n. anything due, obligation, duty, debt (a Brahman owes three debts or obligations, viz. 1 . brahmacarya- or"study of the veda-s" , to the ṛṣi-s;2. sacrifice and worship, to the gods;3. procreation of a son, to the Manes ;in later times also, 4. benevolence to mankind and 5. hospitality to guests are added etc.) etc. etc.
n. (m.gaRaardharcādi-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'f(ā-).) grass, herb, any gramineous plant, blade of grass, straw (often symbol of minuteness and worthlessness) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' accent gaRaghoṣādi-)
ऋण a. [ऋ-क्त] 1 Going. -2 Guilty. -णम् 1 Debt; (as to the three kinds of debt, see अनृण; cf. जायमानो ह वै ब्राह्मणस्त्रिभिर्ऋणवान् जायते, यज्ञेन देवेभ्यः ब्रह्मचर्येण ऋषिभ्यः प्रजया पितृभ्यः इति । स वै तर्हि अनृणो भवति यदा यज्वा, ब्रह्मचारी, प्रजावानिति । ŚB. on MS.6.2.31. ऋणानि त्रिण्यपाकृत्य मनो मोक्षे निवेशयेत् Ms.6.35. देवानां च पितॄणां च ऋषीणां च तथा नरः । ऋणवाञ् जायते यस्मात्तन्मोक्षे प्रयतेत् (त ?) सदा ॥ देवानामनृणो जन्तुर्यज्ञैर्भवति मानवः । अल्पवित्तश्च पूजाभिरुपवासव्रतैस्तथा ॥ श्राद्धेन प्रजया चैव पितॄणामनृणो भवेत् । ऋषीणां ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रुतेन तपसा तथा ॥ (विष्णुधर्मोत्तरम्); ऋणं कृ to incur debt; ऋणं दा to pay off or discharge debt; अन्त्यं ऋणं (पितॄणम्) the last debt to be paid to the manes, i. e. creation of a son. -2 An obligation in general. cf. ऋणसंस्तवो हि अवश्यकर्तव्यानां भवति । ŚB on MS.6.2.31. -3 (In alg.) The negative sign or quantity, minus (opp. धन). -4 A fort, strong-hold. -5 Water. -6 Land. -Comp. -अन्तकः the planet Mars. -अपनयनम् -अपनोदनम्, -अपाकरणम्, -दानम्, -मुक्तिः, -मोक्षः, -शोधनम् paying off debt, discharge or liquidation of debt. -आदानम् 'recovery of debt' Kau. A.3; receipt of money lent &c. (one of the 18 titles or subjects of litigation). -उद्ग्रहणम् recovering a debt in any way from the creditor (by friendly or legal proceedings). -ऋणम् (ऋणार्णम्) debt for a debt, debt incurred to liquidate another debt. ऋणस्य अपनयनाय यदन्यदृणं क्रियते तत् ऋणार्णम् Sk.73; Vārt. on P.VI.1.89. -कर्तृ a. one who gets into debt; Mb.13.23.21. -काति a. one to whom praise is due as a debt; or one who receives praise as a debt to be repaid in benefits (Sāy.) -ग्रस्त a. indebted, involved in debt. -ग्रहः 1 borrowing (money). -2 a borrower. -ग्राहिन् a. borrowing. -m. a debtor, borrower. -चित् a. acknowledging (praise) as a debt to be paid for. N. of ब्रह्मणस्पति; Rv.2.27. 17. -च्छेदः Payment of a debt. -(णम्)चयः N. of a king; Rv.5.3.12,14. -दातृ, -दायिन् a. one who pays a debt. -दासः [ऋणात् मोचनेन कृतो दासः] one who is bought as a slave by paying off his debts; ऋणमोचनेन दास्य- त्वमभ्युपगतः ऋणदासः Mitā. -निर्णयपत्रकम्, -पत्रम् A note of acknowledgement of debt; Sūkra.1.33. -निर्मोक्षः Discharge or acquittance of debt (to ancestors &c.); न चोपलेभे पूर्वेषामृणनिर्मोक्षसाधनम् R.1.2. -प्रदातृ moneylender. -मत्कुणः, -मार्गणः security, bail. -मुक्तः released from debt. -मुक्तिः &c. see ऋणापनयनम्. -लेख्यम् 'debtbond' a bond acknowledging a debt (in law; Mar. कर्जरोखा).
