशिरस्. -काननम् 1 a park. -2 a forest abounding in game. -केतनः the moon. -गामिनी a kind of medicinal substance (Mar. वावडिंग). -चर्या the acting like a deer (a kind of penance); अथैनामन्बवेक्षस्व मृगचर्या- मिवात्मनः Mb.3.33.11. -चारिन् a. acting like a deer (as a devotee); leading a deer's life; V.4. -चेटकः the civet-cat; L. D. B. -जलम् mirage. ˚स्नानम् bathing in the waters of the mirage; i. e. an impossibility. -जालिकः, -का a snare for catching deer. -जीवनः a hunter, fowler. -टङ्कः the moon. -तृष्, -तृषा, -तृष्णा, -तृष्णिः, -तृष्णिका, f. mirage; मृगतृष्णाम्भसि स्नातः; see खपुष्प; जातः सखे प्रणयवान् मृगतृष्णिकायाम् Ś.6.16; Bhāg.4.7. 28; Bh.2.5. मृगतृष्णारूप means 'resembling a mirage', ill-founded; मृगतृष्णारूपमेतद् दर्शनम् ŚB. on MS.9.1.31. -तोयम् the water of a mirage. -दंशः, -दंशकः a dog. -दर्पः musk. -दावः a park, preserve. -दृश् f. a fawneyed woman; तदीषद्विस्तारि स्तनयुगलमासीन्मृगदृशः U.6.35. (-m.) the sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -दृष्टिः a lion. -द्युः a hunter. -द्युव a. gambling for deer; हरामि राम- सौमित्री मृगो भूत्वा मृगद्युवौ Bk.5.47. -द्विष् m. a lion. -धरः the moon. -धूर्तः, -धूर्तकः a jackal. -नयना a fawn-eyed woman. -नाभिः 1 musk; प्रस्थं हिमाद्रेर्मृगनाभिगन्धि Ku.1.54; Ṛs.6.13; Ch. P.8; R.17.24. -2 the musk-deer; दृषदो वासितोत्सङ्गा निषण्णमृगनाभिभिः R.4.74. ˚जा musk. -पतिः 1 a lion; नखानां पाण्डित्यं प्रकटयतु कस्मिन् मृगपतिः Bv.1.1. -2 a roe-buck. -3 a tiger. -पालिका the musk-deer. -पिप्लुः the moon. -पोतः, -पोतकः a fawn. -प्रभुः a lion. -प्रियम् grass growing on mountains. -ब(व)धाजीव a hunter. -बन्धिनी a net for catching deer. -भोजनी bitter apple. -मत्तकः a jackal. -मदः musk; कुचतटीगतो यावन्मातर्मिलति तव तोयैर्मृगमदः G. L.7; मृगमदतिलकं लिखति सपुलकं मृगमिव रजनीकरे Gīt.7; चन्दनमृगमद- लेपं गमितौ क्षोण्या नु वक्षोजौ Mv.7.24; also मृगमदसौरभ-
रभसवशं ...... Gīt. ˚वासा a musk-bag. -मन्द्रः N. of a class of elephants; Rām.1.6.25. -मांसम् venison. -मातृका a doe. -मासः the month of Mārgaśīrṣa. -मुखः the sign Capricornus of the zodiac. -यूथम् a herd of deer. -राज् m. 1 a lion; पतिते पतङ्गमृगराजि निजप्रतिबिम्बरोषित इवाम्बुनिधौ Śi.9.18. -2 a tiger. -3 the sign Leo of the zodiac. -राजः 1 a lion; शिलाविभङ्गैर्मृगराजशावस्तुङ्गं नगोत्सङ्ग- मिवारुरोह R.6.3. -2 the sign Leo of the zodiac. -3 a tiger. -4 the moon. ˚धारिन्, ˚लक्ष्मन् m. the moon. -रिपुः 1 a lion. -2 the sign Leo. -रोमम् wool. ˚जम् a woollen cloth. -रोचना yellow pigment. -रोम, -रोमज a. woolen. -लाञ्छन, -लक्ष्मन् m. the moon; अङ्काधिरोपितमृगश्चन्द्रमा मृगलाञ्छनः Śi.2.53. ˚जः the planet Mercury. -लेखा the deer-like streak on the moon; मृगलेखामुषसीव चन्द्रमाः R.8.42. -लोचनः the moon. (-ना, -नी) a fawn-eyed woman. -लोमिक woollen. -वधू a female deer, doe. -वल्लभः a kind of grass (कुन्दर). -वाहनः wind. -वीथिका, -वीथी N. of that portion of the moon's course which includes the constellations श्रवणा, शतभिषज् and पूर्वाभाद्रपदा. -व्याधः 1 a hunter. -2 Sirius or the dogstar. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -शायिका the reclining posture of a deer. -शावः a fawn; मृगशावैः सममेधितो जनः Ś.2.19. -शिरः, -शिरस् n., -शिरा N. of the fifth lunar mansion consisting of three stars. -शीर्षम् the constellation मृगशिरस्. (-र्षः) the lunar month Mārgaśīrṣa. -शीर्षन् m. the constellation मृग- शिरस्. -श्रेष्ठः a tiger. -हन् m. a hunter.
मृगया [मृगं यात्यनया या घञर्थे क] Hunting, chase; मिथ्यैव व्यसनं वदन्ति मृगयामीदृग्विनोदः कुतः Ś.2.5; मृगयाप- वादिना माठव्येन Ś.2; so मृगयावेष, मृगयाविहारिन् &c. -Comp. -अरण्यम्, -वनम् a park. -क्रीडनम्, -क्रीडा pleasure of hunting. -धर्मः the rules of hunting. -यानम् a hunting expedition. -रसः the pleasure of the chase. -व्यसनम् a hunting accident.
शृगालः [असृजं लाति ला-क पृषो˚] 1 A jackal. -2 A cheat, rogue, swindler. -3 A coward. -4 An ill-natured man, one using harsh words. -5 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -Comp. -केलिः a kind of jujube. -जम्बुः, -म्बू f. kind of cucumber. -योनिः birth in a future life as a jackal. -रूपः an epithet of Śiva.
a. praising, shouting; -míya (or ríg-), a. praiseworthy; -yagusha, n. the Rik and the Yagus verses; -vidhâna, n. employment of the rik verses; T. of a work; -vedá, m. Veda of verses or hymns, Rig-veda (i. e. the rik verses with or without the ritual and speculative works connected with them).
fp. to be visited= specially adapted for (d.); -mrida, a. gracious; gladdening; -mriná, a. destructive; -mrita, pp. deceased, dead; n. death: -ka, a. dead; -mrishta, pp. (√ mrig) cleansed, pure, pol ished, bright: -mani, m. polished or bright gem: -kundala, a. having ear-rings of pol ished gems; -mrishti, f. overspreading with (--°ree;).
m. [bright: √ bhrâg], N. of a race of mythical beings closely connected with fire, which they discover, bring to men, and enclose in wood; N. of one of the leading Brâhmanic tribes (pl.); N. of a sage repre senting this tribe and spoken of as the son of Varuna, as one of the seven Rishis, as a law giver, etc.; planet Venus (his day being Fri day); precipice, abyss: -kakkha, m. n. Bank of Bhrigu, N. of a sacred place on the north ern bank of the Narmadâ; -ga, -tanaya, m. son of Bhrigu, planet Venus; -nandana, m. son of Bhrigu, pat. of Saunaka, Ruru, Para surâma, and the planet Venus; -patana, n. fall from a cliff; -pati, m.lord of the Bhri gus, ep. of Parasurâma; -putra, m. son of Bhrigu, planet Venus; -suta, -sûnu, m. id.
m. slayer of beasts, hunter; Sirius, dog-star; -vyâla-nishevita, pp. infested by wild beasts and serpents; -sâyikâ, f. reclining posture of deer: -m sî, lie still like an antelope; -sâva, m.young of deer, fawn: -½akshî, f. fawn-eyed woman; (á)-siras, n. (deer-head), third (later fifth) lunar mansion; -sîrshá, n. id.; -sreshtha, m. best of beasts, tiger; -sûkara, m. du. deer and boar; -han, m. slayer of beasts, hunter.