अनृण a. Free from debt, who has paid off the debt (due to another) with gen. of person or thing; एनामनृणां करोमि Ś.1; तत्रानृणास्मि U.7; प्राणैर्दशरथप्रीतेरनृणम् (गृध्रम्) R.12.54; Mv.5.58; पितॄणामनृणः Ms.9.16; 6.94. Every one that is born has three debts to pay off :-- to Sages, Gods, and the Manes; cf. जायमानो वै ब्राह्मणस्त्रिभिर्ऋणैर्वा जायते ब्रह्मचर्येणर्षिभ्यः, यज्ञेन देवेभ्यः, प्रजया पितृभ्यः; he, therefore, who learns the Vedas, offers sacrifices to Gods, and begets a son, becomes अनृण (free from debt); एष वानृणः यः पुत्री यज्वा ब्रह्मचारीवासी; cf. also ऋषिदेवगणस्वधाभुजां श्रुतयागप्रसवैः स पार्थिवः । अनृणत्व- मुपेयिवान्बभौ परिधेर्मुक्त इवोष्णदीधितिः ॥ R.8.3.
अनृणता आनृण्यम् Freedom from debt; ˚ताकृत्येना- पकारं करिष्यामि Pt.5 do harm by way of retaliation or injury; भर्तृप्रियः प्रियैर्भर्तुरानृण्यमसुभिर्गतः M.5.11; येन स्वामिप्रसादस्य अनृणतां गच्छामः Pt.1 repay or requite the favour of our lord.
तृणम् [तृह्-नक् हलोपश्च Uṇ.5.8] 1 Grass in general; किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी Bh.2.29. -2 A blade of grass, reed, straw. -3 Anything made of straw (as a mat for sitting); often used as a symbol of worthlessness or uselessness; तृणमिव लघुलक्ष्मीर्नैव तान- संरुणद्धि Bh.2.17; see तृणीकृ also. -Comp. -अग्निः 1 a fire of chaff of straw; ब्राह्मणस्त्वनधीयानस्तृणाग्निरिव शाम्यति Ms.3. 168. -2 fire quickly extinguished. -3 burning a criminal by twisting straw round his body and then setting it on fire. -अञ्जनः a chameleon. -अटवी a forest abounding in grass. -अन्नम् rice growing wild. -असृज् n., -कुङ्कुमम्, -गौरम् a variety of perfume. -आवर्तः a whirlwind. -इन्द्रः the palmyra tree. -उल्का a torch of hay, a fire-brand made of straw. -ओकस् n. a hut of straw. -काण्डः, -ण्डम् a heap of grass. -कुटी, -कुटीर- कम् a hut of straw. -कूटम् a heap of straw. -कूर्चिका a whisk. -केतुः 1 the palmyra tree. -2 a bamboo. -गणना thinking anything to be of no importance; यशसि रसिकता- मुपागतानां तृणगणना गुणरागिणां धनेषु Vikr.6.2. -गोधा a kind of chameleon. -ग्राहिन् m. a sapphire. -चरः a kind of gem (गोमेद). -जलायुका, -जलूका a caterpillar; यथा तृणजलूकेयं नापयात्यपयाति च । न त्यजेन्म्रियमाणो$पि प्राग्देहा- भिमतिं जनः ॥ Bhāg.4.29.77. -जम्भन् a. feeding on grass. -जातिः f. grass-kind, the vegetable kingdom; Ms.1 48. -ज्योतिस् n. the plant called ज्योतिष्मती; Ki.15. 47 com. -द्रुमः 1 the palm tree. -2 the cocoa-nut tree. -3 the betel-nut tree. -4 the Ketaka tree. -5 the date-tree -धान्यम् grain growing wild or without cultivation (Mar. देवभात). -ध्वजः 1 the palmyra tree. -2 a bamboo. -पीडम् hand-to-hand fighting; 'रज्जूकरणे तृणमिव यत्र बाह्वादिकं व्यावर्त्यते तद्युद्धम्' Mb.23.3.2 com. -पूलिक N. of a human abortion; Charaka 4.4.1. -पूली a mat, seat made of reeds. -प्राय a. worth a straw, worthless, insignificant. -बिन्दुः N. of a sage; R.8.79. -भुज् a. graminivorous; Ks.6. -भूत a. deprived of all power; Mb.7. -मणिः a sort of gem (amber). -मत्कुणः a bail or surety (perhaps a wrong reading for ऋणमत्कुण). -राज् m. the vine palm. -राजः 1 the cocoa-nut tree. -2 the bamboo. -3 the sugarcane. -4 the palmyra tree. -वृक्षः 1 the fanpalm tree. -2 the date-tree. -3 the cocoa-nut tree. -4 the areca-nut tree. -शालः the areca-nut tree, bamboo; तृणशालो राज- ताल्यां वेणौ Nm. -शीतम् a kind of fragrant grass. -शून्यम् N. of two plants केतकी and मल्लिका; तृणशून्यं तु मल्लिका Ak; परिलसत्तृणशून्यमतल्लिकापरिमलावहमारुतसेवितः Rām. Ch.4.32. -षट्पदः a kind of wasp (Mar. कुंभारीण). -सारा the plantain tree. -सिंहः an axe. -हर्म्यः a house of straw.
(pp.) a. guilty; n. obligation, debt; -m dhâraya, owe (ac.) to (g.); -m kri, borrow from (ab.); -pra-yam, -nî, -sam-nî, pay off a debt; -dâ, id.; lend to (lc.); -pra½âp, incur a debt; -mrigaya or yâk, ask for a loan.