f. chase, hunting: ac. or d. with verbs of going (gam, yâ, pari-dhâv), go a-hunting: -krîdana, n., -krîdâ, f. plea sures of the chase; -dharma, m. rules of the chase; -yâna, n. going a-hunting; -½aranya, -vana, n. hunting forest; -vihâra, m. plea sures of the chase; -vihârin, a. delighting in the chase, amusing oneself with hunting; -vyasana, n. hunting-accident; -sîla, a. de voted to the chase.
m. [roaming: √ mrig] forest or wild animal, game (ord. meaning); deer, antelope (ord. meaning); musk-deer; antelope in the moon (the spots in which being considered to resemble an antelope as well as a hare); antelope in the sky=the lunar man sion Mrigasiras; Capricorn (sign of the zo diac); kind of elephant; large soaring bird (RV., rare); a demon fought by Indra (RV.); musk (=mriga-nâbhi): -kâka, m. du. a deer and a crow; -kânana, n. game-forest, hunt ing forest; -kopa, m. rage against the forest animals; -gambuka, m. du. a deer and a jackal; -gîvana, m. (subsisting by the chase), hunter; -trishâ, -trishnâ, -trishni, -trish- nikâ, f. (deer's thirst), mirage; -tva, n. con dition of an antelope; -dâva, m. deer-park; -dris, m. Capricorn (sign of the zodiac); f. gazelle-eyed woman; -dviga, m. pl. beasts and birds; -dhara, m. (holding an antelope), moon; -nâbhi, m. musk; musk-deer: -ga, a. derived from the musk-deer; -pakshin, m. pl. beasts and birds; -pati, m. lord of wild animals, lion or tiger; lord of deer, roe-buck; -prabhu, m. lord of wild animals, lion; -mada, m. musk; -manda, -mandra, m. a class of elephants; -maya, a. derived from wild animals; -mâmsa, n. deer's flesh, veni son; -mâsa, m. the month Mârgasîrsha; -mukha, m. Capricorn (sign of the zodiac).
n. eye of a gazelle: â, f. gazelle-eyed woman; -½indra, m. king of the beasts; lion; tiger; Leo (sign of the zodiac): -tâ, f. lordship of the beasts; -½ibha, n. sg. a deer and (or) an elephant; -½îsvara, m. lord of the beasts, lion.
f. female deer, doe; -½atavî, f. forest abounding in game, hunting forest; -½adhipa, m. lion; -½âdhi patya, n. sovereignty of the beasts; -½adhi râga, m. monarch of the beasts, lion; -½arâti, m. foe of the deer; lion; -½ari, m. foe of the beasts, lion or tiger.
m. (deer-marked), moon; N. of a sword; N.: -ka, m. N. of a sword; -datta, m. N.: î-ya, a. relating to Mriga&ndot; kadatta; -bandhu, m. friend of the moon; god of love; -mani, m.moonstone; -mâlâ, f. N.; -mauli, m. (moon-crested), ep. of Siva; -lekhâ, f. (moon-streak), N. of a princess of the fairies; -vat-î, f. N. of various prin cesses; -sena, m. N. of a prince of the fairies.
is the designation in the Aitareya Brāhmana1 of a family of the Kaśyapas who were excluded from a sacrifice by Janamejaya, but who took away the conduct of the offering from the Bhūtavīras, whom the king employed. In the Jaiminīya Brāhmana and the Sadvimsa Brāhmana the Asita- mrgas are called 4 sons of the Kaśyapas,’ and one is mentioned as Kusurubindu4 Auddālaki.
Or, as the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda has it, Khugila, is an obscure expression found in two passages only—once in the Rigveda, and once in the Atharvaveda. In the former the meaning crutch * seems required; in the latter Sāyana glosses it by armour’ (taηu-trāηa), but the sense is quite uncertain.
A species of ox, now called Gayal (Bos gavaeus), is mentioned in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice, in the Yajurveda Samhitās and Brāhmanas. In the Taittirīya Samhitā it is declared to be neither a wild nor a tame animal; this presumably means that it was semidomesticated, or perhaps that it was both tamed and found wild. With the name of this animal may be compared the Mrga Mahisa, which is clearly mentioned as wild in the Rigveda. See also Gayava.
The ‘man wild beast,’ occurs in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. Zimmer’s view that the ape is meant seems probable. According to him also, the word Puruça alone, in two passages of the Atharvaveda, refers to the ape and its cry (māyu); but this sense is not necessary, and it is not adopted by Bloomfield, though Whitney does not think the rendering ‘cry of a man’ satisfactory, the term māyu not being properly applicable to the noise made by human beings.
Is found in one passage of the Rigveda apparently as a name of a man who is called śobha. Ludwig, however, thinks that his name was Ghoça. Elsewhere the word appears as an epithet of Agni, doubtless in allusion to his cult by the Bhṛgus.
Is a sage of almost entirely mythical character in the Rigveda and later. He counts as a son of Varuṇa, bearing the patronymic Vāruni. In the plural the Bhṛgus are repeatedly alluded to as devoted to the fire cult. They are clearly no more than a group of ancient priests and ancestors with an eponymous Bhṛgu in the Rigveda, except in three passages, where they are evidently regarded as an historic family. It is not clear, however, whether they were priests or warriors: in the battle of the ten kings the Bhṛgus appear with the Druhyus, perhaps as their priests, but this is not certain. In the later literature the Bhṛgus are a real family, with sub-divisions like the Aitaśāyana, according to the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa. The Bhṛgus are mentioned as priests in connexion with various rites, such as the Agnisthāpana and the Daśa- peyakratu. In many passages they are conjoined with the Añgirases :u the close association of the two families is shown by the fact that Cyavana is called either a Bhārgava or an Añgirasa in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. In the Atharvaveda the name of Bhṛgu is selected to exemplify the dangers incurred by the oppressors of Brahmans: the Srfijaya Vaitahavyas perish in consequence of an attack on Bhṛgu. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa u also Bhṛgu has this representative character. Cf. Bhrgravāṇa and Bhārgava.
Has the generic sense of ‘wild beast’ in the Rigveda and later. Sometimes it is qualified by the epithet terrible’ (bhīma), which indicates that a savage wild beast is meant. Elsewhere the buffalo is shown to be denoted by the epithet maltisa ‘powerful,’ which later becomes the name of the buffalo. More particularly the word has the sense of an animal of the gazelle type. In some passages Roth sees the sense of bird.’ See also Mṛga Hastin, Puruṣa Hastin.
In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa denotes, according to Sāyaṇa's commentary, the constellation Mrgaśiras. But it seems more probable that Mṛga there really covers the whole of Orion, not merely the inconspicuous group of stars in the head of Orion that make up the Nakṣatra Mṛgaśiras, but also the star a in his shoulder, which is reckoned as Ardrā, and γ in his left shoulder. Tilak, however, makes Mṛga or Mṛgaśiras into a different group, consisting of the belt of Orion, with two stars in the knees and one in the left shoulder, which he deems to resemble a deer’s head with an arrow through it, an implausible and unlikely theory. Cf Mṛgavyādha.
The ‘animal with a hand,’ is mentioned in the elephant is meant, but concludes that the compound name is a proof of the newness of the elephant to the Vedic Indians. Later the adjective Hastin alone became the regular name of the animal (like Mahiça of the ‘buffalo’)• The elephant is also denoted in the Rigveda by the descriptive term Mrga Vārana, the wild or dangerous animal,’ the adjective vārana similarly becoming one of the names for ‘elephant’ in the later language. Pischel’s view that the catching of elephants by the use of tame female elephants is already alluded to in the Rigveda seems very doubtful. In the Aitareya Brāhmana elephants are described as black, white-toothed, adorned with gold.’