m. blade of grass; -pu rusha-ka, m. man of straw; -pulî, f. bunch of grass; -prâya, a. grassy; -bindu, m. N. of a sage and prince; -bhug, a. grass-eating; m. grass-eater; -bhûta, pp.become as thin or weak as a blade of grass; -maya, a. made of grass.
n.a, n. [piercing: √ tri] grass, herb; blade of grass; straw (often=a mere nothing): trinavat kri, trinam (iva) man or samarth aya, account as a straw; trinâya na man, not care a straw about;trinabuddhim dhâ, id. (lc.).
‘debt,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards, having apparently been a normal condition among the Vedic Indians. Reference is often made to debts contracted at dicing. To pay off a debt was called rnam sam-nī, Allusion is made to debt contracted without intention of payment. The result of non-payment of a debt might be very serious: the dicer might fall into slavery. Debtors, like other male¬factors, such as thieves, were frequently bound by their creditors to posts (dru-pada),β presumably as a means of putting pressure on them or their friends to pay up the debt. The amount of interest payable is impossible to make out. In one passage of the Rigveda and Atharvaveda an eighth (sapha) and a sixteenth (kalā) are mentioned as paid, but it is quite uncertain whether interest or an instalment of the principal is meant. Presumably the interest would be paid in kind. How far a debt was a heritable interest or obligation does not appear. The Kauśika Sūtra regards three hymns of the Atharvaveda9 as applicable to the occasion of the payment of a debt after the creditor’s decease. For the payment of a debt by a relation of the debtor the evidence is still less clear. Zimmer11 thinks that payments of debt were made in the presence of witnesses who could be appealed to in case of dispute. This conclusion is, however, very uncertain, resting solely on a vague verse in the Atharvaveda.
noun (neuter) a debt of money (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a fort (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a negative quantity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anything due (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anything wanted or missed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
debt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
duty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
guilt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
minus (in math.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
money owed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
obligation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stronghold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (neuter) any gramineous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blade of grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
herb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
straw (often symbol of minuteness and worthlessness) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sugar-cane (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the cocoa-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the vine-palm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) Pandanus odoratissimus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the areca-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the cocoa-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the date tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fanpalm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adjective bland (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mild (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
smooth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
soft (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tender (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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