Hunter,’ occurs in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas, but not very often. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, however, in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) include a number of names which seem to be those of persons who make a livelihood by fishing or by hunting, such as the Mārgāra, ‘ hunter,’ the Kaivarta or Kevarta, Pauñji§tha, Dāśa, Maināla, * fisher-man,’ and perhaps the Bainda and the Ánda, who seem to have been some sort of fishermen. It is not probable that even in the earliest Vedic period hunting formed the main source of livelihood for any of the Vedic tribes: pastoral pursuits and agriculture (Κṛṣί) were, no doubt, the mainstay of their existence. But it would be unreasonable to suppose that not much hunting was done, both for recreation and for purposes of food, as well as for protection of flocks from wild beasts. The Rigveda is naturally our chief source of information in regard to hunting. The arrow was sometimes employed, but, as is usual with primitive man, the normal instruments of capture were nets and pitfalls. Birds were regularly caught in nets (Pāśa, Nidhā, Jāla ), the bird-catcher being called nidhā-pati, ‘master of snares.’ The net was fastened on pegs (as is done with modern nets for catching birds). Another name of net is apparently Mukṣījā. Pits were used for catching antelopes (Rśya), and so were called rśya-da, ‘antelope-catching.’ Elephants were captured as in Greek times, perhaps through the instrumentality of tame females (see Mpga Hastin). Apparently the boar was captured in the chase, dogs being used, but the passage from which this view is deduced is of uncertain mythological content. There is also an obscure reference to the capture of the buffalo (Gaura), but it is not clear whether the reference is to shooting with an arrow or capturing by means of ropes, perhaps a lasso, or a net. The lion was captured in pitfalls, or was surrounded by the hunters and slain ; one very obscure passage refers to the lion being caught by ambuscade, which perhaps merely alludes to the use of the hidden pit. The modes of catching fish are little known, for the only evidence available are the explanations of the various names mentioned in the Yajurveda. Sāyana18 says that Dhaivara is one who takes fish by netting a tank on either side; Dāśa and śauçkala do so by means of a fish-hook (badiśa); Bainda, Kaivarta, and Maināla by means of a net (jāla); Mārgāra catches fish in the water with his hands; Anda by putting in pegs at a ford (apparently by building a sort of dam); Parṇaka by putting a poisoned leaf on the water. But none of these explanations can claim much authority.
‘The hunter,’ is the name of Sirius in the legend of Prajāpati’s daughter in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Prajāpati (Orion) pursues his daughter (Rohiṇī), and is shot by the archer Sirius. The transference of the legend of Prajāpati to the sky is no doubt secondary, caused by the obvious similarity of the constellation in question to the idea of an archer.
noun (masculine) name of a grandson of Oghavat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (the patron of the philosopher Vācaspatimiśra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Uśīnara by Nṛgā (ancestor of the Yaudheyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an ancient king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Sumati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a declivity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a medical authority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical race of beings (closely connected with fire) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Arthapati and uncle of the poet Bāṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kavi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Ṛṣi regarded as the ancestor of the Bhṛgus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an astronomer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kṛṣṇa or of Rudra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the 7 sages (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the chief Brāhmanical families (to which the Aitaśāyanas are said to belong) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Prajāpatis produced from Brahmā skin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of a Dharmaśāstra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Cyavana and 6 other sons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Dhātṛ and Vidhātṛ (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Śri (by Khyāti) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the top of the mountain Bhṛgutuṅga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Ṛṣi Jamadagni or his son (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śukra or the planet Venus (called either Bhṛgu or the son of Bhṛgu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
precipice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
slope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) name of Paraśurāma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Ruru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śukra
patr. of Śaunaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the planet Venus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) (esp.) any large wild animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a large animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mythical animal Śarabha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (feminine) a female deer or antelope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular gait of a dancing girl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
demoniacal possession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
doe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
epilepsy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Devī at Vindhyakandara
name of the mythical progenitress of antelopes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a deer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a forest animal or wild beast (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a large soaring bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular Aja-pāia sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant with particular marks (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
antelope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fawn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
game of any kind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musk-deer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a celestial being (occupying a particular place in an astrol. house divided into 81 compartments) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a demon or Vṛtra in the form of a deer slain by Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a horse of the Moou (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular class of men whose conduct in coitus resembles that of the roebuck (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
requesting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
search (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
seeking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stag (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the deer or antelope in the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the disk or antelope in the sky (either the Nakṣatra Mṛga-śiras or the sign of the zodiac Capricorn) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tiger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the zodiacal sign Leo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a huntsman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the 11 Rudras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Sirius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the dog-star (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a sword (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Aruṇadatta
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an alchemical preparation Frequency rank 8173/72933
noun (masculine) a dog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of Moringa with red blossoms (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tiger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a house lying to the south (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tiger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sign Leo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adjective questionable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be hunted after or sought for or found out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be investigated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be striven after or aimed at (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uncertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) (in music) a kind of measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an astronomical and of a medical work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular medicinal compound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a coward (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a jackal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a rogue (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ill-natured or harsh-speaking man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cheat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vāsudeva (ruler of Karavirapura) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
poltroon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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